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Notes and Queries, Jan. 21, 1899. 



/HcSiuiu of EntmommunicAtion 



"When found, make a note of." CAI-TAIN CUTTLE. 







Notes and Queries, Jan 21. 1999 




9 th 8. II. Ji-LY2,'98.] 




CONTENTS. -No. 27. 

NOTES : Burton's Acquaintance with English Writers, 1 
Greek Church in Soho, 2 Cary's Dante Kingston-upon- 
Thames " Heron " Oakapple Day, 4 Bacilli " Child- 
bed Pew " Church Bow, Hampstead " Bough " " Cord- 
wainer." 5 Manila Accent in Spanish George Old, 6. 

QUERIES : " Horse Guards" " Sumer is y-curaen in " 
"Dewy-feathered "Rev. T. E. Owen-Nether Hall. Essex 
Source of Quotation Italian Law Jas. Cox's Museum 
Carew Poem " Anigosanthus " "The man in the 
street" Manor House, Clapton Sir N. Stukeley. 7 
Cadoux Song ' The Causidlcade ' Saxe-Coburg-Gotha 
Army Lists Telescope Shepherd's Che** Educational 
Systems Rev. J. Flower Farwell Pedigree St. Werner 
Order of St. Germain Withred, King of Kent. 8 The 
Egyptian Kite Rev. G. Lewis Lady A. Robartes 
Scotter. 9. 

REPLIES: Historic Perspective, 9 Essay by Carlyle 
City Names in Stow, 10 "Sny" The Ship Oxford 
" Bundling" Canaletto in London Hare Proverb "The 
calling of the sea" "Fool's plough " C Sherborn, 11 
Width of Organ Keys Macau lay and Montgomery Por- 
trait of Lady Wentworth, 12 Turner General Wade- 
Moon through Coloured Glass, 13 Judge Family Latin 
Ambiguities Massage Sidesmen, 14 "-haltta," 15 
Gladstone a* a Verse- Writer Rev. Lockhart Gordon 
Style of Archbishops Angels, 16 Sir R. Hotham Bishop 
B. Hopkins Rotten Row Passage in Dickens" Mess of 
pottage "British Museum Reading-Koom, 17 " Harry- 
carry " Popladies Heading in Milt ou Bays water 
General Benedict Arnold, 18. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Routledge's 'Church of St. Martin, 
Canterbury' Hutchinson's Wordsworth and Coleridge's 
Lyrical Ballads ' ' Magnetic Magic ' ' Bygone Devon- 
shire ' ' Bygone Hertfordshire ' Webb's ' Shakespeare 
Reference Book ' ' Antiquary ''Public Library Journal.' 



R. BURTON was born in 1576, and died 
in 1639. The first edition of his 'Anatomy 
of Melancholy' was published in 1621, and 
finished in the previous year, as I gather from 
a very old copy (unfortunately the title-page 
is lost) in the Liverpool Free Library. The 
words in the colophon, as it may be termed, 
are : " From my Studie in Christ Church 
Oxon. Decemb. 5. 1620." The edition which 
I make use of in this note is a reprint of the 
sixth (1052), published by W. Tegg, London, 

A mighty maze ! but not without a plan. 

Pope, ' Essay on Man,' i. 6. 

It will probably astonish those who have 
not made themselves well acquainted with 
this fascinating work to learn that the writer, 
in addition to his amazing knowledge of the 
classics, the fathers, the schoolmen in short, 
all writers, sacred and profane, who have 
used Latin or Greek as the vehicle of their 
thoughts was well versed in the vernacular 
literature of his country, both earlier and 
later. It is a curious thing that Burton 
would have written his book in Latin if he 
had been able to get a publisher. In in- 
dignant terms he says : 

^ "It was not mine intent to prostitute my muse in 
English, or to divulge secreta Minerva*, but to have 
exposed this more contract in Latin, if I could have 
got it printed. Any scurrile pamphlet is welcome 
to our mercenary stationers in English ; they print 

cuduntque libellos 
In quorum foliis vix simia nuda cacaret ; 
but in Latin they will not deal ; which is one of the 
reasons Nicholas Carr, in his oration of the i>aucity 
of English writers, gives, that so many flourishing 
wits are smothered in oblivion, lie dead and buried 
in this our nation (pp. 10, 11)."* 

It is therefore evident that our author did 
not think that his book would be a success, 
wherein he erred like many another. Petrarch 
prided himself on his Latin poetry, which has 
long since been engulfed in the waters of 
oblivion, while his Italian love-sonnets, which 
he regarded as idle conceits, are immortal 
(F. W. Schlegel's 'History of Literature,' p. 161, 
Bohn, London, 1859). Notwithstanding that 
Burton did not write in Latin, a fail- 
acquaintance with that language is abso- 
lutely necessary to the full comprehension of 
his book, for, though he quotes from almost 
every Greek author, he uses a Latin version, 
except once in the case of Anacreon (p. 453), 
and four times in the case of Hesiod (pp. 86, 
145, 176, 429). Furthermore, he has given us 
(pp. 497-8 and 505-6) specimens of what his 
book would have been had he composed it 
in the classical tongue. Certainly his style 
therein is not more "contract" than in his 
homely, vigorous English, which has saved 
his work from being " smothered in oblivion," 
to use his own phrase (p. 11). But, as Austin 
saith, "Alia quiestio est, et ad rem, quse 
agitur, non pertinet" ('De Doctr. Christ.,' 
1. ii. c. 2). " That 's another story " (' N. & Q., 
9 th S. i. 417). "Revenons a nos bouteilles,' 
as Montaigne says ('Essais,' liv. ii. ch. 2), 
wherein he is nowise original, for he hath 
adapted it from the phrase " Revenons a nos 
moutons," to be found in the comedy 
' L'Avocat Patelin ' (' Histoire de laLitte'rature 
Fran<^aise,' par J. Demogeot, Paris, 1864), and 
not first used by the fabulist La Fontaine, as 
many do ignorantly suppose. 

After this little digression in the style of 
mine author, I will now endeavour to show 
his acquaintance with English writers, most 
of whom belonged to the Golden Age of our 
literature, of which Burton was a con- 

From " Sir Geoffrey Chaucer " (p. 630), " our 
English Homer " (p. 565), he quotes frequently 

* 'Carr Nicolaus, De Scriptorum Britannicorum 
1576. As to the lines quoted, for whicli Burton 
gives no author, I will obey his request (p. 138) : 
" Good Master .Schoolmaster, do not English this." 


[9 th S. II. JULY 2, '98. 

and with evident enjoyment. I have counted 
twenty-six quotations from and references 
to the works of the father of English 
poetry spread throughout the book, the 
figures of which I will not give, as they 
would over-burden these pages. 'The Wife 
of Bath' is his favourite. Spenser, "our 
modern Maro " (p. 485), is quoted six times, 
and referred to more than once. 'The 
Faerie Queene ' is the only poem of Spenser's 
used by Burton. Shakespeare, "an elegant 
poet of ours " (p. 511), is quoted on the same 
page, and quoted incorrectly. Four lines are 
cited from the 'Venus and Adonis,' the fourth, 
according to Burton, being, 

And all did covet her for to embrace, 
which is a poor substitute for the original, 
She wildly breaketh from their strict embrace. 
(See Globe Shakespeare, ' Venus and Adonis,' 
1. 874, p. 1011.) On p. 531 there is a reference 
to 'Much Ado about Nothing,' "Like Benedict 
and Beatrice in the comedy." On p. 600 are 
to be found, incorporated in the text, two 
lines from Ophelia's song, " Young men," &c., 
' Hamlet,' IV. v. Lastly (p. 6), we find this 
energetic sentence, "They lard their lean 
books with the fat of others' works," which 
reminds us of the Prince's words, 

Falstaff sweats to death, 
And lards the lean earth as he walks along. 
' 1 Henry IV.,' II. ii. 

Ben Jonson, "our arch poet" (p. 553). 
appears four times. Five lines are quoted 
from 'The Fox,' III. iii., to show how "old 
Volpone courted Coelia in the comedy." A 
reference is made to 'Every Man out of his 
Humour,' to show how some men dote on 
their wives, "as Senior Deliro on his Fallace" 
(p. 633). 

But I must be brief. I will, therefore, only 
mention the names of the remaining poets 
whose productions are quoted or referred to 
in the 'Anatomy': Daniel, "our English 
Tatiu.s " (p. 600), nine times; M. Drayton, 
"our English Ovid" (p. 171), six times; S. 
Rowlands, once; T. Randolph, four times; Sir 
John Harrington, the translator of Ariosto, 
nine times ; G. Wither, thrice, the last from 
'The Manly Heart' (see 'Golden Treasury,' 
first edition, p. 83) : 

If she be not so to me, 

What care I how kind she be ? 

I have quoted this couplet to illustrate a 
practice of Burton's, viz., incorporating the 
words of other authors in his text. I have 
no doubt that a careful search would lead to 
many such discoveries. So much for the 
With other English authors he was no less 

familiar. He quotes Sir Francis Bacon, " an 
honourable man, now Viscount St. Albans" 
(p. 73), " our noble and learned Lord Verulam " 
(p. 455), four times, thrice from the ' Essays,' 
and once from his book ' De Vita et Morte,' as 
he terms it(see Lowndes). With writers such as 
J. Lyly (' Euphues '), Sir H. Spelman, Camden, 
Leland, J. Fox ('Acts and Monuments ') Sam. 
Purchas, Sands (the traveller), Vaughan (the 
author of ' The Golden Fleece ') ; theological 
writers like " Bishop Fotherby in his ' Atheo- 
mastix,' Doctor Dove, Doctor Jackson, 
Abernethy, Corderoy, who have written well 
of this subject [immortality of the soul] in 
our mother tongue " (p. 713); Father Parsons, 
the Jesuit ; medical writers, geographers, 
&c., this indefatigable student is familiar. 
As this note has extended to an inordinate 
length, I am afraid I must reserve any 
further observations to some future date. 
If I take up the subject again," it will be for 
the purpose of giving a sketch of Burton's 
character, habits, and idiosyncrasies, for 
which the materials are scant elsewhere, but 
abundant in his own monumental work, for 
never was author more self -revealing. 



PASSING the other day along Charing Cross 
Road, I stepped aside from that tavern- 
haunted thoroughfare to look again upon 
the old Greek Church in what was once 
Hog Lane, and in more recent times Crown 
Street. I was sorry to find the building 
doomed to destruction indeed, a shroud of 
hoarding already enveloped its devoted, but 
still robust frame. To those who might wish 
to take a last look at this historical edifice, I 
may mention that the name of Crown Street 
may now be sought for in vain, as that street 
was entirely absorbed by Charing Cross Road. 
The building may be found at the rear of the 
church of St. Mary the Virgin, within a few 
hundred feet of Oxford Street, on the western 
side of the new thoroughfare. Before it 
finally disappears from the face of the earth, 
a few words regarding its history may be 
interesting to the readers of ' N. & Q.' 

In 1676 one Joseph Georgeirenes, Arch- 
bishop of Samos, came to London to obtain 
assistance in publishing a book of devotions 
for the use of the Orthodox community He 
found his compatriots at the west end of 
London without a church, and on his appli- 
cation Compton, Bishop of London, gave 
him a piece of ground in Soho Fields on 
which to build one. The bishop's name, by 

9 th S. II. JULY 2, '98.] 


the way, is still preserved in that of the 
adjacent Compton Street, as also, in Frith 
Street, is the name of one Mr. Frith, who 
acted for his lordship in the matter. George- 
irenes succeeded in collecting some 1,500^., 
and the church was ultimately built. It was 
dedicated to St. Mary the Virgin, and over 
its door was placer! a stone incised inscrip- 
tion, which exists, in excellent preservation, 
to this day. It is in rather fantastic modern 
Greek characters, impossible to reproduce in 
type, and has been translated as follows : 

"In the year of Salvation 1677, this temple was 
erected for the nation of the Greeks the most 
serene Charles II. behijj King, and the Royal [lit. 
born in the purple] Prince Lord James being the 
commander of the forces, the Right Reverend 
Lord Henry Compton being liishop at the ex- 
pense of the above and other bishops and nobles, 
and with the concurrence of our Humility of Samos, 
Joseph Gcorgeirenes, a native of the island of 

Poor Georgeirenes's career, however, was 
beset with misfortunes. He had a thorn in 
the side in the shape of a rival Greek priest, 
who fraudulently represented himself as the 
Archbishop of Samos, and collected moneys 
ostensibly for the building of the church, 
which he devoted to a most unworthy object, 
namely, himself. To stop this impostor's 
practices, the real archbishop advertised a 
quaintly personal description of himself in 
the London Gazette of February, 1680, in 
which he accused " Joachim Ciciliano, of the 
island of Cefalonia, a Grecian minister of a 
high stature, with a black beard," of per- 
sonating him and receiving contributions 
" towards building the Grecian Church," and 
further with " lewdly spending the same to 
the prejudice of the said church." To pre- 
vent all possibility of further mistake, he 
asked all and sundry to take notice that he 
himself (Georgeirenes) was "an indifferent 
tall man, and slender, with long black hair, 
having a wart on the right side of the nose, 
but against his eye, and black whiskers, and 
very little beard, and he finished by declaring 
that " with the assistance of good Christians, 
amongst whom he doubtless included the 
" most serene " Charles and the royal James, 
he had built and almost finished "the Grecian 
Church in Sohoe Fields." But though George- 
irenes scored off his felonious fellow-country- 
man, his lot was not a happy one. The 
church was not a success. It was incon- 
veniently situated. The Greeks were already 
removing from the site of their earlier settle- 
ment in Greek Street and its neighbourhood, 
and the congregation, and as a necessary 
consequence the funds, were declining. 
Compton was not now so willing to help 

him as he had been; the parish authorities 
disputed the bishop's right to the ground on 
which the church stood ; and the end of it 
all was that the poor Archbishop of Samos, 
like Mr. Gladstone's Turk, was evicted " bag 
and baggage." A legend existed in the neigh- 
bourhood that his ghost haunted the scene of 
his mortifications and failures. The building 
passed into the hands of other foreigners, the 
Huguenots, of whom Soho contained a great 
number, and it was held by them for more 
than a hundred years, till 1822. Then came, 
and went, a body of Calvinistic Protestant 
Dissenters ; and in 1849 the edifice was 
secured by the rector of St. Anne's, Soho, 
and consecrated by Bishop Blomfield for the 
service of the Church of England, under its 
old name of "St. Mary the Virgin." This 
name the Large modern church which has 
superseded it still bears, and the premises 
are now the scene of great parochial and 
evangelistic activity. It is much to be hoped 
that steps will be taken to ^reserve in safe 
custody the interesting inscription of which 
a translation is given above, for which, and 
for most of the historical facts relating to the 
church, I am indebted to an article in the 
Sunday at Home, written by Mr. J. Sachs. 

It may be mentioned that the church, then 
in the possession of the Huguenots, is drawn 
by Hogarth in his picture ' Noon,' where 
also may be found a portrait of its minister 
and the painter's friend, the Kev. M. Herve. 
With a sublime disregard of minute accuracy, 
Hogarth has shown St. Giles's steeple domin- 
ating the scene in Hog Lane. 

A walk round this district would well repay 
the reflective antiquary. In the immediate 
neighbourhood is St. Anne's, Soho, where lie 
the bones of the hapless Theodore, King of 
Corsica, and the register of which church 
contains records of the baptisms of many of 
the royal blood. In Soho Square itself, the 
rectory stands on the site of Monmouth 
House, where lived the unfortunate duke 
whose motto at Sedgemoor was " Soho ! " The 
notorious Mrs. Cornelys, so frequently men- 
tioned in the chroniques scandaleuses of 
the last century, had her house where the 
Catholic church now stands. Of the associa- 
tions of Leicester Square it is needless to 
write. Sir Joshua Reynolds's house is still 
to be seen ; Hogarth's, alas ! is being demo- 
lished. Just round the corner, at the Newton 
Hall, is the famous Sir Isaac Newton's. In 
West Street, St. Giles's, is Wesley's chapel, 
now a mission chapel of the Church of Eng- 
land a place with which the founder of 
Methodism was long and intimately con- 
nected, and of which the Kev. Mr. Dibdin a 


[9 th S. II. JULY 2, '98. 

former minister, has written a history. To 
their credit, the present possessors of the 
chapel are very solicitous with regard to its 
old associations, and some relics of Wesley 
and his early followers are preserved with 
care. Lastly, I may mention St. Giles's 
Church, with its churchyard, where lie buried 
George Chapman, the translator of Homer, 
in a tomb which, once fast falling to decay, 
has been recently " mended " by the parish 
authorities; and Richard Pendrell, "preserver 
and conductor to His Sacred Majesty King 
Charles the Second of Great Britain, after his 
escape from Worcester Fight in 1651." These 
are out specimens of the interesting and 
varied associations of the neighbourhood. 


DANTE. Has notice ever been taken in 
' N. & Q.' of Gary's strange mistakes as to the 
Hebrew method of computing the hours of 
day ? In a note to ' Hell,' canto xxi. 1. 109, he 
speaks of the ninth hour of the Hebrews as 
corresponding to our sixth ; and in a note to 
' Hell,' canto xxxiv. 1. 89, he says, " The poet 
uses the Hebrew manner of computing the 
day, according to which the third hour 
answers to our twelve o'clock at noon." The 
edition from which I quote is that published 
by Bohn in 1847. 

With the Hebrews the hours of day were 
numbered from sunrise to sunset. The num- 
ber of hours was uniformly twelve (St. John 
xi. 9), but the length" of what was called an 
hour varied with the season of the year. 
Only at the equinoxes, when the sun rises at 
6 A.M. and sets at 6 P.M., was the length of the 
Hebrew hour the same as ours. At the 
summer solstice, for instance, when the sun 
in Palestine rises about 5 A.M. and sets about 
7 P.M., the Hebrew 12 hours were equal to 14 
of ours, and consequently the Hebrew hour, 
at that season, consisted not of 60 minutes, 
but of 70. At the winter solstice, again, 
when the sun in Palestine rises about 7 A.M. 
and sets about 5 P.M., the Hebrew 12 hours 
equalled 10 of ours, and the hour consisted of 
60 minutes. The hours of principal note 
were the third, the sixth, and the ninth. 
The sixth hour all the year round was 12 
noon, but only at the equinoxes did the third 
and the ninth hour correspond exactly to our 
9 A.M. and 3 P.M. As it was necessary that 
the third, as the hour of morning, and the 
ninth, as the hour of evening sacrifice, should 
be determined as exactly as possible, the 
clepsydra was so adjusted as to measure, 
according to the season, three (Hebrew) hours 

from sunrise, and three (Hebrew) hours from 
noon. Thus at the summer solstice the third 
hour from sunrise at 5 A.M. (70' x 3 = 210'= 
3 h 30') was our 8.30 A.M., and the ninth hour 
our 3.30 P.M. At the winter solstice, again, 
the third hour from sunrise at 7 A.M. (50' X 3 
=150'=2 h 30') was our 9.30 A.M., and the 
ninth hour was our 2.30 P.M. 

Manse of Arbutlmott, N.B. 

KINGSTON -UPON -THAMES. Kingston is in 
A.-S. Cyningestiin, Cyngestun, or Cinyes tun. 
It was called the " King's tun " because it was 
a royal manor. MR. GARBETT'S derivation 
(9 th S. i. 475) from " King stone " is supported 
by no evidence. It is merely a plausible 
folk-etymology suggested by the venerable 
coronation stone in the centre of the town, 
seated upon which seven of the Saxon kings 
are said to have been crowned. What actual 
evidence is there for this legend ? " Si non e 
vero e ben trovato." ISAAC TAYLOR. 

" HERON." Under the heading 'To Sue,' 
9 th S. i. 477, we are asked for the etymology 
of heron. Surely all the dictionaries give it. 
See Diez, Littre, Brachet, Webster, or even 
my ' Concise Dictionary.' I copy the article 
by Diez in full, as it is short : 

"Aghirone, it., pr. aigron, cat. agro, */;. airon, 
altfr. hairon, nfr. heron (h axp.), in Berry egron ; em 
vogel, reiher; dimin. fr. aigrette (mit abgestossenem 
hauchlaut), kleiner weisser reiher ; nicht vom gr. 
tpuSioQ; es ist vom ahd. heigir, heigro, wozu alle 
laute passen." 

That is, it comes from the O.H.G. name 
heiqir, of uncertain origin. Perhaps it was 
meant to be imitative. There is a parallel 
O.H.G. name spelt hreiyir (answering to A.-S. 
hragra), whence the mod. G. Reiher. As to 
the supposed imitative origin, see Franck's 
account of the Du. reiger in his ' Etymological 
Dutch Dictionary.' WALTER W. SKEAT. 

OAKAPPLE DAY. The following paragraphs 
relating to " Oakapple Day " appeared in the 
Hull Times of June 4 : 

" Oakapple Day was not very much observed in 
Brigg, and only a few boys kept up the old custom 
of assaulting any lad who does not wear oak on 
29 May." 

"People have arrived at the conclusion that the 
seasons must have changed very much, since the 
oak trees were sufficiently covered with foliage at 
this time of year to afford shelter for a kin- or 
anybody else." 

Brigg is a small country town in Lincoln- 
shire, and doubtless these paragraphs were 
forwarded by some one resident in or near 
the place ; but .they must have escaped 
editorial revision, one would suppose. The 

9 th S. II. Jew '2, '98.] 


writer evidently thinks that Charles II. hid 
in the Boscobel Oak in May ; whereas it was 
during his wanderings after the battle of 
Worcester, which took place on 3 September. 
Oak leaves were worn in memory of the 
event on 29 May, 1660, upon which day, 
being also his birthday, Charles II. made 
his triumphal entrance into London at the 
Restoration. They have been worn upon that 
day ever since ; but, of course, no one with 
the least pretension to even a rudimentary 
amount of historical knowledge supposes 
that Charles was hidden in an oak tree in 



" Which I look upon with contempt likewise 

the Opinion of others who talk of infection being 
carried on by the Air only, by carrying with it vast 
numbers of Insects, and invisible Creatures, who 
enter into the Body with the Breath, or even at 
the Pores with the Air, and there generate or emit 
most accute Poisons, or poisonous Ovae, or E"gs, 
which mingle themselves with the Blood, and so infect 
the Body.' Defoe, 'Journal of the Plague Year.' 



" CHILD-BED PEW." This unusual name for 
the " churching pew " occurs in the original 
entries of the Visitation of the Archdeacon of 
Canterbury, under date 1640. The church- 
wardens of Stourmouth, in Kent, presented 
their rector for refusing to church a woman 
"in the accustomed child-bed pew, as it is 
called, where the women of our parish have 
ever accustomarily and usually presented 
themselves to that end." It was situated 
"in the body of the church, towards the 
upper end, but not in the chancel." The 
rector required the woman to kneel " nigh 
unto the place where the table standetn,' : 
which was then the rubric. 


Wingham, Kent. 

CHURCH Row, HAMPSTEAD. The disaster 
prophesied by many admirers has, alas 
overtaken this choice eighteenth - century 
street. The vandals are upon it with pickaxe 
and shovel, the onslaught being made upor 
its northern side. The speculative anc 
voracious builder is now nard at work 
hacking away at his first victims, namely 
that delightful old garden and house whicl 
stood to the immediate right as one enterec 
from busy Heath Street. The neighbour if 
also doomed, its walls already crumbling 
beneath the weight not of age, but o: 
destiny. Presently from behind poles anc 
scaffolds will rise the inevitable block of 

lats, which will, no doubt, be advertised in 
lue course as eligible, commodious, and 
self - contained. But flats of barrack -like 
uniformity they will be, nevertheless, and 
)robably remain so until the end of the 

Where will the next attack be made ? is the 
question upon many anxious lips just now 
it is impossible to say. From indications, 
loweyer, I am disposed to think that the 
Duildings on the opposite side will next 
receive unwelcome attention, as there are 
several hateful notice-boards up. Or that 
very tempting gap close to the old parish 
churchyard may be coveted. It is sad to 
consider how the efforts of vestries, trusts, 
and private individuals have failed to rescue 
this altogether unique spot from the hands 
of the despoiler. The result illustrates very 
forcibly how futile are the protests of an 
honest sentiment and veneration when un- 
allied with the more persuasive charms of 
lucre. Nor is it po.ssible to conceive how, 
with the best intentions in the world, any 
architect can " preserve the character "a 
favourite argument this with the apologists 
of our quaint, incomparable Church Row. 
Think of such an attempt, and despair ! 


Authors' Club, S.W. 

" ROUGH." This word, as an abbreviation 
of " ruftian," is stated generally to have got 
into the English language about the year 
1870. The editors of the 'H. E. D.' may be 
glad to know that it is quite ten years older. 
Lord Shaftesbury, in the House of Lords on 
24 Feb., 1860, spoke of "the class called 
' roughs '-the most violent, disorderly, and 
dangerous of all the men in that very 
quarter " (' Hansard,' clvi. 1682). 



The Quarterly Review for April contains an 
article called 'Prehistoric Arts and Crafts.' 
That article, at p. 414, has a description of 
the still existing relics of the lake-dwellings 
of the neolithic period, and contains the 
following passage : 

" Scraps of fishing-nets have come to light, show- 
ing the identical stitch still in use ; and so too have 
hanks of rope and twine, these latter, except for 
their being burnt to blackness, looking as new and 
untouched as if just come from the nands of the 
cordwainer " [italics mine]. 

Here it is difficult to avoid the conclusion 
that the writer of the article thought that 

, the word cordivainer means a maker of cords. 

I But all the dictionaries to which I have 



[9 th S. II. JULY 2, '98. 

access state that this word means a shoe- 
maker, that is, one who works in cordwain, 
which latter word is a modification of cordo- 
van, a kind of leather formerly prepared at 
Cordova ; and the said dictionaries support 
this view by sundry quotations in prose and 
verse from writers of authority. Well, which 
is right, the dictionaries or the Quarterly 
reviewer'? If the latter has blundered, I 
think he ought to be just a little ashamed of 


MANILA. Hitherto the principal result to 
us of the Spanish-American war has been a 
general diffusion of knowledge of the proper 
spelling of this town. The Spectator, how- 
ever, continues to substitute for the place- 
name the Spanish word for a bracelet, 
manilla, the Spanish pronunciation of which 
would be very different from that of Manila. 
Must we wait for a bombardment of the peak 
of Tenerife to knock out of it for good the 
superfluous / that we are in the habit of 
inserting 1 The circumstances which would 
dock the unmeaning s which we stick to the 
tail of Lyon and Marseille are too terrible to 
contemplate. KILLIGREW. 

ACCENT IN SPANISH. There are plenty of 
second-rate Spanish grammar* in English. 
Perhaps the only one of the first class is 
Knapp's, yet even Knapp has no mention of 
the curious and most important law of accent 
to which I am about to draw attention. 
Years ago I noticed that, although the correct 
pronunciation of the name Iturbide is with 
the penultimate accent, as I have marked it, 
nevertheless many Spaniards call it Iturbide. 
I inquired the reason of my friend the late 
Prince Louis Lucien Bonaparte, but he was 
as far from suspecting it as I was, and could 
only suggest that it had been influenced by 
the adjective ttirbido. It was not till I 
personally visited Spain that I acquired the 
clue to this and many another riddle which 
turned out to be connected with it. The first 
place I stopped at was San Sebastian, and 
one of the first things I did was to ask of 
a man I met, who bore a characteristically 
Spanish name, how he pronounced it. He 
replied, "Andonegui," and then, correcting 
himself, " No," he said, " it should be And6- 
negui." Later I journeyed further by rail, 
and as the train drew up at one of the larger 
stations I overheard an exchange of sentences 
between two men in the same compartment. 
" What is this place ? " demanded one. 
" Zumarraga," answered the other. But the 
word was scarcely out of his mouth when the 
official on the platform called out distinctly 

" Zumarraga." All this set me thinking, and 
I ultimately discovered that not only these, 
but a vast number of other place and personal 
names of Northern Spain, originally accented 
upon the penultimate, had of late years trans- 
ferred the stress to the preceding syllable. 
I have already given a list of some of these 
in 'N. & Q.'(8 th S. vii. 412), but as the subject 
is one of the greatest interest to every 
student of Spanish, I may be pardoned for 
adding (what I have not before stated) that 
this transference of accent in names did not 
begin in the Basque provinces, but is derived 
from the capital, wnere, besides names, it 
affects most of the longer nouns and adjectives 
in the language. Every one who speaks 
Spanish must have come across some in- 
stances of words marked paroxytone in tho 
dictionaries, but popularly pronounced as 
pro paroj-y 'tones. To illustrate how far the 
mischief has gone I may quote some lines, 
well known in Spain, in which Hartzenbusch 
satirizes the fashion and gives many ex- 
amples : 

Hay gente que dice colega, 
Y epf grama, estalactita, 
Pupitre, m^ndigo, sritiles, 
Hostiles, corola, y auriga, 
Se oye a muchisimos p6rito, 
Y alguno prommcia mam para, 
Diploma, eriidito, perfume, 
P^rsiles, Tibulo, y Sabedra. 

Particularly noteworthy here are Sabedra, 
the surname of the immortal author of ' Don 
Quixote,' usually written Saavedra, and Per- 
siles, the hero of one of his minor works. 
Like all the others, these were originally 
accented on the second syllable from the end. 

GEORGE OLD. An example of the creation 
of a surname in quite modern times has 
recently come to my knowledge. It is, I 
think, sufficiently curious to be recorded in 
' N. & O.' Many years ago (the exact date I 
do not know) a man came to this town seek- 
ing work. He was engaged by a farmer, at 
first for a short period only during a busy 
time, but as he turned out to be hardworking 
and trustworthy, he stayed from month to 
month and year to year. He never told 
his name nor whence he came indeed, he 
rarely spoke at all. Perhaps it was in conse- 
quence of this that the neighbours came to 
the conclusion that he was a Frenchman. 
This, whether true or false, seems to have 
been on their part a mere guess. As some 
designation was required for one who was 
often spoken of, he was soon nicknamed Old 
George. When at last, from age and infirmity, 
he could no longer work, he became charge- 
able to the parish, and was sent to end his 

9 th S. II. JULY 2, '98.] 


days in the Brigg Union workhouse. I am 
informed that he was entered in the books of 
that institution under the name of George 
Old. When he died he was brought to 
Kirton-in-Lindsey for burial. On searching 
the parish register here, I find that he was 
interred, under the name of George Old, on 
16 June, 1877. His age is given as seventy- 
seven, but there is a note saying that he was 
believed to be considerably older. 

Dunstan House, Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

WK must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be addressed to 
them direct. 

" HORSE GUARDS." I shall be glad of any 
early quotations for this word in the senses : 
(1) the Royal Horse Guards (a, 1702) ; (2) the 
barracks of this regiment ; (3) the office in 
Whitehall of the departments under the 
Commander-in-Chief (a. 1713) ; (4) the autho- 
rities at the Horse Guards (a. 1826). 


70, Baubury Road, Oxford. 


W. L. B. 

[" Sumer is y-cumen in" is one of the most 
familiar pieces in early English poetry. It is 
ascribed by Ellis to the time of Edward I., and is 
given by Sir John Hawkins as anonymous in his 
' History of Music.'] 

" DEWY-FEATHERED." What is the signi- 
ficance of the epithet " dewy-feathered in 
the familiar line in ' Penseroso': 

Entice the dewy-feathered sleep ? 
I have consulted the ' Historical English Dic- 
tionary,' but got no satisfaction. Why should 
one prefer Sleep with wings that are wet and 
sparkling rather than that the god of slumber 
should come flying on those that were dry 
and dull-coloured ? JAMES D. BUTLER. 

glad to know of what family the Rev. Thomas 
Ellis Owen was. He was vicar of Llandy- 
frydog, Anglesey, and author of a book on 
the Methodist revival. Are any of his 
descendants now living ? PELOPS. 


NETHER HALL, ESSEX. Numerous views of 
the Tudor gateway, the sole remains of the 
above, have been published from time to time, 
but I cannot trace any view of the hall itself. 

An engraving was made, I understand, just 
prior to its destruction, but I cannot ascer- 
tain where a copy can be seen. Can any 
Essex archaeologist assist me in ray quest 1 

Hoddesdon, Herts. 

SOURCE OF QUOTATION. Where can I find 
these lines 1 

Backward, turn backward, 
O time, in your flight ; 
Make me a child again 
Just for to-night. 

I have an idea they occur in a poem of Eliza 
Cook's. J. A. S. 


ITALIAN LAW. What is the heaviest sen- 
tence inflicted by Italian law on the crime 
of obtaining money under false pretences, 
supposing the crime to have been committed 
several times and the sums obtained con- 
siderable ? K. M. G. 

JAMES Cox's MUSEUM. This was situated 
in Spring Gardens. I shall be glad of refer- 
ences to any detailed accounts of it other 
than references in 'N. & Q.,' 2" a , 3 nl , 4 th , 5 th , 
and 8 th Series or to any contemporary 
allusions. G. L. APPERSON. 

CAREW. Will any one kindly inform me 
what persons of the name of Carew were 
officers of the navy between 1720 and 1750 ? 

G. D. L. 

POEM WANTED. I shall be greatly obliged 
to any one who will tell me where I can find 
a short poem which ends, " When the French 

ride at the Nore We '11 go to sea no more." 

My reference says Dublin University Maga- 
zine, about 1855 ; but it is not there. M. 

"ANIGOSANTHUS." Will anybody tell me 
the etymology of the first three syllables of 
this word 1 Anlhus. of course, is obvious ; 
but what is the derivation, construction, 
etymology, or meaning of aniffos? P. M. 

" THE MAN IN THE STREET." When, and by 
whom, was this phrase first used ? 

C. P. HALE. 

MANOR HOUSE, CLAPTON. Can any reader 
tell me if a house once known as the Manor 
House is still standing at Clapton ? It stood 
near, or opposite, Brook House, close by 
Clapton Gate. In 1857 it was a school (vide 
' N. & Q.,' 1 st S. xii. 480). It was the birth- 
place of Major Andre. M. S. 

readers tell me what has become of the brass 
to Sir Nicholas Stukeley which was in the 


[9 th S. II. JriA- 2, '98. 

possession of Dr. Stukeley in 1764? It is sup- 
posed to be somewhere in or about London. 

E. A. LUNN. 

CADOUX. I shall be most grateful if any 
of your correspondents can give me any 
information as to the family of Cadoux, 
especially with regard to the occurrence of 
the name in Shropshire. H. B. HUDSON. 

SONG WANTED. Can any reader tell me 
where to procure a song about an Irish will, 
with this refrain ? 

Then hurrah for my grandfather Brian ! 
I wish he was living, I 'm sure ; 
For then, don't you see, he 'd be dyiu', 
And faix he would leave me some more. 

24, Gordon Street, W.C. 

' THE CAUSIDICADE.' In a letter before me 
dated 21 June, 1743, occurs the following : 

"There is a poem lately published, entitled 'The 
Causidicade,' which has been universally read, and 
afforded a great deal of diversion, as it particularly 
enters into the characters of the most eminent in 
the profession of the law." 

Is anything known of this poem ? 

0. L. S. 

SAXE - COBURG - GOTH A. Saxe - Altenburg 
and Saxe-Meiningen carry on an inescutcheon 
the arms of Saxony (barry of ten or and sa., 
with a garland vert in bend) crowned. Saxe- 
Coburg has no crown. What is the reason ? 

N. T. 

ARMY LISTS. Where can the most complete 
series of Army Lists be seen ? 

(Miss) E. E. THOYTS. 
Sulhamstead Park, Berks. 

TELESCOPE. Is Dr. Herschel's forty-foot 
telescope still at Slough; and is it still in 
the possession of the family ? J. A. L. 


SHEPHERD'S CHESS. How was this played? 
It is mentioned in 'Lorna Doone,'chap. xxxvii. 
I do not remember meeting with the name 
elsewhere. " Push-pin," in the same sentence, 
is mentioned both by Shakespeare andHerrick. 

EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS. The trust deed of 
our endowed schools here, dated 1825, pro- 
vides that the children shall be taught to 
"read, write, and cast accounts upon the 
Lancastrian plan, or Bell's system." Informa- 
tion concerning these systems of education 
will be appreciated by JOHN T. PAGE. 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

[See 'D. N. B.' under Lancaster and Bell.] 

REV. JOHN FLOWER. He was rector of 
Stourmouth, in Kent, 1580-99, where six of 

his children were baptized, and he himself 
buried, 31 May, 1599. Any further particulars 
acceptable as to parentage, wife, &c. Was 
he a prebendary of St. Paul's, 1579-99? 


Wingham, Kent. 

FAR WELL PEDIGREE. I shall be greatly 
obliged if any one will give me the maiden 
name of Mary, widow of --Barber, or Barter, 
Esq., who married, secondly, on 25 Jan., 1605, 
Christopher Farwell, Esq., of Totnes, by 
whom she had a family ; also the maiden 
name of the wife of their eldest son, Chris- 
topher Farwell, of Totnes, who represented 
Dartmouth in the Long Parliament, and died 
1672, aged sixty-three. The pedigree merely 
calls her " Madam Jane Farwell," and her 
burial is so entered at Totnes in 1676. As 
men in those days did not usually go far afield 
for their wives, the names required may pro- 
bably be found in Devonshire. The last 
marriage might have been a year or two 
before 1644, or possibly as far back as 1635. 
COL. MOORE, C.B. and F.S.A. 

Frampton Hall, near Boston. 

ST. WERNER. Who was this saint ; and 
what is the legend referred to in the follow- 
ing passage ? 

" The Jews, hated for their faith, and because 
they held the world to such an extent in their debt, 
were on that festival [the Passover] entirely in the 
hands of their enemies, who could easily bring about 
their destruction by some false accusation. Not 
infrequently through some contrivance a dead child 
was secretly introduced into a Jewish house, to be 
afterwards found and made a pretext for attack. 
Great miracles were sometimes reported and be- 
lieved as having happened over such, a corpse, and 
there are cases in which the Pope canonized such 
supposed victims. St. Werner in this way reached 
his honours, to whom was dedicated the magnificent 
abbey at Oberwesel, now a picturesque ruin, whose 
carved and towering pillars and long-pointed win- 
dows are such a delight to the tourists who pass on 
pleasant summer days, and do not think of their 
origin."' The Jews,' by J. K. Hosmer, 1889, p. 168. 


ORDER OF ST. GERMAIN. Can any reader 
inform me where I can obtain information 
concerning the Order of St. Germain, or any 
other Jacobite league which enrolls member ; 
at the present time ? STUART. 

[See 8 th S. v. 127, 234 ; xii. 71.] 

WITHRED, KING OF KENT. In a fifteenth- 
century MS. I find it stated that one of the 
chronicles records the journey to Rome of 
Wictred, Widred, or Withred (or Wyctred, 
Wydred, or Wythred), King of Kent (died 
725). I have searched through many of the 

9 th S. II. JULY 2, '98.] 



chronicles without finding this journey re- 
corded in any. If any reader could afford the 
reference it would oblige me. Failing its 
discovery, it would appear to have been con- 
tained in one of those chronicles which have 
been lost. W. 

THE EGYPTIAN KITE. Can any reader of 
'N. & Q.' tell me where I can find a satisfac- 
tory sketch of the hedaije, or Egyptian kite, 
which is so constantly seen circling about in 
the air over Cairo 1 I want it with outspread 
wings, it being especially the form or outline 
of the wing which I desire. W. F. 

Alexandria, Egypt. 

give me information about this clergyman, 
who was living in 1719 1 Was he in any 
way connected with Madras or with the East 
India Company ? 


19, Grove Road, Harrogate. 

when was Lady Aramintha Robartes (daughter 
of John, Lord Robartes, first Earl Radnor) 
married, and had the pair any children ? 


19, Quesnel Street, Montreal, Canada. 

SCOTTER. Can you inform me where I may 
trace the history, of the family of Scotter, 
formerly spelt Scoter ? The family belonged 
to Lincolnshire, I believe. H. S. 


(9 th S. i. 421.) 

YOUR correspondent .1. B. S. may rest 
assured that I am not what he calls a " lite- 
rary wasp." The subject has long engrossed 
my attention. I am firmly convinced that 
diffuseness and haste in erecting memorials 
to perpetuate the fame of celebrated men and 
women are always presumptuous, and fre- 
quently misinterpret the ultimate verdict of 
posterity. If J. B. 8. sets so much value 
upon contemporaneous judgment let him 
examine the epitaphs affixed to the walls of 
Westminster Abbey. Let him ponder over 
the fulsome eulogies lavished, no doubt 
sincerely, on St. Evremond, on the im- 
mortal Christopher Anstey, and on many 
other more or less worthy men whose names 
and whose works have passed for ever from 
the knowledge of mankind. One hour's 
reflection will convince him that impetuous 
grief is responsible for the fact that West- 

minster Abbey is replete with monuments 
erected in haste to commemorate individuals 
\vho can never have possessed a claim to 
more than transient notoriety. Whether 
these memorials were in each case a voluntary 
tribute of the people's grief, or merely the 
result of official pressure (as in the case of 
St. Evremond), matters little. Space has 
been absorbed, and the nation can no longer 
find room within the Abbey walls to com- 
memorate the achievements of her noblest 
sons. The monuments and mural tablets 
dedicated to foreigners and mountebanks, 
sycophants, lords, ladies, great men and 
nonentities, huddled together in hopeless 
incongruity, form a striking example of 
the value of contemporaneous judgment. 
Depend upon it, Carlyle was right when he 
said that "Time has a strange contracting 
influence on many a widespread fame." The 
Abbey proves it. Carlyle might have added 
that Time has also a strange expanding 
influence Shelley and Keats are two out of 
many that could be named whose expansion 
of fame is remarkable. Their contemporaries 
were either right, or they were wrong in 
their judgment of both. At all events, it has 
taken half a century to change their tune, 
and we have not yet reached the exact pitch 
with either. 

Your correspondent tells us that Byron and 
Keats both suffered from " a tardy recognition 
of merit." Is that so ? Keats certainly was not 
conscious of immortality when he died, but 
Byron had his full share of celebrity during 
his lifetime. Did he not wake one morning 
to find himself famous ? Ay, and is he not 
famous still ? For fifty years after his death, 
owing to the influence of what Mr. Disraeli 
called " contracted sympathies and restricted 
thought," his eclipse was partial ; but his 
light reappeared in 1875 ana has been burn- 
ing steadily ever since. We have not done 
with Byron yet, in spite of the insufferable 
cant about his lack of " technical perfection " 
which Mr. Traill and others are now flaunting 
in the public press. The immortality of 
Byron is as certain as that of Dante. In 
spite of the cavilling of a certain class of 
critics and poetasters, who have dared to 
deny to Byron a place among the great 
singers of the world, he has long held a posi- 
tion among English poets from which nothing 
can shake him. His genius, his achievements, 
and the manner of his death make him inde- 
pendent of the verdict of his contemporaries. 
He belongs, so to speak, to Time and to 
Eternity, and our feeble judgment will not 
affect him through the ages yet to come. 

But it seems to me that your correspondent 



[9 th 8. II. Jn.Y 2, '98. 

is either a conscious or an unconscious 
humourist. What does he mean by this ? 

" And so of Browning and Meredith. Who ques- 
tions their power or fails to appreciate their talent, 
though their sentences be oftenest like the Delphic 
Oracles in mystery ? And will the twenty -first cen- 
tury read their lines with less difficulty or belaud 
what it cannot underhand more loudly than the nine- 
teenth ? More likely it will relegate them (though 
unfairly), by the contraction of perspective, to the 
limbo of things unreadable." 

What will the ladies, members of the Brown- 
ing Society, say to the great, the immortal 
Robert Browning being described as a writer 
of "things unreadable"? In truth, it is 
difficult, within the limits of restricted 
space, to do justice to J. B. S. " And Tenny- 
son and Goethe, will posterity bid them 
climb to a higher gradient up the slopes of 
Parnassus than that which they have already 
reached ? I doubt it." Imagine Tennyson 
and Goethe walking hand in hand up the 
slopes of Parnassus for the edification of 
mankind ! The conjunction of Byron and 
Keats is nothing to that. J. B. S. then writes : 

"The verdict of the future is passed by a jury 
utterly incapable of viewing a case except through 
party-tinted lenses, and furnished only with frag- 
ments of evidence upon which to base it Gibbon, 

Macaulay, Freeman, and Lecky are samples [sic] 
in point ; McCarthy's ' History of our Times 
witnesses for the plaintiff. One such volume is 
worth, in point of accuracy, a whole library of the 

Poor Gibbon ! Poor Macaulay ! Poor Free- 
man ! and, alas ! poor Lecky ! From 1788 to 
1897, behold the vicissitudes of Fame ! 

33, Tedworth Square, S.W. 

Complete accuracy implies proportion. It 
follows that we cannot see anything accurately 
unless we see its surroundings too. A certain 
distance of time is therefore necessary to 
completely accurate vision of an historical 
as ot space to similar vision of a scenic object 
This is, indeed, more necessary in the case oi 
an historical than of a scenic object, because 
in the case of the latter, however near to the 
object we may be, the surroundings are al 
there ; whereas in the other case they are 
not. We cannot possibly see our coiitem 
poraries in relation to succeeding times, anc 
these are not the least important part of a 
man's historical surroundings. 

It may also be urged that a man can only 
be judged by his work, the value of which 
cannot be accurately known until its ful 
effect is seen. Time tries all. We can 
compare Shakespeare with Dante, because 
time has shown what the work of each wa 
permanently worth ; but we cannot compan 

tfr. Thomas Hardy with Fielding, or Lord 
Salisbury with his Elizabethan ancestor, 
! or we do not know either the actual or the 
elative value of their work. 

And in all this no account is taken of the 
passions and prejudices which affect our 
vision of contemporaries far more than of the 
men of times past. C. C. B. 

The real estimate of a man is the lasting 
one which he actually bears through the 
ages, and not that which any one generation 
may think he ought to bear. Therefore we 
do not arrive at that estimate until some of 
;he ages are already past. Shakespeare was 
ittle thought of by his contemporaries. 
Many of our own day are by us over-rated. 
Bold a penny piece near enough to your eye 
and you can blot out the sun. You can have 
no conception of the relative size of a moun- 
tain while you are standing at its foot. 
Surely it is a sign of the " end of the age " 
that we are so impatient, so hasty to form 
judgments ; as it was said of a late critic, we 
are not sure of our own personal identity 
unless we have made up our minds about 
everything and everybody. Our business 
should be rather the patient accumulation of 
materials from which a later age may be 
enabled to form a correct estimate. 

W. C. B. 

ESSAY BY CAKLYLE (9 th S. i. 368). That 
number of ' Chambers's Papers for the People,' 
vol. ix., 1851, which your correspondent says 
is "palpably Carlyle's," was written for the 
Messrs. Chambers by Mr. John Leaf, of 
Friskney, Lincolnshire, who about that date 
did a great deal of literary work for the 
various publications of this house. The 
article on Fichte and seven others (of which 
those on Heyne, Defoe, and Louis XVII. 
had also appeared in ' Papers for the People ' 
or ' Chambers's Repository ') were subse- 
quently published by Mr. Leaf as a separate 
volume with a sufficiently un-Carlylean title, 
' Biographic Portraitures ; or, Sketches of the 
Lives and Characters of a Few Illustrious 
Persons ' (London, James Blackwood, 1861). 

339, High Street, Edinburgh. 

STOW'S ' SURVEY ' (8 th S. xii. 161, 201, 255, 276, 
309, 391 ; 9 th S. i. 48, 333, 431). Aldersgate. 
My remarks upon Aldersgate referred solely 
to the form of the word as it stands. The state- 
ment that it really represents " Aldred's gate" 
is easily verified. In the ' Liber Custumarum,' 
ed. Riley, i. 230, the form is Aldretfiegate, 
an Anglo-French spelling of Aldredesgate, As 

9 th S. II. JULY 2, '98.] 



to the name itself, the correct A.-S. form is 
Ealdreed, and the correct Old Mercian form 
is Aldrsed. The suffix -reed became -red at a 
very early period, owing to the lack of stress 
on the second syllable. It is perhaps worth 
saying that one mark of a Norman scribe 
is that he usually changes every A.-S. o>, 
whether long or short, into a or e, symbols 
with which he was more familiar. 


" SNY " (8 th S. xii. 447 ; 9 th S. i. 17). Is there 
any relation between this word and sni, dealt 
with at the references given? In looking 
through the glossary appended to Bam- 
f ord's ' Tim Bobbin,' I found my = to indicate 
dislike or indifference by look or manner ; 
to be squeamish or delicate in food : 

" Thus a good dame would say to her young and 
over-indulged boy, or to her tea-loving daughter, 
' Come, getthe brekfust ettn, an dunno sit snyin 
theer. Thoose porritch, awn sure, ar good enoof for 
ony lady or gentlemen i'th lond, and iv the arno' 
good enoof for thee, theaw mun goo beawt, that 's 

C. P. HALE. 

THE SHIP OXFORD (9 th S. i. 307). See Mill's 
' British India,' iii. 204. 


"BUNDLING" (8 th S. xii. 128, 194). The 
authorities cited in the 'H. E. D.' merely make 
incidental allusions to this custom. The 
authoritative work on the subject is ' Bund- 
ling: its Origin, Progress, and Decline in 
America,' by Henry R. Stiles (Albany, 1871). 


CANALETTO IN LONDON (8 th S. xii. 324, 411 ; 
9 th S. i. 373). I would refer MR. HEBB to 8 th 
S. ix. 15. C. LEESON PRINCE. 

HARE PROVERB (9 th S. i. 468). An article 
on ' Sarcasm and Humour in the Sanctuary,' 
in the Antiquary for June, says, p. 183, col. 1: 
"Among the grotesque carvings upon the 
arches of the north choir aisle of Bristol 
Cathedral we have ...... a goat blowing a horn, 

and carrying a hare slung over its back." 
The article opens with the explanation that 
many of the carvings were allegories at the 
expense of the friars. Is it possible that the 
folk-tale is the perpetuation of an old con- 
fusion between hare-^>e = hare-snare and 

"THE CALLING OF THE SEA" (7 th S. ix. 149, 

213 ; xi. 151, 372). 

" About the line [in ' Enoch Arden '], ' There came 
so loud a calling of the sea,' he [Tennyson] ob- 
served : ' The calling of the sea is a term used, I 
believe, chiefly in the Western parts of England to 

signify a ground swell. When this occurs on 9, 
windless night the echo of it rings thro' the timbers 
of the old houses in a haven. "From ' Alfred, 
Lord Tennyson : a Memoir/ by his son, 1897, vol. ii. 
p. 8. 

Ropley, Hampshire. 

"FOOL'S PLOUGH" (9 th S. i. 348). T Perhaps 
the following from l A Glossary of Yorkshire 
Words and Phrases ' will explain the mean- 
ing of the phrase in question : 

" Plufe Stot* or Plonyh Stotx.On Plough Monday, 
the first Monday after Twelfth Day, and the days 
following, there is a procession of rustic youths 
dragging a plough, who, ' as they officiate for oxen,' 
says Dr. Young, ' are called Plough Stods [xtot=a, 
steer, a young ox]. They are dressed with their 
shirts over the outsides of their jackets, with sashes 
of ribbons fixed across their breasts and backs, and 
knots or roses of the same fastened on to their shirts 
and hats.' They are generally accompanied with a 
band of sword-dancers, while one or more musicians 
play the fiddle or flute. When the dancers perform 
their evolutions, the Madgies or Madgy Pegs, 
grotesquely attired, and oft with their faces 
blacked and heads horned, go about for contribu- 
tions, rattling their tin canisters as money boxes. 
In this way they proceed from place to place for 
miles around ; and afterwards the money collected 
is spent in festivities with their friends and sweet- 

In the instance quoted by Mackenzie the 
money thus collected would seem to have 
been given towards building the bridge which 
he mentions. C. P. HALE. 

This was the plough that was taken in 
procession on " Plough Monday "; see Bohn's 
ed. of Brand's 'Popular Antiquities,' 1849, 
i. 505. W. C. B. 

358). Charles Sherborn was the son of Thomas 

Sherborn (d. 1731) and Hannah . Thomas 

was the son of Henry Sherborn (d. 1705) and 

Mary (d. 1707). Charles was born 1716, 

married Elizabeth - - (d. 1787), and died 
1786 '(Gent. Mag., 1786, p. 719). He was 
succeeded in his Gutter Lane business by 
his son H . The plates engraved in 1789, 
1791, and 1792, mentioned by MR. HODGKIN, 
were by the son. Charles was one of the 
Bedfont Sherborns. His father had three 
brothers Francis, whose descendants still 
live at Bedfont ; William, who died young ; 
and Henry, who married Kachel Elford. This 
Henry had many children, of whom one, 
Henry (1711-84), went to Windsor, and also 
had a large family, of which one, William, 
went to Newbury, in Berkshire, and his 
descendant still lives in the person of Charles 
William Sherborn, the line engraver, my 

I have during the last five years gone very 



[9 th S. II. JULY 2, '98. 

carefully into the history of the Sherborns, 
and have a great mass of material. I should 
be glad to hear from any one interested in 
the family. C. DAVIES SHERBORN. 

540, King's Road, S.W. 

(9 th S. i. 408). There is much on this subject 
in the dictionary of Sir George Grove : 

" The permanence of the width of the octave has 
been determined by the average span of the hand, 
and a Ruckers harpsichord of 1614 measures but a 
small fraction of an inch less in the eight keys than 
a Broadwood or Erard concert-grand piano of 1879." 

The "average span" of a hand like that of 
Woelfl who must have straddled the key- 
board like a Colossus would not make the 
octave of much account. Recent invention 
has, however, rendered great things possible 
to the smallest of average hands. K. B. 
Schumann (d. 1865) invented a radiated key- 
board having c on a black key. Here the 
octave was the width of six of the present 
white keys (nearly 5in.). Herr von Jank6 
(1887-8) also brought the octave within the 
limits of six keys. There appear to be some 
disadvantages, but it is obvious that much 
modern music the well - known No. 4 of 
Schumann's ' Nachtstiicke,' Op. 23, is an 
example would thus tend to become more 
tolerable at the hands of the modern " pupil " 
than it is at present. GEORGE MARSHALL. 
Sefton Park, Liverpool. 

06, 132, 214, 332). In glancing over the penul- 
timate volume of ' N. & Q.' my eye caught, 
at the second reference, a very dogmatic 
assertion of the late C. F. S. WARREN, which 
escaped my attention when first issued, and 
which I venture equally dogmatically to 
contravert. " Macaulay was wrong ; soul and 
spirit are not identical, and so far MR. 
YARDLEY is right," is MR. WARREN'S ex cathe- 
dra utterance. In logical parlance, I deny 
the major, minor, and conclusion of this 
quasi -syllogism, and formulate my thesis 
thus : Soul and spirit are identical, therefore 
both MR. WARREN and MR. YARDLEY are 
wrong, and Macaulay was right. Mont- 
gomery was also wrong ; " his mistake/' to 
judge MR. WARREN ex ore mo, " was in the 
awkward association of the two words send 
and spirit" Very " awkward " it certainly 
was, and richly merited Macaulay's drastic 

auestion. Since "qui bene distinguet bene 
ocet," it would be interesting to have had MR. 
WARREN'S distinction between soul and spirit, 
as 1 have never so far met with any con- 
vincing proof of difference between them, 
either philosophical or theological. What is 

predicated of the one can be so of the other. 
But the onus proljandi would have lain with 
MR. WARREN. Finally, though MR. YARDLEY 
may not thank me for championing his cause, 
his contention that " a fairy is a soulless thing 
and a spirit " differentiates correctly soul from 
spirit. Fairies are the only instances (ima- 
ginary though they be, and precisely instances 
for that very reason) of spirit divorced from 
soul. This is the only way of answering "a 
question put as one of fact " or, rather, of 
hypothetical fact, which this undoubtedly is. 
" Quod gratis asseritur gratis negatur." 

J. B. S. 

WORTH (9 th S. i. 347, 475). EBOR'S inquiry 
is one that much interests me, and I wish 
him the success which did not attend 
my own inquiries when reproducing in my 
Wentworth book Williams's engraving of 
Kneller's painting. It was not then known 
at the office of the National Portrait Gallery 
whether the picture yet existed : possibly, as 
a few years have elapsed, inquiry in the 
same quarter might now be more fruitful. 
The natural owners would be the Earl of 
Lovelace, or Earl Fitzwilliam, or Mr. Vernon- 
Wentworth (of Wentworth Castle, Stain- 
borough, co. York) ; but so far as my experi- 
ence has extended, the present representatives 
of the Wentworths do not appear to be inter- 
ested in family history, my work having had 
no encouragement from them. 

The same interesting lady (whose story is 
too intimately connected with the unfortu- 
nate Duke of Monmouth) was also portrayed 
by Sir Peter Lely, if credence is to be given 
to a small engraving published by Richard- 
son in 1708. I doubt the identity, however, 
as it has no resemblance to Kneller's portrait. 
The engraving is found in the British Museum 
Print-Room and at the office of the National 
Portrait Gallery. It is a half figure, hair in 
pendent curls, pearl necklace, hand on breast. 

A few words of description of MR. HUM- 
PHREY WOOD'S little picture would be wel- 
come. If representing Ann, wife of Sir 
Thomas Wentworth, third Earl of Strafford 
(first Earl, of the second creation), married 
171 lj would it not have been described as the 
Countess of Strafford, not merely as "The 
Hon Uc M rs Wentworth'"? Her name before 
marriage was Johnson (only daughter of Sir 
Henry Johnson, Knt., by his wife Martha, 
Baroness Wentworth) ; she died in 1754 (cetat. 

On looking through my pedigrees,! find that 
1724 seems to fit Alice, wife of Thomas Watson- 

9 th S. II. JULY 2, '98.] 



Went worth, M.P., heir to the property 
(Wentworth-Woodhouse), but not to the 
title, of his maternal uncle William, 
second Earl of Strafford. This lady was 
simply Mrs. Wentworth. Her maiden name 
was Proby. She was a widow in 1723, and 
died in 1743. W. L. RUTTON. 

27, Elgin Avenue, W. 

TURNER (9 th S. i. 389). I do not know 
whether your correspondent has referred to 
my book 'Kingston Parish Registers '('Monu- 
ments '). In that he would see there is a 
monument to Margaret, wife of Thomas 
Turner, of Ileden, wno died 4 Aug., 1698, in 
the forty-seventh year of her age and twenty- 
sixth of her marriage. There is also entered 
on the same tablet the death of the said Thomas 
Turner, 1 April, 1715, in the sixty-eighth year 
of his age. I think that the following mar- 
riage allegation (' Harleian Society's Publica- 
tions,' vol. xxiii. p. 210) must apply to the 
above : 

" 1672. Dec. 18. Thomas Turner, of S. Andrew's, 
Holborn, Gent., Bach., abt. 25, Mrs. Margaret 
Theobald, of St. Saviour's, South wark, Sp.,abt. 22, 
her parents dead ; at St. Dunstan's East. 

The ages and dates correspond with those on 
the tablet. Moreover, in the elaborate coat 
of arms above the inscription I find, from 
Berry's ' Dictionary of Heraldry,' the arms of 
Theobald included : Gules, six crosses crosslet 
fitchee or, 3, 2, and 1. Crest, a phcenix rising 
out of flames proper. I should mention that 
in my book Mr. R. Hovenden kindly gave the 
heraldic description of the arms, &c., as I am 
not versed in heraldry. If desired, I could 
furnish verbatim copy of the inscription on 
the tablet ; but my book is in the British 
Museum, also at Lambeth Library. 

I find from Bishop of London's Marriage 
Licences (Harleian Soc., vol. xxvi. rx 326) the 
second marriage of this Thomas Turner as 
follows : 

" 1700. Thomas Turner of Ileden, Kingston, Kent, 
Esq r , Widower, 50, and M Susanna Ryves, of 
Stepney, Wid., 50 ; at St. James in Fields." 

Kingston Rectory, Canterbury. 

Thomas Turner, of Ileden, Kent, married 
Margaret Theobald, 18 Dec., 1672. He was 
barrister-at-law and clerk in Chancery. If 
he is the man asked for, I can give full par- 
ticulars of his wife's family, and should be 
grateful for his pedigree. 


Warley Barracks, Brentwood. 

GENERAL WADE (9 th S. i. 129, 209, 253, 334, 
376). There have been several references to 

him ; but I cannot remember to have seen 
this notice. Bishop Newton, in the preface 
to his 'Dissertations on the Prophecies,' in 
1754, states that 

" what first suggested the design were some 

conversations formerly with a great general 

who was a man of good understanding and some 
reading, but unhappily had no great regard for re- 
vealed religion and, when the prophecies were 

urged as a proof of revelation, constantly derided 
the notion." 

There is a remark upon this in Felix Sum- 
merly's 'Handbook for Westminster Abbey,' 
abridged edition, p. 20 : " Bishop Newton is 
said to have been prompted to write his 
' Dissertations on the Prophecies ' by conver- 
sations with this general." 



328, 377, 393). A writer in the Athenceum, 
12 September, 1896, says : 

"The pictorial splendours of 'The Eve of St. 
Agnes ' have so intoxicated all readers that Millais 
was taken to task for giving a green hue to moon- 
beams falling through a stained-glass window. It 
was of no use to tell the objectors that green is the 
true colour of Nature's own moonbeams falling 
through stained glass, even though they should fall 
on Madeline's fair breast. Keats having con- 
descended to compete with Nature in this matter, 
having dipped his royal brush in all the colours 
with whicn the sun himself can stain the morning 
spray when he rises above the sea-line and turns to 
gold the brown cliffs of Cromer, why discuss the 
question of his veracity? why lug in Nature?...... 

Not for one moment do we challenge all this praise ; 
on the contrary, we agree with most of it." 

If Keats, in the stanza of ' The Eve of St. 
Agnes ' (the twenty-fifth) that is alluded to, is 
untrue to Nature, as I believe he certainly is, 
one feels inclined to say, "Tant pis pour 
Madame la Nature ! " Keats, however, in 
this matter errs in good company. See ' The 
Lay of the Last Minstrel,' canto ii. stanza xi., 
the last couplet. JONATHAN BOUCHIER. 

Ropley, Alresford. 

In ' The Lav of the Last Minstrel ' there is 
even a more oeautiful allusion to this than 
in ' The Eve of St. Agnes,' though it is to be 
feared more fanciful than true. The passage 
deservea quotation : 

The silver light, so pale and faint, 
Shew'd many a prophet and many a saint, 

Whose image on the glass was dyed ; 
Full in the midst, his Cross of Red 
Triumphant Michael brandished 

And trampled the Apostate's pride. 
The moonbeam kiss'd the holy pane, 
And threw on the pavement a bloody stain. 
Canto ii. stanza xi. 

Suppose, for instance, that some corre- 
spondentif of a scientific turn so much the 



[9 th S. II. JULY 2, 'S 

better would go into York Minster or King's 
College Chapel at Cambridge, where there is 
the finest stained glass in England, when the 
moon is at the full, and observe the effect. 
We should then have the evidence of ocular 
demonstration on the point, if he would tell 
us what he saw. JOHN PICKFORP, M.A. 
Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

JUDGE FAMILY (9 th S. i. 348). I can give 
some particulars of the relationship men- 
tioned between the Judges and the D'Arcys 
of co. Meath from a pamphlet in my posses- 
sion, entitled 'An Historical Sketch of the 
Family of D'Arcy from the Norman Conquest 
to the Year 1853 ' (Miller School Print, 1882). 
Not being a genealogist, I cannot, of course, 
vouch for the accuracy of all the details, such 
as dates, &c. ; but I believe them to be correct 
in the main : 

"John D'Arcy, the eldest son of Thomas D'Arcy, 
of Lisnabin, born about 1700, married 1727 Eliza- 
beth, daughter and heiress of Thomas Judge, of 
Grangebeg, in this county. He was the first of the 
family who conformed to the Protestant religion, 
which took place before his marriage with Miss 
Judge. He died in 1758, leaving four sons. 

" 1. Judge, born 1729, married in 1765 Elizabeth, 
daughter and heiress of Richard Nugent, of Robins- 
town, and died in 1766 ; by her he had a posthumous 
daughter, Elizabeth Judge D'Arcy, wno married 
Sir Gorges Irvine, of Necarne (Castle Irvine), 
county Fermanagh. On his marriage, the settle- 
ments being about to be signed, which entailed all 
his estates in the male line of his family, his father- 
in-law Richard Nugent suddenly stood up, and took 
his hat, saying, ' Mr. D'Arcy, Mr. D'Arcy, there 's 
my daughter ; you may marry her if you choose, but 
I won't settle an acre of my property, so I wish you 
good morning and a pleasant wedding.' and went 
away. He was, therefore, married without settle- 
ments, and his estates descended to his daughter. 

" 2. Francis, born in 1733, who, on the death of 
his brother Judge D'Arcy, became heir male of Sir 
William D'Arcy, of Flatten, second son of Lord 
D'Arcy, Viceroy of Ireland ; and on the death of 
the Earl of Holderness, in 1778, heir male of John, 
Lord D'Arcy, and Norman D'Arcy. He married 

Mary, daughter of Hall, of Somersetshire, and 

died in 1813 without issue. 

"3. Arthur, born in 1734, died about 1802, un- 

"4. James, born 1740, entered the navy, and 
married in 1766 Martha, daughter and heiress of 
William Grierson, of Deanstown, county Dublin, 
and died in 1803, leaving three sons and five 

S. A. D'ARCY, L.R.C.P. and S.I. 

Rosslea, Clones, co. Fermanagh. 

LATIN AMBIGUITIES (9 th S. i. 269). "Mea 
mater mala est sus." The ambiguity vanishes 
if a comma be put after " mea," and another 
after " mater," thus exhibiting the true sense, 
the first a in " mala " being, of course, long. 
The form of the puzzle familiar to me before 

the date given (1856) was " Mea mater, mea 
pater, sus est jus," where, as in the above 
form, " mea " is a verb, and " est " the con- 
tracted form of "edit." 


I shall never forget my perplexity when, as 
a new-comer,! was confronted with the follow- 
ing "terrible bit of nonsense in Latin": 
" Mea pater in silvam tuum filium est lupus." 
While this sentence is not capable of two 
interpretations, I think it may be classified 
with that of your querist. 



Here is another ambiguity : " Mater rnea 
Hispaniam natura naturam vitium visum." 
Here is a Latin alliteration : " Sjepe cepe sub 

I can remember another quite as funny : 
Malo, I had rather be 
Malo, in an apple tree 
Malo, than a wicked boy 
Malo, in adversity. 


Here are some bits of queer Latin : 

Mus currit in campum sine pedibus ttix. 

Mitto tibi navem puppe proraque carentem. 

Mens tuis occulis et ignis via. 

J. C. P. 

[These things, the list of which may be indefinitely 
extended, are scarcely ambiguities.] 

MASSAGE (9 th S. i. 384). I was told at Aix- 
les-Bains that massage had been practised 
there in the time of the Romans. 


SIDESMEN (9 th S. i. 349). The sidesman's 
oath, for which by 5 & 6 Will. IV. c. 62, 
sect. 9, a declaration is substituted, is " You 
shall swear that you will be assistant to the 
churchwardens, in the execution of their 
office, so far as by law you are bound." In 
the Canons of 1603 they are taken with 
the churchwardens by the expression " the 
Churchwardens or Questmen, see Canons 85, 
88, 89, 90 "; and in Canon 85 there is, 

"but especially they shall see that in every meeting 
of the congregation peace be well kept, and that all 
persons excommunicated, and so denounced, be 
kept out of the church "; 

while by Canon 90 they 

"shall diligently see that all the parishioners resort 
to their church on all Sundays and holidays, and 
there continue the whole time of Divine Service : 
and none to walk or to stand idle or talking in the 
church, or in the churchyard, or the church porch, 
during that time," 

9 th S. II. JULY 2, '98.] 



Similarly, there is a provision for this in 
Canon 19, which enjoins : 

" The Churchwardens or Questmen and then 
assistants shall not suffer any idle persons to abide 
either in the churchyard or church porch, during 
the time of Divine Service or Preaching ; but shall 
cause them either to come in or depart?' 

It seems from these canons that they have 
an equal authority with the churchwardens. 
Their appointment is at the same time with 
that of the churchwardens by Canon 90, the 
title of which is ' The Choice of Sidemen, and 
their Joynt Office with the Churchwardens. 
Consistently with this character of the office, 
in the Articles of Visitation in the ' Appendix 
to the Second Report of the Royal Commis- 
sion on Ritual ' the sidemen, or sworn men, 
are classed with the churchwardens, as 
p. 436, " The oath of the churchwardens and 
sidemen " ; the same, p. 446. At p. 438 there 
is, "We, the churchwardens and sidemen, 
present." In 1686 Archbishop Bancroft, in 
his ' Metropolitical Visitation at Lincoln,' 
delivers a " Charge to the Churchwardens and 
Sidemen," with a form of oath which he 
enjoins to be taken " before their minister." 

THE TERMINATION " -HALGH " (9 th S. i. 345). 
The Lowland Scotch and Northumberland 
termination -haugh or -h<i uck, and the Lanca- 
shire -halffh or -haigh, representing an old 
Northern -halgh or -hale, exhibits one of the 
most remarkable dialectical variations in 
existence. It corresponds to the Southern 
-hall, the Mercian -ill, and the Yorkshire -all, 
which are all descended from the W. Saxon 
healh, a " slope," and not, as Kemble and Leo 
supposed, from the A.-S. heall, a "stone 
house." Thus we have Kirkhaugh in North- 
umberland (formerly Kirkhalgh) ; Great 
Haughton and Little Haughton in Durham, 
called Halctona and Halghtona in the Boldon 
Book ; and Haighton in Lancashire is Hale- 
tun in Domesday : while Willenhall in Staf- 
fordshire is callea Willanhalch in a charter, 
and Holton in Somerset is A.-S. Healhtun. 
We have also Humshaugh on the Tyne, and 
Braimhaugh and Pepperhaugh, both on the 
Coquet. From healh we have A.-S. Iddes- 
healh (probably Iddinshall in Cheshire); 
Ticknall in Derbyshire, and Tichenall in 
(Staffordshire ; Ludgershall in Wilts, Buxhall 
in Suffolk, Breadshall in Derbyshire ; and 
in Yorkshire Crakehall, Strensall, Birdsall, 
Upsall, Ricall, Roall, and Elmsall. It appears 
as a prefix in Hawick in Roxburghshire and 
Haignton in Lancashire, Holton in Somerset 
and Halton in Bucks. But the Northumbrian 
-heugh, as in Keyheugh or Ratcheugh, is the 
West Saxon hogh or h6h, which is now usually 

Hoo or Hu, as Cliffe-at-Hoo in Kent, or in the 
common names Hutton and Houghton. 


MR. PLATT takes exception to the members 
of the Keighley family persisting in calling 
themselves Keithley. As a native of the 
parish of Keighley, W.R. Yorks, perhaps I 
may be allowed to state, for the informa- 
tion of MR. PLATT, that the inhabitants of 
the town and neighbourhood always call it 
Keethley. In all documents of the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries that have come 
under my notice the name is written Kighley, 
and even down to the early part of thepresent 
century it was generally so spelled. Further, 
I believe the gh in this name had formerly a 

uttural sound, and that it has been softened 
own to its present form during the last 
hundred and fifty years or so by a process of 
evolution. In support of this hypothesis I 
may say that an ancestor of mine, who died 
over forty years ago aged eighty, and who 
lived all his life in this parish, used to pro- 
nounce the name something like KisAley (the 
sh as a soft guttural). 

Probably many of the rjh terminations in 
place-names in the north of England had 
originally a guttural sound, which has gradu- 
ally been melted down to a variety of forms, 
according to dialectic idiosyncrasies rather 
than by rule of grammar or orthography. 

A. S. 

The name Dunkenhalgh is pronounced as 
Dunkenhalge. There are in this neighbour- 
hood families named respectively Ridehalgh 
and Greenhalgh. These are here pronounced 
each as with the termination -halge. That 
this has not always been the case seems 
probable, as there are also in the near neigh- 
bourhood one or more families with name 
pronounced and spelt Redihoff or Ridehoff. 

B. T. G 

I take the terminations -halgh, -haulyh, 
and -hough to be variants of some old form, 
probably meaning field. Halgh is pro- 
nounced }uilch, Juiff, and huff. Haulgh is 
pronounced hoff; and hough, is sounded by 
some as hoff and huff, and by others as hoo. 
Greenhough, which I take to be a form of 
Greenhalgn, has become in some cases Greenup, 
and Harrop seems to be a form of Hare- 
hough. There is near Bolton-le-Moors a place 
called Tonge-with-Haulgh, the haulgh here 
being by some pronounced hoff and by others 
huff. In the locality of Bolton there is a 
name Fernihough, called or pronounced as 
Fernihuff and Ferniho. Close to Chorlton- 
um-Hardy there is an old hall, formerly a 



[9 th S. II. JULY -2, '< 

residence of the Moseley family, called Huff- 
end and Noo-end, and written Hough-end. 
Not living in Dunkenhalgh, I am unable to 

S've its local pronunciation. Residents of 
eighley, in Yorkshire, pronounce that word 
as Keithleiiy and I believe I have heard Leigh, 
in Lancashire, pronounced as Leith. 

34, Kennedy Street, Manchester. 

Ulgham, in Northumberland, is not pro- 
nounced ulfam, but Ujfam. Heugh is pro- 
nounced Ilufe, and Haugh Harfe, the r very 
slightly, if at all, sounded. R T B. 

481). The Alliance News of 18 June, the date 
on which my former communication on this 
subject appeared, says : 

" The following is a copy of Mr. Gladstone's poem 
to his grandchild called Dorothea : 
I know where there is honey in a jar, 

Meet for a certain little friend of mine ; 
And, Dorothy, I know where daisies are 

That only wait small hands to intertwine 

A wreath for such a golden head as thine. 

The thought that thou art coming makes all glad ; 

The house is bright with blossoms high and low, 
And many a little lass and lad 

Expectantly are running to and fro ; 

The fire within our hearts is all aglow. 

We want thee, child, to share in our delight 
On this high day, the holiest and best, 

Because 'twas then, ere youth had taken flight, 
Thy grandmamma, of women loveliest, 
Made me of men most honoured and most blest. 

That naughty boy who led thee to suppose 
He was thy sweetheart has, I grieve to tell, 

Been seen to pick the garden's choicest rose 
And toddle with it to another belle, 
Who does not treat him altogether well. 

But mind not that, or let it teach thee this, 
To waste no love on any youthful rover 

(All youths are rovers, I assure thee, miss). 
No, if thou wouldst true constancy discover, 
Thy grandpapa is perfect as a lover. 

So come, thou playmate of my closing day, 
The latest treasure life can offer me, 

And with thy baby laughter make us gay. 
Thy fresh young voice shall sing, my Dorothy, 
Songs that shall bid the feet of Sorrow flee." 

I do not know where this was first pub- 
lished. WILLIAM E. A. AXON. 

REV. LOCKHART GORDON (9 th S. i. 348). In 
reply to your correspondent who wishes for 
some identification of this person, I beg to 
say that he and his brother Loudon Harcourt 
Gordon were the two sons of the Hon. Lock- 
hart Gordon, Judge Advocate - General of 
Bengal, who died at Calcutta in 1788. He 
was son of John, third Earl of Aboyne. 

Lockhart Gordon was in deacon's orders 

only. For some particulars not much to his 
credit see the Gentleman's Magazine, 1804, 
vol. i. pp. 485 and 594. For the trial see Cox's 
'Recollections of Oxford' (1870) under the 
year 1804, the 'Annual Register,' and Gentle- 
man's Magazine. See also ' Letters of Charles 
Kirkpatrick Sharpe,' vol. i. pp. 248 and 530. 

His wife died, " of a broken heart," in her 
twenty-first year. See 'Annual Register, 
xlvi. 484. EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. 


STYLE OF ARCHBISHOPS (9 th S. i. 389). 
Your correspondent is not quite correct in 
this matter. The Archbishop of Canterbury 
styles himself "by divine providence," the 
Archbishop of York " by divine permission." 
The Bishop of Durham styles himself "by 
divine providence," all the other bishops " by 
divine permission." JAMES PEACOCK. 


According to the Spectator, ]8 July, 1891, 
among the bishops Durham alone is "by 
divine providence." W. C. B. 

SENTATION (9 th S. i. 407). Mrs. Jameson, who 
is an undoubted authority on angels (nearly 
a hundred pages of the first volume of her 
' Sacred and Legendary Art ' are devoted to 
them), has apparently no doubt as to their 
sex at least in art. " They are always sup- 
posed to be masculine," she tells us, and this 
because, according to Madame de Stael, "the 
union of power with purity (la force avec la 
jmrete) constitutes all that we mortals can 
imagine of perfection." 


Fort Augustus, N.B. 

It is safe to say that there was no such 
thing as the representation of a feminine 
angel prior to the Renaissance. In a general 
sense they were messengers and sons of God. 
The duties of the angels were not of a 
feminine character. They were divided into 
counsellors, governors, and ministers. This 
last class, which might have been supposed 
to exhibit feminine characteristics, was the 
most masculine, for its symbols were "the 
soldier's garb, golden belts, holding lance- 
headed javelins, and hatchets in their hands " 
(Didron). There is, however, a larger ques- 
tion which covers that asked, and goes to 
the root of the case. It lies in the distinction 
between a symbol and a figure. ' Christian 
Iconography,' Didron-Stokes (Bohn, 1888), 
i. 343, says, inter alia, "We are required to 
receive a symbol, but may be persuaded to 
admit a figure." A further development shows 

9 th S. II. JULY '2, '98.] 


that the symbol is a myth as appertaining to 
faith, and that a figure is an allegory which 
rests on opinion. Angels as such may be 
treated as women, but the angelic idea is 
neither masculine nor feminine. It has been 
portrayed by oxen, eagles, lions, and fiery 
winged wheels full of eyes. For further 
points see the above work, i. 85 et seq. 


In the Bible there is no mention of female 
angels. I think ' Myths of the Middle Ages, 
by Baring-Gould, discusses the question. ] 
have once or twice found Angell as a man's 
Christian name. E. E. T. 

SIR RICHARD HOTHAM, KNT. (9 th S. i. 448). 
If the following rather meagre details are of 
use to MR. BODDINGTON, I am glad to give 
them. They come direct from the present 
head of the Hothani family The facts as 
stated in the query about the Hothamton 
property are correct ; Sir Richard had also 
in Bognor a house, which still exists. He 
left, it is believed, four sons : one remem- 
bered by people now living was known as 
" old Mr. William Hotham "; another was a 
cutler in Millsom Street, Bath ; and a third 
was in a cloth manufactory at Leeds, near 
the Town Hall. Nothing is known of the 
other names mentioned. Sir Richard was 
not in any way related to the Hothams of 
Yorkshire. LONSDALE. 

He attempted to exploit Bognor, and 
wished to change the name to Hothampton 
but unsuccessfully. See Horsfield's ' Sussex,' 
ii. 64, and ' Sussex Arch. Colls.,' xxv. ] 15 ff. 


BISHOP EZEKIEL HOPKINS (8 th S. x. 176, 261 ; 
xi. 212). I cannot find a copy of Foster's 
'London Marriage Licences here, and I 
shall, therefore, be obliged if some reader 
would kindly say when Bishop Ezekiel Hop- 
kins was married I believe he married twice, 
first Alecia Moore, and secondly Lady 
Aramintha Robartes and also state if there 
is any record of his son Samuel's marriage to 
Susannah Prior. CHARLES H. OLSEN. 

Montreal, Canada. 

ROTTEN Row, NOTTINGHAM (8 th S. xii. 347 : 
9 th S. i. 217, 314, 372, 470). I believe it will 
be found that my statement is perfectly 
correct, viz., that " no English dialect turns 
the true Teutonic d into t." For, of course, 
the qualifications which MR. MAYHEW very 
properly suggests have no relevance whatever 
to the question which we were discussing, 
viz., the origin of Rotten Row, and the 

attempt to explain Rotten from the German 
word for red. It is perfectly clear that I was 
speaking of the Teutonic d in single words, 
unaffected by other consonants. The final 
-it for -ed in Scottish is also quite another 
matter ; for in such cases the final syllable is 
unaccented, which makes all the difference. 
It is difficult to obtain any final result in our 
discussions unless we adhere to the points 

The latest suggestion is that, if G. rothen 
can exist in one place, viz., " Rotten-herring- 
staith," it can exist in others. This is 
extremely unlikely, because the instance 
given is one of a most exceptional kind. The 
introduction of a High-German form has 
been shown in that case to be due to a 
special importation from Germany. But I 
cannot admit that a German family has 
always settled down in every place where 
the name Rotten Row is known. That would 
be a very big guess indeed, and I decline to 
make it. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

PASSAGE IN DICKENS (9 th S. i. 507). In 
'John Francis, Publisher of the Athenceur.i' 
(Bentley), vol. ii. p. 525, will be found the 
following : 

"On the 18th of November, 1843, in reviewing 
' The Keepsake.' the Athenaeum quotes a poem by 
Dickens entitlea ' A Word in Season,' which, 'we 
should think, will startle a round hundred at least 
of aristocratic readers in their country houses.' " 

The poem is given in full. The verse quoted 
by CAPT. KELSO should read as follows : 
So I have known a country on the earth, 

Where darkness sat upon the living waters, 
And brutal ignorance, and toil, and dearth, 

Were the hard portion of its sons and daughters ; 
And yet, where they who should have oped the 

Of charity and light, for all men's finding, 
Squabbled for words upon the altar-floor, 

And rent The Book, in struggles for the binding. 

N. S. S. 

"MESS OF POTTAGE" (9 th S. i. 466}. This 
vas a " familiar expression " more than one 
lundred years before the Genevan Bible was 
lublishea. In the heading of Genesis xxv., 
Matthew's Bible, 1537, it says, " Esaw sellith 
lis byrthright for a messe of potage." It is 
lie same in Crumwell's and Cranmer's Bibles, 
539-41, &c., Taverner's 1539, Becke's 1549, 
and all the early Bibles I have consulted, 
sxcept Coverdales 1535, but in the text of 
.hat it has "And Jacob dight a meace of 
neate." R. R. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

rii. 465). While "M.P." appended to a name 
may mean Member of Parliament, the ex- 



pression obviously cannot have that meaning 
when used as the initials of the name of an 
author, and the Museum authorities, in 
placing the title under the last initial, simply 
carried out not only their own long-established 
rule, but that of libraries in general. 


"HARRY-CARRY" (8 th S. xi. 427, 475; xii. 
70 ; 9 th S. i. 429). MR. HOOPER'S interesting 
contribution at the last reference recalls to 
my mind the fact that there is a fine specimen 
of a harry-carry on exhibition in the museum 
at the Old Tol House, Great Yarmouth. On 
the occasion of a visit to this "playground 
by the sea " last year, I took the opportunity 
of going over this ancient house, and saw the 
harry-carry there. Affixed to it was a card 
bearing an inscription to the effect that the 
carts came into use in Henry VII. 's reign, 
and, although 1 cannot be sure of the exact 
words, some reference was made to their 
having been called harry-carries after the 
monarch in whose reign they were first 
devised. C. P. HALE. 

POPLADIES (9 th S. i. 448). Mr. Ditchfield, in 
his 'Old English Customs extant at the 
Present Time,' 1896 (p. 46), states that on 
New Year's Day "at St. Albans Pop Ladies are 
cried and sold in the streets." Why so cried 
and sold Mr. Ditchfield does not explain. 


A BEADING IN MILTON (9 th S. i. 464). I 
agree with the emendation of the editors 
from 1692 downwards. But is MR. THOMAS 
BAYNE quite accurate in saying that the 
oldest reading " yet found he relief " is in 
accordance with the drift of the Scriptural 
narrative, when in Genesis xxi. 17 we read, 
" And God heard the voice of the lad " 1 



BAYSWATER (8 th S. xii. 405 ; 9 th S. i. 13, 55, 
154, 293). Until the origin of that particular 
Bayswater is proved by a chain of connected 
links leading up from it to bayard, a horse, 
the most that can be said in its favour is 
that such may be its origin ; for since other 
origins are possible, to fix upon any one 
without proof is but guessing, and any one 
may be guessed as well as another. My 
learned critic, of course, never gives fancies 
for facts, and therefore, no doubt, has at least 
one example of some place now called Bays- 
water which did positively and demonstrably 
as above noted, get its name from bayards 
(horses) being watered there. He will, oi 
course, produce it. 

Bayswater, instead of Baywater, may be 
'difficult" parlance to him ; but to me it is 
not, for the connecting s, giving fluency, 
annuls the jolt of disconnected syllabification, 
and so the parlance is easy instead of rough. 
That this is so, at least to many, is proved by 
the names which have acquired s because it 
makes them fluent and easy of vocalization. 
See, for instance, ' The Final s ' (8 th S. ix. 373). 
But, it may be objected, in those instances 
bhe s is a final ; in Bayswater it is not. Stop 
a bit. The word is a compound of Bay and 
tvater, so there was a time when the name 
Bay stood alone, and hence it is just as likely 
that it acquired a final s as has Marseille(s), 
Thebe(s), et al., and retained it when joined 
to loater, as the two cities mentioned do when 
the word denoting their character is added ; 
thus, Marseillestown, Thebestown. 

Red ma,n has not turned into redsman 
because the first is sufficiently easy to say, 
no matter how many other reasons exist for 
it. Ease in parlance has no law but ease ; if 
that at times demands addition instead of 
subtraction, it cannot be helped. 

And now as to my, as printed, declaration 
that " no horse, in serious earnest, could ever 
have been called bayard unless he were of a 
bay colour." I first wrote it as a question, 
not as a positive assertion ; but in rewriting, 
its form got changed by my inadvertence. 
However, even with my critic's examples, I am 
rather more inclined to believe in its fitness 
as a declaration than as a mere question. 
But take it as a question, one which is 
answered in the affirmative, provided the 
examples have no arriere-pensee lurking in 
them, a thing very likely in the instance of 
' Piers Plowman,' since it is a satirical poem. 


Philadelphia, U.S. 

He died 14 June, 1801, in London. I think 
I can find particulars if M. W. will write to 

Warley Barracks, Brentwood. 

The Church of St. Martin, Canterbury. By the 

Rev. C. F. Routledge, M.A., F.S.A., Hon. Canon 

of Canterbury. (Bell & Sons.) 
UNIFORM in shape and appearance with Bell's 
"Cathedral Series," and issued under the same 
editorship, the present work will, with accounts of 
Beverley Minster and other edifices of kindred 
position, form a pleasing and valuable supplement 
to the series. Uood reason exists for a new history 
of the edifice. During many years the opinions of 
antiquaries have been divided as to its antiquity. 

9* S. II. JULY 2, '98.] 



Thomas Wright, constituting himself the mouth- 
piece of an intelligent class of archaeologists, in- 
cluded St. Martin's in his category when he 
declared, in ' The Celt, the Roman, and the Saxon,' 
that "not a trace of Christianity is found among 
the innumerable religious and sepulchral monu- 
ments of the Roman period in Britain." Against 
this sweeping assertion Canon Routledge pits the 
fact that since 1880 further explorations have been 
carried out, with the result that it seems more than 
probable that parts of the original structure men- 
tioned by Bede are still standing, and that "the 
present walls were not only consecrated by the 
preaching and actually touched by the hand of 
St. Augustine, but may be traced Lack to a con- 
siderably earlier period." Into this dispute we will 
not intrude, nor will we deal with the question of 
the value of legend and tradition with regard to 
ecclesiastical edifices. We will concede, however, 
the unique position of St. Martin's, Canterbury, 
as being "the one remaining building that [can] 
certainly be associated with St. Augustine's preach- 
ing; the one spot that without doubt felt his 
personal presence." Canon Routledge supplies a 
history of the building, giving all that is known 
concerning its origin and development until, in the 
last century, it fefl into neglect, from which it has 
only been rescued in times comparatively modern. 
A full and valuable description of the church is 
abundantly illustrated from prints and photographs. 
Those interested in the question of date may be 
specially referred to Appendix B. 

Lyrical Ballads. By William Wordsworth and 
S. T. Coleridge, 1798. Edited by Thomas Hutchin- 
son. (Duckworth & Co.) 

MR. THOMAS HUTCHINSON, to whom the world is 
indebted for a handsome reprint of Wordsworth's 
' Poems in Two Volumes," 1807, has conferred a 
fresh obligation on students of Wordsworth and 
Coleridge by reprinting the ' Lyrical Ballads.' The 
book is indeed a precious boon. How widely 
' The Ancient Mariner ' differs in the ' Lyrical 
Ballads' from the version subsequently published 
the lover of poetry knows, and it is a luxury to 
read the poem as it issued from the brain of Cole- 
ridge. Mr. Hutchinson is in his line one of the 
foremost of scholars, and his introduction is a com- 
mendable piece of work. No less excellent are his 
notes, which are both readable and helpful. ' Peter 
Bell,' ' The Three Graves,' and ' The Wanderings of 
Cain ' are included in the volume in an appendix, 
because, " having been written in 1798, they appear 
to share a common psychological motive with ' The 
Ancyent Marinere and ' Goody Blake.' " When 
one thinks how important an influence was exer- 
cised over the future of poetry by this experiment 
of the two friends in the direction of simplicity, one 
cannot do otherwise than rejoice in the possession 
of the original text, now faithfully reproduced. 
Portraits ot Wordsworth and of Coleridge are pre- 
fixed to a volume which is sure of a place in the 
library of every lover of poetry. 

Magnetic Magic. (Privately printed.) 
WE have here, in an edition limited to one hundred 
copies, "a digest of the practical parts of the 
masterpieces of Louis Alphonse Cahagnet," to 
whose name are affixed the mysterious letters 
H.F.T.S. The works in question are the ' Arcanes 
de la [vie] future deVoileV and the 'Magie Mag- 
netique.' These are but two out of the many 

writings of this voluminous expounder of mys- 
teries, and the digest deserves its name, since 
it compresses into a few pages matter in the 
original spread over volumes. Prefixed to the 
book, which may be obtained through Mr. Robert 
H. Fryar, of Bath, is a portrait of Cahagnet. 
the date of whose birth is given as 1803, instead 
of, as we believed, 1809. The work deals with 
theurgic mirrors, cabalistic mirrors, and similar 
objects, in which the young and pure may or may 
not see marvels, with "pacts, talismans, and 
other magic or mysterious objects, the very names 
of which are unknown to us. We are not of the 
initiate, and have gazed intensely and long into 
magic crystals and the like, and have seen nothing. 
We are glad, however, to tell those who sees 
further information where they may look for it. 
The work, which is intended to be strictly private, 
constitutes, we are told, "an elementary initiation 
into Experimental Occultism." What this may 
mean we know not. Many things with which as 
the remnants of exploded superstitions folk-lorists 
concern themselves are spoken of as still operative, 
and we learn to some extent only, since the in- 
structions can scarcely be held to be practical 
how, with Sister Helen, to melt our waxen man, as 
was reputedly done with fatal effect by a dramatist 
recently deceased against an unappreciative critic. 

Bygone Devonshire. By the Rev. Hilderic Friend. 

Bi/gone Hertfordshire. Edited by Wm. Andrews. 

(Same publisher.) 

Two volumes have been added to what Mr. An- 
drews calls his " Bygone Series of County Histories." 
Though the same in aim, the works are different in 
execution. ' Bygone Devonshire ' is the work of a 
single man, a local antiquary, better known in con- 
nexion with folk-lore, and especially with flower- 
lore, than with history. We find, accordingly, in 
his contribution to the series, in addition to unity 
of design and workmanship, a large amount of 
quaint and curious information. The picturesque 
and historical associations of Devonshire are, of 
course, not neglected, and we have, naturally, a full 
account of the noble Cathedral of Exeter as well 
as of Devonshire worthies Reynolds, Coleridge, 
Drake, Kingsley, Ford, Fortescue, and the rest. 
The chapters, however, to which our readers will 
most readily turn are those on " Churches as Gar- 
risons," " Churchwardens' Accounts and Parish 
Registers," " Plant-Names and Flower- Lore," anil 
" Devonian Facts and Fancies." Our author's flower 
knowledge he illustrates from literary sources, as 

an " orchey " as that of the orchis flowers. By a 
curious transference of idea, the aconite, or monks- 
hood, is known as "parson-in-the-pulpit." Curious 
information is supplied as to leprosy. The volume 
is as pleasingly illustrated as those with which it is 
associated, and is worthy in all respects of its place. 
' Bygone Hertfordshire ' is compiled from various 
sources, and is in interest principally historical. 
Mr. Thomas Frost and Mr. Edward Lamplough are 
largely responsible for the historic portion, the 
latter sending accounts of the two battles of St. 
Albans and the battle of Barnet. Mr. Frost deals 
generally with historic Hertfordshire and with the 
Rye House Plot. A short account of 'the Roman 
theatre once existing at Verulam is supplied by 



[9 th S. II. JULY 2, '98. 

Mr. Ashdown, and Mr. John T. Page gives us '.The 
Death and Resting-place of the Great Lord Bacon.' 
Mr. Howlett, who writes on St. Alban's Abbey, 
observes a discreet resei've concerning the altera- 
tions that have of late been effected. He says, with 
the vagueness of an ancient oracle, " In the present 
day opinion is much divided on the subject ; but 
when time shall have obliterated all prejudice, the 
recent work will then stand forth for what it is 
really worth." We will take Mr. Hewlett's word 
for thus much. Mr. W. R. Willis deals with 
' Markets and Market Laws,' and Mr. Lewis 
Evans with ' Witchcraft in Hertfordshire.' A 
strange engraving of the ducking of a witch (who 
was drowned) and her husband is among the illus- 

The Shakespeare Reference Bool: By J. S. Webb. 


IF this book were but a first part we might com- 
prehend it. A Shakspeare reference book of fewer 
than 120 pages can scarcely be regarded as final. 
The arrangement, moreover, strikes us as quaint 
and eccentric. We find under 'Pat,' "It will fall 
pat, as I told you," and under ' Harp,' " Harp not 
on that string, madam." 

THE number of the Antiquary, for June is espe- 
cially good. The series of jmpers'upon ' Old Sussex 
Farmhouses and their Furniture ' finishes, and the 
concluding paper gives some very interesting illus- 
trations. We wonder whether the author, Mr. J. 
Lewis Andrd, knows that the looking-glass of 
which he gives an engraving, and which dealers 
usually misname "Chippendale," is to be found in 
many cottages in the northern part of Lincolnshire. 
The example given of a " Bible-box" will, we fear, 
send the dealers as a cloud of locusts down into 
Sussex. Miss F. Peacock sends a curious photo- 
graph representing scenes from the life of the 
Prodigal Son in late sixteenth or very early seven- 
teenth century tapestry. It is of Flemish make. 

WE have received the sixth number of the Public 
Library Journal, a quarterly magazine issued by 
the committees of the Cardiff and Penarth Libraries 
and the Cardiff Museum. It contains much useful 
information, no little of which will interest those 
who live outside the Principality of Wales. The 
Cardiff authorities have most wisely felt it to be 
their duty to form a special collection of books in 
the Welsh language. From small beginnings it has 
grown to be a very valuable gathering. We are 
glad to find that a separate catalogue of these books 
is about to be taken in hand. This will be of great 
service to Celtic students. We hope that the 
library admits works in the other Celtic tongues. 
All of them are sisters, or at least cousins. It 
would be a great thing for Wales if there were one 
place within its borders where the whole literature 
of the race might be studied. Mr. John Ward has 
contributed a paper on Roman Cardiff, which we 
have found interesting. 

WE have received a tabular sheet - pedigree 
(Mitchell & Hughes) of the descendants of the Rev. 
Thomas Maddock, rector of Coddington, Cheshire, 
who died 12 Feb., 1825. It seems to be very care- 
fully compiled. The persons named therein are 
numerous, and the necessary information is given 
in every case. This interesting document is illus- 
trated with well-engraved arms of the families of 
Maddock, Scott, Rokeby, Grey, and Edgecumbe. 

MR. ROBERT HUDSOX, an old friend and con- 
tributor to ' N. & Q.,' died on Monday, the 20th ult., 
at his house at Lapworth, at the comparatively 
early age of sixty-four. He was a member of the 
Library Association from its formation, and at one 
time was president of the Birmingham Old Library. 
Mr. Hudson had gathered, by close examination of 
ancient deeds, materials for a history of Lapworth 

THE Oxford University Press has nearly finished 
printing the first part of the Oxyrhynchus Papyri, 
which is being edited by Messrs. B. P. Grenfeli 
and A. S. Hunt for the Egypt Exploration Fund. 
The volume contains 158 texts, including the early 
fragments of St. Matthew's Gospel, Sappho, Aris- 
toxenus, Sophocles, and other lost and extant 
classics, with official and private documents dating 
from the first to the seventh century of our era. 

MR. FOX-DAVIES has in preparation, and will 
publish in the autumn, the third edition of his very 
valuable ' Armorial Families,' an admirably illus- 
trated book, the worth of which is shown by the 
fact that it will have passed through three editions 
in four years. It will contain a compendium of all 
armorial bearings legitimately in use and a list of 
all entitled to bear them. 

MR. BERTRAM DOBELL will shortly issue the first 
part of a 'Catalogue of Early Printed Dublin 
Books, 1601 to 1700,' by E. R. McC. Dix, with an 
introduction and notes by C. Winston Duncan. 
We should like to see the list extended. Pirated 
as many of them are, the Dublin books of the last 
century have an interest of their own, and deserve 
to find their bibliographer. 


We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rule. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. Correspond- 
ents who repeat queries are requested to head the 
second communication " Duplicate." 

F. W. ("Military Attaches"). The duty of the 
one is to obtain information, of the other not to 
give or sell it. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to 
"The Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Advertise- 
ments and Business Letters to "The Publisher" 
at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print ; and to this rule we can make no exception. 

For this Year, Fifty-three Numbers. 

s. d. 

For Twelve Months 1 11 

For Six Months 10 6 

9 th S. II. JULY 9, '98.] 




CONTENTS. -No. 28. 

NOTES: 'The Student of St. Bees,' 21 Danteiana, 23 
' Historical English Dictionary ' Ross and Hose Cruci 
fixion in Yorkshire, 25 Hocktide Customs Lochwinaoch 
"Tit-tat-to" Caxon : Caxin, 26. 

QUERIES : " Horse-Marine"" Bally," 26" The drench 
ing of a swan" Thackeray's Latin Titles of Picture: 
Wanted The Lieutenancy of Montgomeryshire " Jack 

.1WGI11D IAS VI laUDtVIlG AilG i/UIVC t'l .1.1*1 IV D \_?11IJ JNVI^ I 1 111 

Flanders, 27 Kubens and Raphael Vincent Megga 
Colin Tampon Rev. W. Daunton Sheridan and Dundas 
" Flam," 28 Vanity Fair Nationality Dr. G. Lloyd 
"Jeremiad," 29. 

REPLIBS : Era in Monkish Chronology, 29 Books pub- 
lished early in the Century St. Thomas a Becket, 31 
" Harrow "" Horse-sense "" Hop-picker," 32 James I. 
and the Preachers" Table de Communion " Weight ol 
Books Scott on Grimm's 'Popular Stories ' Boswell's 
' Johnson,' 33 Bibliography of the Rye House Plot 
"Fond" Cope and Mitre, 34 Hands without Hair 
Cornwall or England ? Burns and Coleridge ' Alonzo 
the Brave ' " Minister of the Word of God" Three 
Impossible Things-Oldest Parish Register Autographs, 
35 "Nice fellows" "Cross" vice "Kris," 36 Goethe's 
'Mason-Lodge' Miserere Carvings "A chalk on the 
door," 37 Hongkong : Kiao-Chou, 38. 

NOTK8 ON BOOKS : ' Dictionary of National Biography ' 
Stokes's 'William Stokes 'Reviews and Magazines 
Cassell's ' Gazetteer,' Part LVIII. 

Notices to Correspondents. 


THE late Mr. James Payn, who attained 
distinction as a novelist and humourist, 
made his early bid for fame as a poet. In 
the volume of ' Poems ' which appeared in 
1853 he has a metrical narrative of an 
incident of which he had read the record in 
the American edition of De Quincey's works. 
The story of 'The Student of St. Bees' is a 
very striking one, and is thus told by Mr. 
Payn in pp. 149-55 of his now rare 'Poems' 
(Cambridge, Macmillan & Co., 1853, 8vo. 
pp. 192) : 

See De Quincey's ' Literary Reminiscences,' vol. ii. 

p. 93, &c. (American edition). 
He knows not grief, the grief that sheds no tear, 
Who hath not laid some oliss within its bier ; 
The song-bird, captive born, could not so sing 
Had he but guess d the wonders of that wing 
That, now down-droop'd and shorn of half its pride, 
'Twixt earth and star did never midway glide 
Through the warm waveless air, nor far behind 
Leave the loud anger of the autumn wind, 
Nor poise above the lake's unheaving breast, 
'Midst the twin heavens, in as perfect rest. 
The swart mechanic, wed to whirring wheels, 
Born in trade-thunder (so God grants it), feels 
No pining for Dame Nature ; all unknown 
To his dazed ears the mystic mountain-tone 
That breaks and rolls and dies a monarch's death 
On the far summits ; if the summer breath 

Of our great mother oool his sweating brow 
One day in seven if the streamlet's now 
Lave his worn limbs between its branched banks 
On God's great day, to God let him give thanks ! 
But had he caught the perfect glory-flame 
That halos round Dame Nature, were he tame 
To drive the spinning rings, a watchful slave 
Of wood and rope and iron, to his graye ? 
To barter that mist-curtain, fold on fold 
Up the hill-side majestically roll'd 
From wooded base to crown, for hissing steam ? 
The fire that floods the crags, for the pale gleam 
From out the furnace-grate ? 

Set thoughts like these 
In judgment on the Student of St. Bees. 

A disregarded unit in the sum 
Of gross humanity, amidst the hum 
Of the hiv'd city an unheeded voice, 
Condemn'd to murky dungeons without choice, 
With Tare and Tret for jailors to the end, 
Him some proud devil prick' d their hearts to send 
To college ; oft, alas ! tlie one green space 
In a long desert life, a painless place 
Whose memory years of pain cannot efface ; 
A spring-time that can never lose its leaf ; 
A summer-noon that knows nor sunset's grief, 
Nor morning's restless hope, content to dwell 
For aye within that light it loves so well ; 
Ah, cruelty to build the prison gate 
So fair when all within is desolate ! 
Ah, freedom, falsely free ! as some poor bird, 
Forgetful of its tether, when is heard 
The far-off sorrow of its mother's song, 
With joyful heart and memories that throng 
With pleasant woods and waters, forward springs 
A little space to feel its fetter'd wings ; 
So Youth, too often, some short years is free, 
And takes all life for love and liberty ; 
Is suffer'd to dream sweetly ere he wakes 
On manhood's threshold, and the morning breaks 
But gloomily, and the dark day wears on 
So cold and strange he would that it were done, 
And never falls the time to dream again 
Those dreams, nor think upon them without pain. 
Alas, for the poor student of St. Bees ! 
Enampur'd at first sight with brooks and trees 
And silver murmur of the moonlit seas ; 
Divorced from scenes the fairest eye can meet, 
By so much space as makes the meeting sweet 
To a true lover ; mountain tops as nigh 
To the pure dwellers in the tender sky 
As unto us, who spiritually seem 
Thereat partakers of their bliss supreme ; 
Fair lakes, meet rivals of the blessed lana 
Beyond the sun ; and vales whereon the hand 
3f the Creator might have paused to dwell 
3u that He saw so good and made so well : 
Leisure for these fair sights, that fitly used 
More fruitful is than study, but abused, 
Vtost hateful sloth ; for who indifferent-eyed, 
And with pall'd senses, not as to a bride 
Approaches Nature, but to spend an hour 
[n dalliance with his new-found paramour, 
Sets careless foot upon the crystal source 
Whence he would drink, and fouls the water course 
As well might he expect the poet's soul 
To break on his, who gives his scanty dole 
)f off and on observance to the page 
(Vhen lighter joys are lacking to engage 
lis roving heart ; as well might he who pays 
)bsequious deference to Sabbath days 


Without their spirit, keeps religion here 
And business there and conscience anywhere, 
So that those three shall never interfere, 
Expect such inefficient search to find 
His Maker and the Sabbath of the mind. 
Books, the clear mirrors of men's secret lives, 
Undimm'd by rumour's breath, where the soul 


Its icy fetters custom, creedless form, 
And the world's judgment stills the bigot's storm, 
Makes pointless the fool's sneer, and e'en doth take 
The dull, vain ears of common sense, that shake 
Through all their length with, "Though we lived 

next door 

We never knew this famous man before." 
With the great minds of old the student dwelt, 
The high pulsations of whose hearts are felt 
Through each man's being ; they whose life spans 


The epochs of all time ; ah, cold and dark 
If close those fountains must and nature's too ! 
Who tears the eagle from his skies to mew 
Him with the daws and vultures, hooded-eyed ? 
" Is there no way but this," the student cried, 
" And must I leave thee, Nature, my sweet bride, 
And books, my friends immortal, both behind ? 
Lose having loved, and having seen be blind ? 
There was a time when, through the glaring street, 
Unconscious of the stars, these eyes could meet 
The city-harlots with licentious gaze, 
And watch the chariots' whirl (that men say raise 
Their haughty occupants but the wheel's height 
From that dread sisterhood) with envious sight, 
And push my lone way through the godless crowd 
Round Mammon's shrines, as smileless and knit- 

brow'd : 

But now trade hungers for my life again, 
Old vice seems crime, old pleasures weary pain, 
Old worship baseness ; could I part the brain 
From new-found heart and spirit this might be : 
I cannot ; free for once, for ever free ! " 

These erring thoughts the falser for their truth, 
And fouler since so fair yet claim our ruth 
For his sad fate, who on the mountain side 
That fronts the sunset by his own hand died ; 
His books lay by him not, alas ! that one 
That saith, " With patience let thy race be run ! " 
The poison' d chalice drain'd ; and his mild eyes 
Fix'd to the last on those misconstrued skies 
That made him love, but loving made not wise. 

Mr. Payn has himself narrated the story oi 
his introduction to De Quincey, and of his 
courteous and cordial reception by the Opium 
Eater. When De Quincey revised his writing: 
for the 'Selections, Grave and Gay,' issuec 
by Hogg, he made a complimentary allusion 
to Payn's poem. The narrative he gives in 
the following manner : 

" Sometimes, also, the mountainous solitudes 
have been made the scenes of remarkable suicides 
In particular, there was a case, a little before '. 
came into the country, of a studious and meditative 
young boy, who found no pleasure but in books am 
the search after knowledge. He languished with a 
sort of despairing nympholepsy after intellectua 

Eleasures for which he felt too well assured tha 
is term of allotted time, the short period of year 
through which his relatives had been willing t< 
support him at St. Bees, was rapidly drawing to an 

nd. In fact, it was just at hand: and he was 
ternly required to take a long farewell of the poets 
nd geometricians, for whose sublime contem- 
lations he hungered and thirsted. One week was 
o have transferred him to some huxtering concern, 
fhich not in any spirit of pride he ever affected to 
.espise, but which in utter alienation of heart he 
oathed ; as one whom nature, and his own diligent 
ultivation of the opportunities recently opened to 
lim for a brief season, had dedicated to a far dif- 
erent service. He mused revolved his situation 
n his own mind computed his power to liberate 
limself from the bondage of dependency calculated 
he chances of his ever obtaining this liberation, 
rom change in the position of his family, or revolu- 
ion in his own fortunes and, finally, attempted 
jonjecturally to determine the amount of effect 
which his new and illiberal employments might 
lave upon his own mind in weaning him from his 
present elevated tasks, and unfitting him for their 
anjoyment in distant years, when circumstances 
might again place it in his power to indulge them. 
These meditations were in part communicated to a 
riend, and in part, also, the result to which they 
Brought him. That this result was gloomy, his 
'riend knew ; but not, as in the end it appeared, 
.hat it was despairing. Such, however, it was ; 
and, accordingly, having satisfied himself that the 
chances of a happier destiny were for him slight or 
none, and having, by a last fruitless effort, ascer- 
tained that there was no hope whatever oi molli- 
r ying his relatives, or of obtaining a year's delay of 
lis sentence, he walked quietly up to the cloudy 
wildernesses within Blencathara ; read his ^Eschy- 
us (read, perhaps, those very scenes of the ' Prome- 
;heus' that pass amidst the wild valleys of the 
Caucasus, and below the awful summits, untrod by 
man, of the ancient Elborus) ; read him for the last 
time ; for the last time fathomed the abyss-like 
subtleties of his favourite geometrician, the mighty 
Apollonius ; for the last time retraced some parts 
of the narrative, so simple in its natural grandeur, 
composed by that imperial captain, the most 
majestic man of ancient history 

The foremost man of all this world- 
Julius the dictator, the eldest of the Caesars. These 
three authors ^Eschvlus, Apollonius, and Csesar 
he studied until the daylight waned, and the stars 
began to appear. Then he made a little pile of the 
three volumes, that served him for a pillow ; took 
a dose, such as he had heard would be sufficient, of 
laudanum; laid his head upon the monuments 
which he himself seemed in fancy to have raised 
to the three mighty spirits ; and with his face up- 
turned to the heavens and the stars, slipped quietly 
away into a sleep upon which no morning ever 
dawned. The laudanum whether it were fror., 
the effect of the open air, or from some peculiarity 
of temperament had not produced sickness in the 
first stage of its action, nor convulsions in the last. 
But from the serenity of his countenance, and from 
the tranquil maintenance of his original supine 
position for his head was still pillowed upon the 
three intellectual Titans, Greek and Roman, and 
his eyes were still directed towards the stars it 
would appear that he had died placidly, and with- 
out a struggle. In this way the imprudent boy, 
who, like Chatterton, would not wait for the 
change that a day might bring, obtained the liberty 
he sought. I describe him as doing whatsoever he 
had described himself in his last conversations as 

9 th S. II. JULY 9, '98.] 


wishing to do ; for whatsoever, in his last scene of 
life, was not explained by the objects and the 
arrangement of the objects about him, found a suffi- 
cient solution in the confidential explanations of 
his purposes which he had communicated, as far 
as he felt it safe, to his only friend." 'Early 
Memorials of Grasmere.' 

The reader has here the story as told in 
the verse by Payn, and in his " impassioned 

Erose" by De Quincey. One would like to 
ave the unimpassioned prose in which the 
fate of the unhappy youth was first made 
known to the public. But though a suicide 
so extraordinary in its details and so un- 
usual in its motive must have made a great 
sensation, no reference to it has been traced 
in the ' Annual Register ' or the Gentleman 's 
Magazine, whose volumes are record-houses 
of the remarkable incidents of the period. 

Moss Side, Manchester. 

1. 'Inferno,' ix. 61 : 

voi che avete gl' intelletti sani, 
Mirate la dottrina che s' asconde 
Sotto il velame degli versi strani ! 

Though there is not any notable difficulty in 
this tercet, it deserves a passing reference as 
a sample of the poet's method. Prof. Tomlin- 
son's version and comment run thus : 

" ye in whom the intelligence is sane, 
Do ye behold the doctrine hidden here, 
Which mystic verses 'neath their veil contain ? 

These three parenthetical lines do not seem to 
belong especially to the matter in hand, or to the 
canto, but rather to the whole poem. A less original 
writer than Dante would probably have placed 
them at the beginning of canto i. by way of 

The lines would form an appropriate 
proem to the whole poem, but, in my view, 
they are equally well adapted to the pre- 
vious as to the subsequent stanzas of the 
context in which they lie embedded, and 
so do not appear to me to be in any sense 
" parenthetical," but to belong very much to 
the "matter in hand." There is sufficient 
" dottrina che s' asconde " in the three furies 
and Medusa, and in the " del cielo messo " and 
inhabitants of Dis, to justify, without any 
special claim to originality, the insertion of 
the tercet in its actual setting. Gary is like- 
minded, and quotes Landino in support of 
his contention : 

" The poet probably intends to call the reader's 
attention to the allegorical and mystic sense of the 
present canto, and not, as Venturi supposes, to 
that of the whole work. Landino supposes this 
hidden meaning to be, that in the case of those 
vices which proceed from incontinence and intem- 

perance, reason, which is figured under the person 
of Virgil, with the ordinary grace of God, may be a 
sufficient safeguard ; but that in the instance of 
more heinous crimes, such as those we shall here- 
after see punished, a special grace, represented by 
the angel, is requisite for our defence." 

Scartazzini's note coincides with my own : 
"I piu riferiscono questa terzina ai versi ante- 
cedenti, cioe all' allegoria di Medusa e delle tre 
furie. Dante suole per6 richiamare in tal modo 
P attenzione del lettore a ci6 che star per dire ; cf. 
' Purg.' viii. 19 e seg. ; ix. 70 e seg. ; ' Par.' ii. 1 e seg., 
&c. Se la terzina si riferisce a quello che segue, il 
senso potrebbe essere : Mirate quanto e piccolo e 
folle il pih orgoglioso potere quando vuol resistere 
al principle d' ogni vero potere che & 1' Essere eterno !" 

Lombardi's text differs from Scartazzini's in 
the elision of the e and i in che (first line) and . 
il (third line) : a minor variance, but more in 
obedience to scansion ; while their comments 
agree in substance. But Bianchi favours the 
opinions of both Prof. Tomlinson and Venturi, 
tnough his text follows Lombardi's in the 
omission of the i. The position, then, this 
tercet occupies in this canto is more admoni- 
tory than parenthetical, called for, in Dante's 
judgment, by its allegorical character, a 
character closely allied to the "noble gro- 
tesque " which, as Ruskin acknowledges, 

"in Dante the central man of all the world, as 
representing in perfect balance the imaginative, 
moral, and intellectual faculties all at their highest 
reaches at once the most distinct and the most 
noble development to which it was ever brought in 
the human mind" (' Stones of Venice,' ii. 207). 

2. Ibid., 98, 99 : 
Cerbero vostro, se ben vi ricorda, 
Ne porta ancor pelato il mento e '1 gozzo. 

The altogether unnecessary fuss over this 
passage alone tempts me to advert to it, 
thougn in so doing the clamour may be 
unduly emphasized. Thus Gary has a fling 
at Lombardi : 

" Your Cerberus, if ye remember, hence 
Bears still, peel'd of their hair, his throat and 


Cerberus is feigned to have been drugged by 
Hercules, bound with a threefold chain, of which, 
says the angel, he still bears the mark. Lombardi 
blames the other interpreters for having supposed 
that the angel attributes this exploit to Hercules, a 
fabulous hero, rather than to our Saviour. It would 
seem as if the good father had forgotten that Cer- 
berus is himself no less a creature of the imagina- 
tion than the hero who encountered him." 

The Anglican vicar certainly scores a point 
with the Italian Franciscan, but cui bono ? 
Tnough a ravenous three -headed watchdog 
the " Hound of Hell "at the gates of Dis 
(rvp/i?pos=devourer of flesh), he was as harm- 
less, in his mythological dignity, as modern 
" Cerebos salt," and it is really very immate- 
rial by what agency his "throat and ma\y" 


[9 th S. II. JULY 9, '< 

were despoiled of hair. To ^Eneas he was 
only the " canis triceps " and 

ingcns janitor antro 
Sternum latrans, exsangues terreat umbras, 

nor was he much more to Dante. But if the 
loss of his hair redounds to the credit of 
Hercules, by forming a valuable addition to 
his list of legendary deeds, no one begrudges 
him the honour. The Augean stable will not, 
however, be cleansed by it. Ovid also per- 
petuates the fable. 

3. Ibid., 101 : 

E non fe' motto a noi. 

Lombard i has a curious note on this which is 
worth reproducing : 

"Non ci disse parola: non a Virgilio, per esser 
dannato ; non a Dante, perocche esse pure soggetto 
odioso all' angelo pe' grevi vizi de' quali supponesi 
reo, e che per quell' andata, o sia meditazione dell' 
Inferno, intendeva di purgare. Solo perci6 nel 
Purgatorio incominciano gli angeli a parlar con 

This hardly accounts for the silence (at least 
to Virgil), inasmuch as the angel if angel it 
were did speak to lost souls. The "altra 
cura" of the next line is to me a clearer 
explanation of the difficulty, if difficulty there 
be. Scartazzini rightly thinks so too : 

" II messo del cielo non fa che eseguire quanto 
Dio gli ha ordinato, e cio nel dato caso non e che 
di aprire le porte di Dite. Onde cgli non ha nulla 
da dire ne a Virgilio, n6 a Dante. 'Non fecit 
verbum nobis, quia nobis serviverat opere' 

4. Ibid., 115: 

Fanno i sepolcri tuttoi 1 loco varo. 
Many have been puzzled by the " loco varo " 
of this line. The " di superficie ineguale per 
la terra qua e la ammucchiata " of Scartazzini 
explains it sufficiently. It is simply " varo " 
for vario (as in ' Purg.,' viii. 95, " avversaro " 
for avversario), the ^ having been knocked 
out of it to make it scan with "amaro." 
More important are the references either 
suggested by the unequal appearance of the 
place or requisitioned as prototypes. Aries 
and Pola were, no doubt, familiar to Dante, 
and their sepulchres seem to have impressed 
him. The latter was a city of Istria, near 
the Gulf of Quarnero on the Adriatic, the 
Sinus Flanaticus of the Romans. As to the 
Provencal city, Ario.stowas ('Orlando Furioso,' 
xxxix. 1-2) similarly struck Avith the fact : 
Che presso ad Arli piena di sepolture e la campagna. 
"These sepulchres," says Gary, "are men- 
tioned in the life of Charlemagne which 
goes under the name of Archbishop Turpin, 
cap. xxviii. and xxx., and T>y Fazio degli 
Uberti, Dittamondo, 1. iv. cap. xxi." And 
Lombard! adds, " Dicelo (Turpino) benedetto 

da setta santi Vescovi." Note, however, that 
Dante strikes an essential difference between 
the earthly and infernal graves (rest and 
torment) by 

Salvo che il modo v' era piii amaro, &c. 

5. Ibid., 127 : 

Qul son gli eresiarche 
Co' lor seguaci, d' ogiri setta, e, molto 
Piu che non credi, son le tombe carche. 
The comments of Lombardi and Bianchi on 
eresiarche are samples of hypercriticism. 
Says the former, "eresiarche per eresiarchi, 
antitesi alcuna volta anticamente praticata" : 
and the latter, " 1 nostri antichi traevano il 
plurale in e dai nomi mascolini terminati in a 
al singolare, imitando la prima declinazione 
latina." But even if philologically the word 
might merit a little ink spilt over it, it is the 
root-thought which is of surpassing interest. 
The statement is as much the product of 
contemporary history as of the poet's detesta- 
tion of heresy. Florence was at the time, 
somewhat like Ephesus at the period of the 
Apocalyptic message from Patmos, honey- 
combed with heresies, chiefly by the sect of 
the Epicureans, which occasioned frequent 
contentions amongst its citizens, and Dante 
gratified alike his historical penchant and 
abhorrence of theological error by consign- 
ing the heresiarchs to the warm region of 
the Sixth Circle. Cf. G. Vill., iv. 30, quoted 
by Scartazzini. 

6. Though not connected with the above 
notes, it will be of interest to supplement 
them by the following cutting from the 
Manchester Evening News of 4 Jan., which I 
leave to speak for itself : 

"Mr. Gladstone on Dante. An Irishman the 
Inspirer of the 'Divine Comedy.' The Rome cor 
respondent of the Daily Teleriraph writes : ' Wa 
Dante a plagiarist? Is he indebted to others for 
the ideas of his ' Divine Comedy,' and to what 
extent did he pick the minds of his contemporaries 
and predecessors ? This is the literary problem of 
the day in Italy, and Mrs. Mulhall, the wife of the 
well-known statistician, has undertaken to solve it. 
That lady is now in Rome, making researches at the 
Vatican Library, and is, it is said, the first lady 
who has ever gone there for the purposes of study. 
The theory under examination is this : Did Dante 
receive his inspiration from the legend of the Irish 
St. Fursey, which the Venerable Bede had done 
into Latin and rendered popular throughout 
Europe? Bede is certainly the only Englishman 
mentioned in the ' Divine Comedy,' and Mrs. Mul- 
hall conjectures that Dante was familiar with his 
works. This view would seem to receive support 
from Mr. Gladstone's theory that Dante visited 
England. The eminent British statesman, in accept- 
ing a copy of Mrs. Mulhall's essay on the subject, 
writes as follows: "I feel in debt to you for your 
article. It is, indeed, of great interest, and the 

B ~esumptions you raise appear to be important, 
ante's being acquainted with a remote local saint, 

9 th S. II. JULY 9, '98.] 


such as Bede, is of itself remarkable, and if it \vas 
due to his studying in England, as I am inclined to 
believe he did, then England may have furnished 
the thread which brought into his view the root- 
idea of his poem." ' 

Would not the " root-idea " have been really 
furnished by Ireland, if the hypothesis be 
sustainable ? But no one will begrudge Eng- 
land the "thread." Who, by the way, is 
St. Fursey ? J. B. S. 


Whatever may be said in favour of the sub- 
jective method of determining the chrono- 
logy of Shakespeare's plays adopted bv the 
' Historical English Dictionary,' there should 
be, at least, consistency in its application. 
That this has not been observed the follow- 
ing references will show : 

'Hamlet,' under 'Aboard' is dated 1602, under 
'A' 1604. 

' 1 Henry IV.,' under ' Afar' is dated 1597, under 
' Back ' 1596. 

'Henry VIII.,' under 'A' is dated 1613, under 
'Abode ^1603. 

'Julius Cajsar,' under 'A' is dated 1601, under 
'Abide '1607. 

' Macbeth,' under ' Abed 
' Catch ' 1560 ! 

'Pericles,' under 'Aboard 
'Belfry' 1601. 

'Richard II.,' under 'A' 
'Castle '1597. 

' Tempest,' under 'Abjure 
'Cat' 1600. 

' Timon,' under ' Back ' is dated 1607, under 
' Chaff' c. 1600. 

' Two Gentlemen,' under ' Abridge ' is dated 1590, 
under ' Catch ' 1591. 

It may be mentioned, though probably 
known to your readers, that there is not any 
edition of any of the above plays correspond- 
ing to the dates given, except as to the 1604 
' Hamlet' (Q. 2) and the 1597 'Richard II.' (Q.I). 
Doubtless the dates assigned are the result of 
some well-considered system, but seeing that 
Shakespeare's literary career was compara- 
tively snort, a date corresponding to that of 
Shakespeare's literary activity, viz., 1588-1613, 
would have avoided the anomalies observable 
in the dates given in the 'Historical Eng- 
lish Dictionary ' to the various plays, and 
answered the purposes of the ' Dictionary ' 
from an historical point of view equally well. 

5, Sussex Place, N.W. 

Ross AND ROSE. In the British Museum 
'Catalogue of Seals' (vol. iv. pp. 540-3) are 
described various seals which are ascribed to 
the " family of Ros' and Ross." Would it not 
have been preferable to say families of Ross 

is dated 1605, under 

' is dated 1608, under 

is dated 1593, under 

is dated 1610, under 

and Rose ? It would seem that in the north- 
east of Scotland there were two distinct 
families, the one of Scottish, the other of 
Norman descent. The ancient Earls of Ross 
were doubtless Scottish, while the Roses of 
Kilravock and their numerous collaterals 
were assuredly of Norman or English ex- 
traction. It is true that the name in early 
deeds was written indifferently by each family 
Ros or Ross, but there are not wanting in- 
dications here and there of the different origin 
of the names, as, for instance, the occasional 
use of " le Ros " by the Norman family, instead 
of the " de Ros " invariably employed by the 
Scottish Rosses. 

When dealing with heraldic seals it is, 
indeed, easy to determine to which family 
they pertained, for the Scottish Rosses always 
bore three lions rampant, while the Norman 
Roses invariably in trod uced the water-bougets 
which had been assumed by the Anglo-Norman 
family of de Ros on the marriage of one of 
them with the heiress of Trusbut of Wartre, 
who bore " trois bout/ d'eau " three butts of 
water (Planche). It would, therefore, perhaps 
have been more satisfactory to separate the 
Ros seals in accordance with these facts. 

In the ' Catalogue,' No. 16,798 is ascribed 
to Hugh Ros, Baron Ros, the legend being 
" S hugonis ros baronis." Laing (' Catalogue,' 
No. 703) justly regards the legend as singular, 
" giving the rank, without other designation," 
but he does not describe Hugh as Baron Ros, 
and doubtless was aware of the fact that he 
was the feudal Baron of Kilravock. The seal 
of Muriella de Ros (No. 16,802) gives on a 
shield a water-bouget, and in chief three 
mullets, " for Ros," says the ' Catalogue '; but 
probably only the water-bouget was for Ros, 
the three mullets representing the paternal 
arms of Doun, and having nothing to do with 
the lady's spouse, Sir William de Ros of 
Kilravock. The stars of Moravia, indeed, are 
ubiquitous in the north-east of Scotland, and 
very likely Andrew de Doun, Muriella's father, 
derived both his property and his arms from 
some well-dowered daughter of the house of 

As regards No. 16,803 of the ' Catalogue,' 
the legend is said to be " uncertain " and the 
seal " doubtful." Might not this seal, which 

apparently has "W Ross" legible, and 

for arms a fess between three water-bougets, 
be that of Walter Ros of Kinstary, who in 
1513 certainly sealed with these arms? 


ous work published in 1867, entitled 'Criminal 
Chronology of York Castle,' mention is made 



[9 th S. II. JULY 9, ' 

of Isabella Billington, of Pocklingtqn, aged 
thirty-two, who, it seems, was convicted in 
1649 of crucifying her mother and of offering 
a calf and a cock as a burnt sacrifice. Her 
husband was hanged for participating in her 
crime (p. 29). Have the depositions in this 
case or any account of the trial been pre- 
served 1 The natural explanation of such an 
outrage in these days would be that the 
perpetrators of it were insane. This, how- 
ever, only in part accounts for what hap- 
pened ; moreover, two persons dp not 
commonly go mad on the same subject at 
the same time and in the same form. To me 
it seems to be a very late survival of the rite 
of human sacrifice. EDWARD PEACOCK. 
Dunstan House, Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

HOCKTIDE CUSTOMS. The following cutting 
from a daily paper is of interest : 

"Old-fashioned Hungerford is once more cele- 
brating Hocktide with all its quaint customs and 
ancient ceremonies. This interesting ceremony 
began with the annual ' macaroni supper,' and will 
be continued to-day, when the two managers of the 
rival banks, who have been elected ' tuttimen ' for 
the ensuing year, go round to the houses of the 
tenants in the town and exercise their prerogative 
of kissing all the ladies in each house. Hungerford 
is one of the last remaining unreformed boroughs of 
England, and still retains its ancient official nomen- 
clature, electing to have, in the place of mayor and 
corporation, a constable, a portreeve, a keeper of 
the coffers, an hayward, two ale-tasters, and a bell- 
man. The tuttimen (who are also collectors of the 
poll-tax) have from time immemorial called at every 
house in the borough, and received from each in- 
habitant, if he be male, a penny, and in the case of 
the ladies a kiss, the ceremony being announced 
from the balcony of the town hall by a blast from 
the Hungerford horn blown by the bellman. After- 
wards a dinner is held, at which the officers for the 
ensuing year are elected." 

Why should there be a "macaroni supper"? 
This must arise from contact with a Latin 
nation ; or was macaroni a Saxon dish? 



name is mentioned on p. 158 of that most 
useful book 'Scottish Land-Names,' by Sir 
Herbert Maxwell, but only casually, and 
without etymology. Should this meet the 
eye of the learned author I shall feel obliged 
if he (or any other reader) can suggest a 
possible derivation for it. Its oldest recorded 
spelling, I believe, is Lochquhinzeoch, where 
the nz no doubt stands for ny, as it does in 
Kirkgunzeon, pronounced Kirkgunnion. 


" TIT-TAT-TO." This well-known game is 
described in Cassell's 'Book of Sports and 
Pastimes,' p. 829, among the ' Slate Games.' 

In the Century Dictionary' the deriva- 

tion is given from tit, tat, to, " three meaning- 
less words " used in counting. 

However, the East Friesic name (see Kool- 
man's ' E. Fr. Diet.') is tik-tak-tuk, evidently 
a more original form. In this name the 
word tik has the same sense as E. tick, a mark, 
in allusion to the mark made by the player 
on the slate : while tak, tuk are variants 
of the same theme, made on the principle of 
altering the vowel, as in Germanic verbs of 
the third strong conjugation, such as sing, 
sang, sung. 

Hence the name is by no means "meaning- 
less," but has an obvious reference to the 
ticks, or marks, made by the players ; and the 
word is threefold, instead of reduplicated, 
because the object of the game is to make 
three ticks in a row. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

CAXON : CAXIN. (See ' The Howard MSS.,' 
9 th S. i. 401.) The 'H. E. D.' is not within 
my reach ; but the ' Encyc. Diet.' says : " From 
the name of a celebrated maker of wigs. A 
wig." (Cf. Fr. gibus =hat.) 

"Taking the proffered caxon He looked dis- 
dainfully at the wig ; it had once been a comely 
jasey enough, of the colour of over-baked ginger- 
bread, one of the description commonly known 
during the latter half of the last century by the 
name of a 'brown George.'" 'Jerry Jarvis's Wig,' 
' Ingoldsby Legends.' 

Where "brown George" is the "particular 
sort of wig," and " caxon " and "jasey " mere 
wigs in general. THOMAS J. JEAKES. 

[The 'H. E. D.' says, "?from the personal sur- 
name Caxon. A kind of wig, now obsolete."] 

WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be addressed to 
them direct. 

" HORSE-MARINE." " On a Torse a Demy 
Horse-Marine" (London Gazette, 1705, No. 4162, 
col. 4). What may this be ? I have no con- 
text. The London Gazette does not seem 
the place to look for small jocularities such 
as we usually associate with this word. 


70, Banbury Road, Oxford. 

" BALLY." This modern slang term mean- 
ing very, exceedingly is not noticed in the 
'English Dialect Dictionary,' or any other 
dictionary I am acquainted with. A sugges- 
tion that it is a mitigated form of " bloody " 
does not seem very probable. Is anything 
known of its origin ? A. SMYTHE PALMER, 

South Woodford. . 

9 th S. II. JULY 9, '98.] 



the following in Coles's 'Latin Dictionary 
(ed. 1679) : " Cignitus, the Drenching or Cry- 
ing of a Swan." I should be glad to hear of 
any other quotation for " drenching " in this 
sense, or to receive information about its use 
in any English dialect. A. L. MAYHEW. 

THACKERAY'S LATIN. In a letter of Thacke- 
ray written in May, 1832, and quoted by Mrs. 
Eitchie in her introduction to the third 
volume of the Biographical Edition of her 
father's works, I find (p. 28) the line : 
O matutini roses aura que salubres ! 
It has clearly suffered in transcription. Can 
any one tell me what are the correct words, 
and in what Latin author (if any) the line is 
to be found ? M. T. 

clever old lady, aged eighty-six, to whose 
company I have often been indebted for 
pleasant hours, recently told me that between 
sixty and seventy years ago she remembered 
seeing two pictures in a London shop window 
with the following verses appended. My old 
friend could not at the time see the con- 
nexion between the lines and the pictures, 
and has always been puzzled as to the "story" 
told by each. The matter is a trivial one, but 
I should like to gratify both my old friend 
and myself by identifying the pictures and 
verses if possible. Mr. Graves cannot help 
me, although it is believed that it was in his 
window that the pictures were seen : 

Wilt thou ? I know thou wilt, 

Sad Silence gives consent, 

And with that pleasing hope 

Thy Emma dies content. 
The bridal is over, the guests are all gone, 
The bride's only sister sits weeping alone. 
The wreath of white roses is torn from her brow, 
And the heart of the bridesmaid is desolate now. 

These both read like T. Haynes Bayly ; but 
beyond 'Gaily the Troubadour' I do not 
possess his works. Please answer direct. 

246, Barry Road, Dulwich, S.E. 

MONTGOMERY. I am anxious to find the 
names of the deputy lieutenants for this 
county between about 1800 and 1833. Can 
any reader help me 1 THOS. J. DA VIES. 

" JACK-UP- THE-ORCHARD." What is the 
origin of this expression, used in Hereford- 
shire, and perhaps other counties, metapho- 
rically for a beating ? " I '11 give thee Jack- 
up-the-orchard " (or " orchatj" as commonly 
pronounced) signifies " I '11 give thee a good 
trouncing." Can it be, as I suspect a good 

many such popular figures of speech are, a 
corrupt survival of some phrase from a now 
forgotten geste or play ? J. H. 

Middle Temple Library. 

CHINESE PUNISHMENTS. I shall be pleased 
to learn where I can find in English books 
pictures of Chinese punishments. 


The Hull Press, Hull. 

' Essays' there occurs the following quotation : 

Prisca juvent alios, ego me nunc denique natum 


I remember many years ago reading the 
following couplet, the author of which I have 
forgotten. I always imagined it was an 
original thought; out it is now apparent 
that it emanates from Rome : 

The good of other times let other people state ; 

I think me lucky I was born so late. 
Will any of your learned readers furnish me 
with the names of the Roman and English 
authors of these lines ? M. L. BRESLAR. 

Percy House, South Hackney. 

In Burke's 'Landed Gentry,' ed. 1863, the 
Right Hon. Charles Tennyson d'Eyncourt, of 
Bayons Manor, who died on 21 July, 1861, is 
spoken of as " a statesman, scholar, and poet." 
Can any of your readers direct my attention 
to any poetry of his ? It is said that he also 
wrote a novel ; but I have not hitherto been 
able to identify it. In fact, I do not know 
that the statement is correct. 


Dunstan House, Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

' EOTHEN.' If any one possesses the second 
or third edition of ' Eothen,' I shall be very 
much obliged by his communicating with me. 
Neither is in the British Museum. 


Waltham Rectory, Grimsby. 

with Dr. Jacob, J.P., of Ripon, I am editing 
a volume of tributary poems to Gladstone. 
May I ask readers of ' N. & Q.' to send me 
any poems which may have come under their 
notice ? Answers direct. 


Hanover Square,' Bradford. 

FLANDERS, 1793-4. Where can I find a good 
history of this? I have only Hume and 
Smollett's 'England,' and the account there 
is most meagre. In the Quarterly Review, 
January, 1885, I came across an account of 
one of the battles there fought, that on the 
heights of Cateau, 26 April, 1794: 


[9 th S. II. JULY 9, 'S 

" John Mansel, Colonel of the 3rd Dragoon 
Guards, directed by General Otto, attacked the 
French in the valley of Cawdry and defeated them. 
He then rushed at the head of his brigade against 
a battery of fourteen cannon placed on an eminence 
behind a deep ravine, into which many of the front 
rank fell. His charge met with complete success, but 
at the mouth of this battery General Mansel, after 
having three horses killed under him, received his 
death wound ; one grape shot entered his chin, 
fracturing his spine and coming out between his 
shoulder, while another broke his arm to splinters." 

Some sixty years later, on the occasion of 
the heroic Balaclava Charge, Lord Ellen- 
borough said in the House of Lords : 

" I know not the instance, although it may exist, 
in which cavalry has before charged the cavalry, 
infantry, and artillery belonging to a powerful army 
in position. I have never heard of such a thing, 
and I do not believe it has existed." 

General Mansel's grandson instantly sup" 
plied the Times with the details of the fore" 
going far more splendid achievement, 
whereby 1,500 of the British cavalry gained 
a complete victory over 22,000 men in sight of 
their corps de reserve, consisting of 5,000 men 
and twenty pieces of cannon.* History does 
not furnish a parallel instance of valour. 

I have also the records of the 3rd Dragoon 
Guards, and the Duke of York's despatch on 
the occasion gives the following : 

"Heights above Gateau, 26 April, 1794. 

" SIR, It is from the field of battle that I have 
the satisfaction to acquaint you for His Majesty's 
information, &c. 

" The enemy, General Chapuy, is taken prisoner, 
and we are masters of thirty-five of the enemy's 
cannon. The behaviour of ttie British cavalry has 
been beyond all x>raise, &c. 

" The only officers of whom I have any informa- 
tion as yet, and who, I believe, are all that have 
fallen upon this occasion, are Major-General Mansel, 
Captain Pigott, and Lieutenant Fellowes, of the 
3rd Dragoon Guards." 

Surely there must have been heavy fighting 
similar to this before or after 26 April, 1794, 
and I should much like to know where I can 
find a history of it and the whole campaign. 

Abiugton Pigotts. 

KUBENS AND EAPHAEL. It is stated in the 
life of Eubens that, for reasons known to his 
first wife (Isabel Brant) and Van Dyke, after 
her death he placed her in Gehenna, in his 
'Last Judgment,' amongst the condemned. 
Was he not following the lead of Raphael, 
who in his ' Last Judgment ' (in my posses- 
sion) placed (1) a lady (fair) in the arms of 
(2) his Satanic Majesty (an Italian with black 

* See a letter to the Times of 20 Jan., 1855, signed 
H. L. M. ," quoting from the Evening Mail, 14 May, 

1794. This paper I cannot find in the British 


beard and moustache) ; while (3) a male 
attendant (fallen angel, of course, but with a 
very intelligent face) is raising up preparatory 
to carrying down (4) a male figure 1 Another 
(5) amongst the condemned is encircled by a 
huge serpent. These last (4 and 5) have the 
portraits of Cardinals Rossi and Jules de 
Medicis ; their portraits as attendants on 
Leo X. are in the Pitti Palace. Raphael has 
placed Leo X. amongst the blessed, in the 
highest rank, in this ' Last Judgment.' Can 
any one supply the names of the owners of 
the faces Nos. 1, 2, and 3 ? GEO. ESDAILE. 
Platt-in-Rusholme, Manchester. 

VINCENT MEGGS. Can somebody help one 
of our American cousins by giving informa- 
tion, or a clue to information, respecting 
Vincent Meigs, or Meggs ? With his sons 
John and Mark, and possibly a third son 
Vincent, he emigrated to America about 1640, 
and died in 1658. Hitherto his descendants 
have not succeeded in finding out his native 
place. It does not appear to have been Brad- 
ford Peverel, Dorset, an old seat of a family 
of the name in question. Letters will be 
very welcome to me. H. J. MOULE. 


COLIN TAMPON. Who was Colin Tampon ; 
and why is this the national nickname for a 
Swiss 1 Is it anything to do with the French 
tampo?i, a plug or bung ? It is not given in 
either B. E. Smith's ' Cyclopaedia of Names ' 
or Frey's 'Nicknames.' J. H. McMiCHAEL. 

REV. WILLIAM DAUNTON. He was rector 
of Stourmouth, 1599-1605, when he died. 
Further particulars wanted. 


Wingham, Kent. 

quotes Sneridan's famous mot, " The right 
honourable gentleman is indebted to his 
memory for his jests, and to his imagination 
for his facts," from " speech in the House of 
Commons in reply to Mr. Dundas." An exact 
reference will be of value to the ' Historical 
English Dictionary.' ROBT. J. WHITWELL. - 

70, Banbury Road, Oxford. 

" FLAM." What are the origin and meaning 
of a military word " flam," no longer, I think, 
known to soldiers ? I see that it occurs 
constantly in a pamphlet, ' Explanation of 
the Eighteen Manoeuvres,' 8vo. 51 pp., n.d., 
printed by C. Mottley, Portsmouth, which I 
picked up recently at an Edinburgh book- 
stall. Thus when a square (manoeuvre vi.) 
receives the caution " Prepare to fire," the 
"remarks" state that "on the flam" the 

9 th S. II. JULY 9, '98.] 


standing ranks commence independent firing, 
&c. ; and in manoeuvre xiv., when the hollow 
square receives the caution " Prepare to fire," 
the " remarks " explain that " at the flam the 
front rank kneels and instantly commences 
firing, &c." From one of the " remarks " on the 
seventeenth manoeuvre, " On the 11am at the 
close of the preparative the rear ranks close 
up," I think it must have been, and perhaps 
still is, a term descriptive of a beat or roll of 
the drum. I believe that I am right in saying 
that when I joined the service, thirty-nine 
years ago, bugle sounds were still in existence 
for each of the " motions " of the old manual 
and platoon exercises ; and probably the 
" flam " was of the same class of martial music. 
Perhaps some of your military readers could 
tell us whether the pamphlet I quote from 
was an official exposition of Dundas's drill- 
book. J. M. T. 
[Flam is of uncertain origin. See ' H. E. D.'] 

VANITY FAIR. Is there any mention of 
Vanity Fair earlier than its occurrence in the 
' Pilgrim's Progress ' 1 The first edition of 
that work appeared in 1678. Sir Walter 
Scott's 'Old Mortality' relates to the year 
1679. Therein the author makes Balfour of 
Burleigh speak of " a gittern to soothe the 
ears of the dancing daughters of perdition in 
their Vanity Fair" (chap, xxiii.). It is not 
very likely that Banyan's work had made 
its way into Scotland in so short a time after 
its publication; and even if it had done so, 
there was scant space for Vanity Fair to have 
become a popular phrase representing harm- 
ful frivolity. ASTARTE. 

some of the memoirs of Mr. Gladstone he 
is spoken of as a Scotchman. I am aware 
that he claimed for himself the name of a 
Scot ; but this by no means settles the ques- 
tion. He was born in England. He was 
undoubtedly of English race. This is proved 
by his purely English name, his characteristic- 
ally English physique, and the grave and 
earnest cast of his mind. There was nothing 
of the Celt about him. How is nationality to 
be determined, if not by race and birthplace 1 
The Lowland Scots are surely the very flower 
of the English race. EVANDER. 

Of what Lloyd family was he ? He was son 
of Meredith Lloyd " of Carnarvonshire." Who 
was his wife ? SIGMA TAU. 

"JEREMIAD." Will some reader of 'N. & Q.' 
give me instances of the early use of this 
word ; also of its introduction in a sarcastic 
sense? GUSTOS. 



(8 th S. xi. 387- ; xii. 421 ; 9 th S. i. 10, 

92, 231.) 

IN my last letter I established the sound- 
ness of my objections to the method adopted 
by MR. STEVENSON in his attack upon Kemble, 
and I indicated the existence of a body of 
testimony proving that the lloman method 
of computing Easter by means of the era of 
the Incarnation was known in Southern Ire- 
land from 629 and in Northern England from 
664 onward. In this one, with your permis- 
sion, I will shortly review the controversy. 

Kemble (' C. D.,' i. p. Ixx) pointed out that 
"the orderly and digested series of events 
arrranged according to certain definite and 
systematic dates commenced with Augus- 
tine," and he judged, for reasons that have 
never been refuted, that the era employed 
was that of the Incarnation, and that it was 
introduced into England by Augustine. MR. 
STEVENSON, in the note to the 'Crawford 
Charters ' so often referred to, attacked 
Kemble, and asserted that "this era was 
brought into use by Bseda," and that it is " not 
likely that Augustine would introduce [it] 
into England." One of your correspondents, 
with direct reference to MR. STEVENSON'S 
views, put the question whether " it is 
known in what era the English monks 
dated the year before the use of the era of 
the Incarnation was known to them." You 
permitted me to reply to this query ; and 
after quoting the opinions of French as well 
as German scholars, and dealing with some of 
the original authorities, I was able to reaffirm 
Kemble's belief. MR. STEVENSON replied ; 
but though he has twice written in the 
columns of 'N. & Q.,' he has not answered the 
query with which this discussion commenced. 
In his first letter he ignored it now he says 
that the question is " that of the use of the 
era for legal and historical dating." Having 
altered the form of the question and restricted 
it to two categories, he invites me to prove 
that he is wrong in asserting that Augustine 
did not introduce the era of our Lord by 
producing a charter or legal document of the 
seventh century that is dated in that era. I 
must decline to advance towards what I 
regard as a new position. MR. STEVENSON 

gives an air of reality to his change of front 
y thus professing to be ready to defend what 
I have no intention of attacking, to wit, Prof. 
Earle's judgment that no undoubted charter 
of the seventh century is dated in the era of 



[9 th S. I-I. JULY 9, ' 

the Incarnation,* and by inattentively attri- 
buting to me an unreasonable assumption, to 

wit, the " apparently obvious conclusion 

that the use of the Dionysian Easter tables 
implies and is identical with the use of the 
Dionysian era for the dating of legal and 
historical documents." But I think he only 
succeeds in confusing the issue that Kemble, 
your correspondent of May, 1897, and myself 
(9 th S. i. 92) have stated with sufficient 
clearness. The grounds that ME. STEVEN- 
SON indicates in order to prove that I 
have entertained the alleged assumption are 

I have referred to: 

(8 th S. xii. 421) "The 
fact that Gregory's let ters 
are not dated with the 
year of our Lord." 

(Ibid., p. 422) "The 
error made by Kemble 
respecting the dating of 
Gregory's letters." 

(9 th S. i. 93) " Kemble 
certainly was in error in 

referring to believe that 
t. Gregory's letters are 
dated in the era of the 

(9 th S. i. 232):- 

sumes that because the 
Roman Church used the 
Dionysian Easter tables 
in the time of St. Gre- 
gory, therefore that 
Pope must have used 
the Didnysian era for 
dating purposes. Now 
as a matter of fact we 
know that the Papal 
chancery did not use 
this era and that Gre- 
gory dated his letters by 
the imperial and con- 
sular years and by indic- 

1 assume legitimately that Gregory, in 
order to compute the date of Easter, ex- 
tracted the golden number, the epact, and the 
concurrent day from the era-year devised by 
Dionysius for computistical purposes, and I 
have asked MR. STEVENSON, who appeared to 
think otherwise, to inform me what era-year 
Gregory used if it was not the Dionysian. 
He evaded the question, and the mistake he 
made in doing so, and my correction of it, are 
recorded in these columns. 

MR. STEVENSON has said that my conclusion 
that the era of the Incarnation was intro- 
duced by St. Augustine in A.D. 597, and has 
been used ever since by the Church of Canter- 
bury in computing the date of Easter is an 
inconsequent one. Now I gather from a 
foot-note that MR. STEVENSON has followed 
my subsequent suggestion and has re- 
examined his position. Dr. Bruno Krusch, 
in his article on the introduction of Alex- 
andrine Paschal methods of computation into 
Western Europe, lias afforded a great deal of 

But compare this note of MR. STEVENSON'S, 
'Crawford Charters,' p. 46: "There is an early 
example [of the use of the era of the Incarnation], 
not mentioned by Prof. Earle, in Baldred of Mercia's 
charter of 681 (' C. S.,' i. 96), which is preserved in a 
very early if not contemporary copy. 

light. MR. STEVENSON appeals to Krusch, and 
this is what Krusch says : 

" In Rome, the Paschal computation of Dionysius 
was the ruling one at the end of the sixth century, 
under the pontificate of Gregory I. This also, to 
be sure, does not appear from Roman documents, 
but it undoubtedly follows from the history of the 
conversion of England by Augustine."* 

I am pleased to find that MR. STEVENSON 
accepts the opinion of Krusch, for now he 
will permit me to say that it is, at least, 
"likely" that Augustine would introduce 
the Dionysian era when he introduced the 
Dionysian Paschal method. MR. STEVENSON 
will not give way all at once, though ; he still 
has two arguments and a suggestion to urge 
why we should deny the simultaneous intro- 
duction of the era and the method. 

His first argument is conveyed by the state- 
ment that Dionysius " dates the first year of 
his cycle by the indiction and by the con- 
sular year." This is in direct opposition to 
my statement that the years of this cycle are 
dated in the era of the Incarnation. MR. 
STEVENSON'S authority is not the Dionysian 
Paschal cycle itself, but Jan, who wrote in 
1715. The text of Dionysius's Paschal cycle 
in Migne's ' Fathers ' (vol. Ixvii. col. 495) was 
derived from (among others) the Digby MS. 
63 (Bodl.) and the Colbert MS. MXX., and a 
specimen of the latter is given at col. 479. 
In Migne's text all the numerals of the years 
from the first (pxxxn.) to the last (DCXXVI.) 
as I have said of them already, upon the 
highest authority, viz., that of Bede are 
placed in the first column of the table 
under the heading "Anni Domini Nostri 
Jesu Christi." Wherever these lists went 
there would be seen and known the order of 
the years named as the years of our Lord and 
dated from His Incarnation. MR. STEVENSON 
suggests that where I say " Paschal computa- 
tion by the use of the Dionysian era in Eng- 
land in the seventh century " he may read 
" by the use of the Dionysian tables." The 
Dionysian era cannot be dismissed in this 
way. MR. STEVENSON should know that we 
" inspect " tables, and that we cannot compute 
without an era. In early times it was the 
bounden duty of ecclesiastics to acquire the 
art of computation, and it is now the duty of 
diplomatists to do so, seeing that it is their 

* "In Rom war am Ende des 6 Jahrh. unter clem 
Pontificat Gregors I. die Osterberechnung des 
Dionysius die herrschende. Freilich lasst sich auch 
dies nicht aus den romischen Denkmalern erkennen ; 
es geht aber zweifellos aus der Geschichte der Bekeh- 
rung Britanniens durch Augustinushervor." I think 
that Krusch would have said vorherrschende if he 
had meant " predominant," and had intended to 
suggest that there was a second method in use. 

9 th S. II. JtrLY9,'98.J 


business to explain the complex methods o' 
chronography anciently employed in dating 
legal and historical documents. 

The learned Jan is cited again by MR. STEVEN- 
SON in order that he may assure us that there 
is no instance of the use of the Dionysian era 
in public documents before 742, when the 
Englishman Boniface (i. e., Winfrid, a native 
of Creditpn, who went on the Continent in 
715) presided over a council in Germany. 
This is curious, because the first of the 'Craw- 
ford Charters ' is the public document, dated 
A.D. 739, from which we learn that land 
was granted by King ^Ethelhard to Forth- 
here, Bishop of Sherborne, for the foundation 
of Crediton monastery. 

By MR. STEVENSON'S second argument I am 
to understand that it is a fallacy to suppose, 
as I do, that the fathers of the sixth and 
seventh centuries used the era of the Incar- 
nation for computing the indiction, the reason 
given being that there is a canon for com- 
puting the year of the Incarnation itself 
from the indiction. One would suppose 
that two canons made proof doubly sure. 
The discovery of the date of a year in the era 
of the Incarnation, by the method referred to, 
depends upon the knowledge of the date of 
an earlier indiction in the same era. The 
canon of Cassiodorus, for instance, required 
the ^computist (a) to know how many in- 
dictions had elapsed since the consulship of 
Basil Junior, and (b) to bear in mind that 
that consulship fell in a certain year of our 
Lord which is given in the canon. The fact 
that the Computus Paschalis of Cassiodorus 
was, as MR. STEVENSON admits, brought up to 
date, proves a great deal more than the use 
of the "writings" of Dionysius it proves 
the use of the era he invented. 

What I have said with respect to the argu- 
ments that MR. STEVENSON has advanced will, 
I think, show that Kemble had good reason 
for saying (' C. D.,' i. p. Ixxii) that " those 
who argue that the era of the Incarnation 
was not introduced into England until the 

time of Beda appear to have no sound 

grounds for their belief." I regret that MR. 
STEVENSON did not support his theory that 
Bede was the "restorer" of the use of the 
Dionysian era by giving reasons from Prof. 
Riihl s recently publishea work (which I have 
not yet seen), instead of by quoting the 
learned Jan, who wrote in 1715. 


P.S. I have omitted to correct MR. STEVEN- 
SON'S supposition (9 th S. i. 232) that Bede did 
not use the era of the Incarnation in works 
written before 725. In the ' De Temporibus ' 
(c. xiv.) Bede dates the year in which he was 

writing as "quinto Tiberii" "Indictione 
prima," and " ap Incarnatione Domini DCCIII." 
('Opp.,' ed. Giles, vi. p. 130; and cp. Mr. 
Plummer's ' Bede,' i. p. cxlvi). 


THE CENTURY (9 th S. i. 487). 'The New 
London Catalogue of Books, with their Sizes 
and Prices, containing the Books which have 
been Published and such as have been Altered 
in Size and Price since the "London Cata- 
logue of Books to the End of the Year 1800," ' 
8vo. pp. 120, was printed for W. Bent, 
Paternoster Row, in 1807. The next issue of 
Bent's 'London Catalogue' which I have 
includes all books from 1800 to 1822. The 
year of the publication of each book is not, 
however, given in either catalogue. 


In the Gentleman's Magazine for 1804, vol. 
Ixxiv. p. 1173, there is a quotation from the 
'New Catalogue of Living Authors.' This 
refers to "A New Catalogue of Living English 
Authors ; with Complete Lists of their Pub- 
lications and Biographical and Critical 
Memoirs. Scribimus indocti doctique. Lond., 

grin ted for C. Clarke, No. 6, Northumberland 
ourt, Strand, 1799." A copy of this is in 
the British Museum. One volume only was 
published, which embraces a part of the 
letter C. 

Mr. Robert Bent, of Paternoster Row, 
ublished in 1799 the ' London Catalogue of 
iooks,' to September in that year, and an 
appendix during the year following. The 
'Modern Catalogue of Books' appeared in 
1803, and the 'New London Catalogue' in 
1807, 1811, and 1812. In 1802 Mr. William 
Bent began the ' Monthly Catalogue of New 
Publications.' From the ' Modern Catalogue ' 
it appeared that from 1792 to the end of 
1802 (eleven years), 4,096 new books were 
published, exclusive of reprints not altered 
:n price, and also exclusive of pamphlets; 
deducting one-fifth for the reprints, there is 
an average of 372 new books per year. See 
Timperley's 'Dictionary of Printers and 

71, Brecknock Road. 

ST. THOMAS 1 BECKET (9 th S. i. 407). In 
answer to your correspondent who desires 
nformation about the dedication of Clapham 
Dhurch, Bedfordshire, I would refer him to 
;he Sarum use, which marks the translation 
of St. Thomas a Becket at 7 July. This, then, 
s the particular event in his life which is 
lonoured in the dedication of Clapham. The 
uses of York and Hereford agree with this 
date. Clapham, since the tower is of Saxon 



[9* s. IL JULY 9, 

date, must have been rededicated to the 
famous archbishop, and the name of its 
primal patron has been so utterly lost that 
it is practically hopeless to try to discover it. 
Very likely it was to some Saxon saint, as it 
is highly improbable that a dedication to the 
Blessed Virgin Mary would have passed out 
of memory in Norman times. The only other 
church in county Bucks dedicated to St. 
Thomas a Becket was a destroyed one at 
Meppershall. I may add that I know of ten 
churches in that county which have suffered 
alterations in their dedications. 

12, Great Titchfield Street, W. 

July 7 is the anniversary of no event in St. 
Thomas's earthly career, but of the solemn 
translation of his relics to the chapel in 
Canterbury Cathedral still known as"Becket's 
Crown." This ceremony was presided over 
by Cardinal Stephen Langton, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, and took place on 7 July, 1170. 

Fort Augustus, N.B. 

There are two feasts. One, 29 December, 
is observed by the whole Church. This com- 
memorates the martyrdom of the saint, and 
has (in England) an octave. The other, 
7 July, commemorates the translation of the 
saint's relics. It is kept in England, but not 
in Scotland. GEORGE ANGUS. 

St. Andrews, N.B. 

The festival of the translation of St. Thomas 
was kept on 7 July (see Stanley's ' Memorials 
of Canterbury '). 



Sir Harris Nicolas in his 'Chronology of 
History' states that 7 July is the feast of 
the translation of St. Thomas. Q. V. 

" HARROW " (9 th S. i. 485). With reference 
to this word and the employment of this 
implement, it may be interesting to readers 
of ' N. & Q.' to peruse the following quota- 
tion, gleaned from a French book entitled 
' L'Agriculture et Maison Rustique,' pub- 
lished at Paris in 1598, although, be it noted, 
the dedicatory epistle to " Messire Jaques de 
Crussol, Due d'Usez, Pair de France, Comte 
de Crussol, Seigneur d'Assier, et Prince de 
Soyon," is dated October, 1582 : 

"Incontinent apres que la semence sera dis- 
tribuee en terre, faudra pour le dernier labour 
hercer de long et de travers, puis rasteller de sillon 
en sillon, mais & la traverse : & ce faire les herces 
dcntees de fer sont meilleures que si les de'ts 
estoyent toutes de bois, d'autant qu elles font mieux 
entrer le grain en terre, laquelle ils esmient et 
rompent plus commodement, & fin de couvrir le grain 

de terre pour le moins de quatre doigts, pour lui 
faire prendre racine, et empescher qu'il ne soit 
mang4 des oiseaux," &c. 

It will be perceived that the above French 
extract is somewhat antiquated as regards 
the spelling of the words therein made use of. 


" HORSE - SENSE " (9 th S. i. 487). A corre- 
spondent in 8 th S. xi. 149 stated that this 
expression was common all over the United 
States, and asked if it had a local habitation 
in Great Britain, to which no reply has 

"HOP-PICKER" (9 th S. i. 487). An^ early 
instance occurs in the ' Diary of a Sussex 
Tradesman,' printed in the 'Sussex Arch. 
Colls.,' xi. 192. There we have, 1756, "Sept. 23. 
Halland hop-pickers bought their pole- 
puller's nickcloth ; and, poor wretches, many 
of them insensible." DR. MURRAY knows, 
doubtless, the other word "hopper," which 
may be seen in ' Peregrine Pickle,' ch. Ixxxvii., 
and is in use still. 



For reference to pickers, see lines from 
' Hop-Garden,' lib. ii. 1. 177, Smart's ' Poems,' 
1752, quoted in Brand's ' Popular Antiquities 
of Great Britain,' with corrections and addi- 
tions by W. Carew Hazlitt (London, Smith, 
Soho Square, 1870). B. H. L. 

' Amateur Hop-pickers,' ' N. & Q.,' 3 rd S. x. 
353, in 1868. E. MARSHALL. 

What curious coincidences do occur ! I 
received almost simultaneously the number 
of ' N. & Q.' containing this inquiry, and a 
mixed parcel of old engravings, one of which 
is entitled " The Hop Pickers, from a Picture 
of Mr. Geo. Smith, 2 feet 1 incli by 1 foot 
5 inches. Engraveu by Wm. Wilson." From 
the costumes I fancy the picture must have 
an earlier date assigned to it than even 1812. 
The pickers seem to be a family party, not 
tramps. However, as I have no use for the 
stained print, I send it by book post to our 
Editor, who will perhaps kindly add ary 
comment as to probable date, &c., which may 
seem likely to be useful to DR. MURRAY. 

H. E. M. 

St. Petersbtirg. 

[We claim no knowledge of the subject. The 
picture seems to us in the style of George Smith, 
1713-76, the second and ablest of the " Smiths of 
Chichester" (see ' Diet, Nat. Biog. '), who studied in 
the school of Claude and Ppussin, and was known 
on the Continent as the British Gessner. The en- 
graving seems earlier than the date named. Stained 
as it is, it is an interesting work, for which we thank 
our contributor.] 

9 th S. II. JULY 9, '98.] 



321, 433). See Shakespeare, '2 Henry IV.,' 
III. ii. 6. Justice Shallow inquires after the 
health of his kinsman Silence's wife : 

And how doth my cousin, your bedfellow ? 
In Elizabethan times and perhaps for a 
century or so earlier " bedfellow " was a very 
frequently used expression to indicate a wife. 

I fancy it may be found so employed in the 
well-known ' Paston Letters,' temp. Hen. VI., 
Edw. IV. et seq. NEMO. 


[" Sir J. Paston, ' Lett.,' iii. 235, ' He hathe entryd 
the maner of Scolton uppon your bedffelawe Con- 
yerse'"('Hist. E. D.').] 

" TABLE DE COMMUNION " (9 th S. i. 25, 251). 
MR. GEORGE ANGUS is, I believe, quite wrong 
in thinking that this term means to French 
Catholics the altar-rail, bearing the houselling 
cloth, at which communicants kneel. In the 
French Church Table Sainte or Table de Com- 
munion is the equivalent of Communion Table 
Mensa Altaris in the language of Latin 
ritualists. In the Armenian Church, which 
sometimes celebrates Mass in the evening, 
the altar is called the table. The Basque 
Catholics have much respect for the altar. 
In the rare volume entitled "Jesusen Com- 
paniaco A. Sebastian Mendiburuc Euscaraz 
eracusten duen Jesusen Bihotzaren Devocioa 
1747 Urtean. Bear Bezala. Donostian, Bar- 
tholome Riesgo Montero, Guipuzcoaco Im- 
primitzallearen Echean " (the author of which, 
according to Mr. W. Webster, was called, as 
he deserves, the Basque Cicero, and of which 
the city of Bayonrie possesses perhaps the 
only complete copy, the British Museum 
having an imperfect one), you may read on 
p. 17 : " Bacequien Jesus Onac, Herege ez 
diranac ere asco milla bider ciquinduco 
Zutela beren sacrilegio gaistoacquin comu- 
nioco Maia." That means " The good Jesus 
well knew that many even of those who are 
not heretics would defile a thousand times 
the Table of Communion with their wicked 
sacrileges." Maia means the table. 


WEIGHT OF BOOKS (9 th S. i. 284, 394). May 
not something be said upon the size of books? 
size and shape that the matter they contain 
does not require. I will simply give one 
example : a new monthly magazine printed 
on a heavy white paper, irregular edges to 
imitate hand-made paper, type, small pica 
thick leaded, occupying exactly three-sevenths 
of the open page, the remaining four-sevenths 
being printer's fat." The page measures 

II in. by 8 in. In contrast, my weekly friend 
'N. & Q.' covers with its closely printed 

columns two-thirds of the open page. We 
purchase books for the information they 
contain, and not for the amount of paper. 


STORIES ' (9 th S. i. 262). MR. HEELIS is evi- 
dently unaware of the later editions of 
' Gammer Grethel.' The one before me is a 
reprint from stereotype plates of the edition 
added by the late Mr. Bohn to his libraries 
in 1862. The title is as follows : 

" German Popular Stories | and | Fairy Tales, | 
as | told by Gammer Grethel. | From the collection 
of MM. Grimm. | Revised Translation | By Edgar 
Taylor ] With illustrations from designs | By George 
Cruikshank and Ludwig Grimm." 

The book has been continuously in print 
since 1862. In the preface Edgar Taylor is 
referred to as "one of the translators" to 
whom Sir Walter wrote the letter printed in 
full in your columns. The same letter, with 
some slight variations and the omission of 
three unimportant lines, is printed at the end 
of Bonn's edition. The preface is undated, 
but it begins with a reference to a transla- 
tion of "nearly fifteen years ago," so that 
1838 is the probable date of this revised 
translation. It is interesting to note that 
Madame Hillebrand, Edgar Taylor's daughter, 
has translated, "in order to obtain a clearer 
comprehension " of them, two essays by Scho- 
penhauer, and they appear also in Bohn's 
series. With regard to the Grimm Museum, 
Messrs. Bell, the successors of Mr. Bohn, are 
willing to present a copy of the reprint of 
'Gammer Grethel,' and also of Mrs. Hunt's 
complete translation of Grimm's tales with 
introduction by Andrew Lang ; and should 
there be room on the walls for a crayon 
portrait of Edgar Taylor, dated 1837, which 
I possess, I shall be pleased to send it. 


Sidcup, Kent. 

BOSWELL'S ' JOHNSON ' (9 th S. i. 385, 409, 452). 
GENERAL MAXWELL misunderstands me on 
one or two points. He implied that the 
original printer's error was overlooked by 
Boswell, and I wished to show that the 
passage did not occur in Bos well's work. If 
GENERAL MAXWELL will look again at the 
misprinted line, he will see that there are in 
the real line not fifteen syllables, as he says, 
but sixteen, and that at most four of them 
are wrong. The errors, in fact, are only 
three : TA is misprinted Y, one I is inserted, 
and another misplaced. Then for the correc- 
tion. Should GENERAL MAXWELL have im- 
plied that it had never been made ? On one 
point I misunderstood GENERAL MAXWELL. I 


[9 th S. II. JULY 9, '98. 

thought that, when he wrote that the adjec- 
tive ought " in strictness " to be dvra^ia, he 
quarrelled with the termination of ai/ra^tos. 
I ventured to think that Liddell and Scott 
are wrong, and that avragia (not, as GENERAL 
MAXWELL gives it, dvrdgia) is a vox nihili. 

J. S. 

In what editions besides Mr. Birrell's does 
the misprint of the inscription given in 
Malone's note occur? Before reading GENERAL 
MAXWELL'S note I had no opportunity of 
calmly swallowing the lurid example, as I 
was not aware of its existence. And now, 
after reference to many later editions than 
my own of 1823, I am unable to trace it 
beyond Mr. Birrell's printer. If he is not to 
blame, I can only say, with Dr. Johnson, 
"Mr. Compositor, I ask your pardon again 
and again. KILLIGREW. 

(9 th S. i. 68, 212, 372). 'The Eye House Plot,' 
which appeared in Reynolds^ Miscellany, was 
by G. W. M. Reynolds. I had it at the time 
it was running. Afterwards it came out in 
penny weekly numbers, and I think in 
three-volume form, and some years ago in 
Dicks's cheap series at sixpence per volume. 
I believe the work is still issued from the 
office of Reynolds's Newspaper. 


'Russell; or, the Rye-House Plot,' other- 
wise ' Russell : a Tale of the Reign of 
Charles II.,' by G. P. R. James. 


" FOND " (9 th S. i. 365). MR. TATE'S interest- 
ing note on this word with its two meanings 
has sent me to my copy of Nathaniel Bailey's 
'English Dictionary^ (1733, sixth edition), 
where I find the old lexicographer has duly 
noted the second and now common mean- 
ing of the word affectionate. Bailey has it 
" Fond=pa,$siona,tely desirous of and devoted 
to, vainly affecting." He has also " Fon=& 
fool," on the authority of Spenser (cf. ' Shep- 
heard's Calend.: April'). It will be noted 
that he does not give both meanings of the 
word, like Coles, from whom MR. TATE quotes. 
^OTid^affectionate can, I find, be traced 
further back than the dates quoted by 
MR. TATE. Shakespeare in ' A Midsummer 
Night's Dream,' II. i., uses the term with this 

More fond on her than she upon her love. 
Cf. ' Encyclopaedic Dictionary.' 

The older signification does not now obtain 
to any great extent, I believe, although il 
has probably some vogue provincially. In 

Yorkshire it would appear to have been in 
common use at a comparatively recent 
period. In a ' Glossary of Yorkshire Words 
and Phrases' (1855), which I have before me 
as I write, there are seven separate references 
to the meaning. Noticeable among these is 
" Fond=foolisn, weak-minded," and hence the 
saying " As fond as a horn, the horn answer- 
ing to every one's tuning, reasonless." Fond- 
cruke= foolish whim, and Fond tal/c=non- 
nse. C. P. HALE. 

The original meaning "foolish "still attaches 
to this word in the north of England, at 
least in certain localities. I well remember 
when at school in Yorkshire one of the 
favourite terms of abuse amongst the boys 
was " fondy "; they used the noun as well as 
the adjective. A remarkable use of " fond " 
appears in No. 22 of the Articles of the 
English Church. R. DENNY URLIN. 

Grosvenor Club. 

This word is still commonly used in the 
old sense in the Isle of Axholme. Does not 
Shelley so use it in ' Hellas ' ? 

Swift as the radiant shapes of sleep, 
From one whose dreams are Paradise, 

Fly, when the fond wretch wakes to weep, 
And Day peers forth with her blank eyes. 

C. C. B. 

On Tyneside this word has the meaning of 
foolish. " He 's a fond fellow " is an expres- 
sion one often and everywhere hears. 

R T B. 

COPE AND MITRE (8 th S. xii. 106, 175, 350, 
493 ; 9 th S. i. 14, 212, 351). Amongst the 
charges brought by the Puritans against Dr. 
Hey wood, rector of St. Giles-in-the-Fields, in 
1641, is his manner of celebrating the Holy 
Communion in his church. After speaking 
of the crucifixes, images, &c., and of the altar 
lately erected there, the indictment charges 
the rector with repeated bowings and pros- 
trations at the time of Communion, also 
"that the said doctor and three sub-deacons 
doe all goe from the body of the church unto 
the west end, being there cloathed according 
to their order, some in scarlet, silk, and fine 
linen." The service described is evidently 
what Anglicans would now call a high cele- 
bration, and vestments certainly would seem 
to have been used, though the church inven- 
tory makes no mention of either copes or 
chasubles. The whole of the charges brought 
against Dr. Heywood may be seen in a very 
scarce tract printed in 1641 and largely 
quoted from by Parton in his ' Hospital and 
Parish of St. Giles-in-the-Fields,' published 
in 1822. Like MR. ANGUS, I have never been 

9 th S. II. JULY 9, '98.] 



able to find a single instance of a chasubl 
being mentioned in connexion with any 
Anglican service from the time of Queen 
Elizabeth till the Oxford revival. 


MR. GEORGE ANGUS asks, " Does any 
bishop, except the Bishop of Lincoln, wear a 
vestment or chasuble ? " The present Bishop 
of London wears both a cope and mitre, as J 
have seen him officiate in them ; and he has 
lately been presented with a new ivory mitre 
I have also read that the present Bishop pi 
Rochester uses the cope and mitre at certain 
ceremonies. These are the only two bishop; 
of the Establishment (besides the Bishop oi 
Lincoln), I believe, who wear the cope anc 
mitre. C. R. T. 

There is one well-known exception to the 
statement of the late Dean Burgon anent 
the use of vestments, cope, &c., in the English 
Church, quoted by FATHER ANGUS. The 
beautiful copes now preserved in Durham 
Cathedral Library one of which was pre- 
sented to the cathedral by Charles I. were 
in use at the celebration of the Holy Com- 
munion so late as 1779, and were discontinued 
in that year by Prebendary Warburton 
(afterwards Bishop of Gloucester). 


HANDS WITHOUT HAIR (9 th S. i. 328). 
If PALAMEDES turns to the twenty-seventh 
chapter of Genesis, the Scriptural origin of 
this not very common idiom will appear to 
him. The interjection wfft (pronounced oofff) 
in Welsh means " Fie, for shame ! " whicn 
may be the meaning of the word ooft in the 
English translation of 'Rhys Lewis.' Had 
PALAMEDES given the number of the chapter 
in which the word appears, a reference to the 
original might have cleared the matter up. 
Plas Maenan, Llanrwst, North Wales. 

Has PALAMEDES forgotten the hairy hands 
of Esau and the smooth hands of Jacob ? 
Surely the interpretation of an easy con- 
science, void of deceit, is very plain. 

[Many replies are acknowledged.] 

CORNWALL OR ENGLAND? (8 th S. xii. 466; 
9 th S. i. 131.) There seems to be a parallel to 
this in France, judging from the following 
extract, the original of which appeared in a 
Dublin daily paper two or three years ago : 

"With reference to the number of suicides of 
Breton recruits in the French army, it appears 
that home-sickness is not the only cause of this 
disgust of life. Most of these men speak French 
very imperfectly, and so they are regularly set upon 

and ' ballyragged ' by their barrack-room com- 
panions from other parts of France. The inhabitants 
of the central portion of the country are fond of 
saying that the Basques, the Bretons, and the Nor- 
mans are not Frenchmen, and the barrack-room 
bullies have taken the jibe so literally that the 
French press has made a strong protest against this 

S. A. D'ARCY, L.R.C.P. and S.I. 
Rosslea, Clones, co. Fermanagh. 

BURNS AND COLERIDGE (9 th S. i. 405). Why 
does MR. THOMAS BAYNE omit the words with 
which Burns concludes the letter to Mrs. 
Dunlop ? 

"I own myself partial to such proofs of those 
awful and important realities a God that made all 
things man's immaterial and immortal nature 
and a world of weal or woe beyond death and the 

H. J. F.-A. 


'ALONZO THE BRAVE' (9 th S. i. 287). This 
poem may be found in ' Anthologia Oxoni- 
ensis ' (1846), accompanied by a translation 
into Latin elegiacs, signed J. E. B., i. e.. John 
Ernest Bode, M.A., student of Christ Church. 
Mr. Bode was also author of 'Ballads from 
Herodotus.' I can remember, when a little 
boy, seeing this poem dramatized at a travel- 
ling show, and Ibeing much alarmed at the 
apparition of Alonzo the Brave in his sable 
armour. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

228, 297). An early use of this phrase occurs 
in the parish registers of St. Edward the 
Confessor's, Romford. At the end of the year 
1609, burials, the vicar signs as follows : "Per 
me Samuelem Collins Ministru' Verbi Dei 
ibidem in ecc' p'ochiali de Romford." 



Proverbs xxx. 18, 19 ] THOMAS J. JEAKES. 

OLDEST PARISH REGISTER (8 th S. xi. 108, 215). 
Although this question was asked more 
;han a year ago, it may interest Miss THOYTS 
;o know that the registers of Alfriston, co. 
Sussex, date from 1512, being twenty-six 
/ears prior to the compulsory statute of 
ETenry VIII. This is said to be the oldest 
parish church register known in England. 

C. H. C. 
South Hackney. 

AUTOGRAPHS (9 th S. i. 268, 336). I keep 
my collection of autograph letters (4,000) and 
a vast mass of illustrative items alphabetic- 
ally. " Variety is charming." I take a four- 



[9 th S. II. JULY 9, '98. 

paged sheet of fairly stout blue paper, 
measuring 15 inches long by 11 J inches wide. 
On p. 1 I write the name, &c., in both top 
corners. On p. 2 I insert the best portrait I 
can find. I do not paste in, but cut slits in 
the paper to receive the corners of the picture. 
I use a sharp-pointed knife and cut on a 
thick sheet of glass. Round the picture thus 
inserted I rule lines according to fancy. On 

F. 3 I insert the letter. Never paste it on. 
take a strip of thin white paper the length 
of the letter and half an inch wide. Down 
one side (for clearness, call this the under 
side) I run an edging of stickphast paste, 
say 4- inch wide, and paste on to the left- 
hand edge of the letter. I use a thin strip 
of copper 12 inches long to cover the $ of 
the thin paper and to get an even % pasted. 
Then on the top side of the paper paste the , 
and attach that to a slip of thin cardboard 
14 inches longer than the letter. When dry 
the cardboard forms a hinge, which folds 
under the letter. Then on p. 3 cut slits, the 
width of the cardboard and level with the 
top of the letter, to receive the top f inch 
and ditto for the bottom f inch. By this 
method a two, three, or four page letter may 
be securely kept, easily turned, and easily 
slipped out if required. On thinner and 
slightly smaller paper of t\vo pages only I 
insert in the same manner extra letters, por- 
traits, engravings, pictures, cuttings, &c., 
illustrative of the life, works, &c., of the writer 
of the letter, and keep these inside the four-page 
sheets. Only in the case of small cuttings 
do I paste them down by the end edges. In 
other cases I use the slits, as also I do with 
one-page letters. I hope I have made my 
method clear. If MR. PAGE, MR. ROBINSON, or 
any other collector cares to write direct, I 
will gladly send samples of the papers re- 
ferred to. I keep the whole in bags made of 
black glazed cloth. A flap may be used, and 
forms a better protection against dust than 
covers or boxes. CLIO. 

33, Chorley Old Road, Bolton. 

^ FELLOWS " (9 th S. i. 489). Halliwell's 
' Diet, of Archaic and Provincial Words ' says : 
" Nice = foolish, stupid, dull, strange." The 
same word had the first meaning in French, 
but is now obsolete. Nicetee is given by 
Halliwell as folly. In ' 2 Henry IV.,' IV. i., 
Mowbray uses the expression "every idle, 
nice, and wanton reason." There are also 
other instances of a similar use of the word 
in Shakespeare. ARTHUR MAYALL. 

Nice appears to have had formerly the 
meanings of " effeminate " and " wanton "; 
the 'Encyclopaedic Dictionary' contains ex- 

amples, to which may be added Sir T. More's 
expression "nice and wanton words "(' Workes,' 
p. 306). "A nice person" is the rendering by 
Cooper of homo niollis (' Thesaurus,' 1565, v. 
'Mollis'), and by Coles ('Engl.-Lat. Diet.,' 
1677, v. 'Nice') of seplasiarius, a word given 
in Holyoke's 'Diet.' (1640, v. 'Nice') as the 
Latin for "a nice fellow." "An effeminate 
person," " a nice person," and " a nice fellow " 
are only different expressions for the same 
object. Seplasiarius denoted, says Littleton, 
" a gallant who goes powdered and perfumed " 
a masher of an exaggerated type, if only 
the meaning were innocent. The "corpore 
infames" of Tacitus, however, is identical 
with the " molles viri " of Livy, xxxiii. 28 ; 
and Oberlin, in his annotations to the ' Ger- 
mania,' indignantly repels the foul blot cast 
on his barbaric ancestors, and pleads for the 
reading " torpore " in place of " corpore " (see 
his note ad loc.). But the subject is too un- 
wholesome to discuss. F. ADAMS. 
106A, Albany Road, Camberwell. 

The text of Tacitus has " corpore infames." 
The French version, rendered in English by 
" nice fellows," was probably some phrase of 
Paris slang, " bons enfans," or the like ; but 
there the matter had better rest. 


Another passage of Tacitus, " scelus ostendi 
ut puniatur, flagitium occultari debet," will 
supply the reason for leaving the epithet 
without explanation. ED. MARSHALL. 

[Many other replies are acknowledged.] 

" CROSS " VICE " KRIS " (9 th S. i. 85, 317, 458). 
PALAMEDES is quite right, MR. CURRY quite 
wrong, as to the history of the gutturals g,j, 
x. MR. CURRY seems to think that because 
he can trace the present guttural sound back 
to the last century it must have existed 
always; but if he will consult Monlau 
('Spanish Etymological Dictionary') he will 
find that so late as the reign of Philip IV. 
(1621) these three letters were pronounced in 
Castilian much as they still are in Portuguese, 
Galician, Asturian, Valencian, Catalan, and 
other Peninsular dialects. He is unfortunate 
in the examples he has selected to bolster up 
his lost cause. The French Don Quichotte 
and Italian Don Chisciotte preserve the old 
Spanish pronunciation of one of them, the 
pronunciation, be it observed, used by Cer- 
vantes himself ; and our own Sherris repre- 
sents the old Spanish pronunciation of Xeres. 
I should be interested in knowing whether 
PROF. SKEAT adheres to the opinion once 
expressed in these columns (8 th S. viii. 93) 
that the change from sibilant to guttural 

9 th S. II. JULY 9, '98.] 



was due to Moorish influence. This is scarcely 
credible in view of recent investigations, 
which have traced the change through vari- 
ous French dialects right up to the Walloon 
in Belgium, where, as I found out on the spot, 
the guttural exists in full strength in the 
dialect of Liege, that of Namur retaining the 
sibilant. It is noteworthy that in the French 
dialects there are two gutturals, as there 
were two sibilants, the initial of champ, for 
instance, changing into a voiceless guttural, 
while that of Jean changes into a voiced one. 

GOETHE'S ' MASON-LODGE ' (9 th S. i. 428). 
MR. J. C. BURLEIGH will find the poem, part 
of which was quoted (and translated) in 
Carlyle's ' Past and Present,' in Goethe's 
' Gedichte.' Under the title of ' Loge ' the 
great poet has written nine poems, and the 
very first of these, entitled 'Symbolum,' is 
the one MR. BURLEIGH is looking for. Car- 
lyle's translation is a rather free one, Goethe's 
last stanza being : 

Hier winden sich Kronen 
In ewiger Stille, 
Die soflen mit Fiillc 
Die Thatigen lohnen ! 
Wir heiszen euch hoffen, 

or in English : 

Here crowns are wound 
In eternal stillness, 
To reward with plenty 
All active workers ! 
We bid you hope. 

Leeuwarden, Holland. 

MR. J. C. BURLEIGH will find the original, 
which Carlyle translated somewhat freely, 
in that large section of Goethe's poems, ' Alles 
an Personen und zu festlichen Gelegenheiten 
Gedichtete,' of which the first sub-section is 
'Loge,' i.e., 'Masonic Verse'; and in this 
section as the first poem, with the title ' Sym- 
bolum.' In the edition in six small quartos, 
Cotta, 1854, the poem occurs in vol. i. p. 408. 
In other editions, too, it will be found im- 
mediately following ' Reinecke Fuchs.' It is, 
perhaps, characteristic of the two men, and 
an unconscious self-confession of the sturdy 
translator, that he renders Goethe's words, 
"We bid you hope" ("Wir heissen euch 
hoffen "), by " Work and despair not." The 
idea of work, it should, however, be added, 
occurs in Goethe's preceding line. 


49, Blomficld Road, Maida Hill, W 

MISERERE CARVINGS (8 th S. i. 413, 481 ; ii. 
9, 113, 214, 235 ; iii. 14, 78 ; v. 98 ; xii. 514). 
Oil the south side of the chancel of St. 

Alban's Cathedral, Pretoria, in the Transvaal, 
are some charming old fourteenth -century 
remains of carved oak, most wretchedly 
"made-up" into a bishop's throne. The 
most interesting fragments have foeen put 
together by some rough packing-case maker, 
fastened with French nails, and "made good," 
where necessary, with native wood and 
"match-boarding." A small brass plate re- 
cords that these venerable historical relics 
consisting, in the main, of part of an ornate 
crocketed canopy, an emoattled cornice, 
angle-pinnacled buttresses, miserere, &c. all 
came from Ely Cathedral, and were "pre- 
sented by the Dean and Canons to the Right 
Rev. Henry Brougham, first Bishop of Pre- 
toria, 1878." The miserere, which is in a 
splendid state of preservation, bears upon its 
lower side a carved corbel, representing a 
man fondling a woman. He is in the act of 
placing his left hand under her chin, whilst 
his right arm is around her head, and 
his right hand pats her forehead. One 
termination shows (west) a well-carved pack- 
horse, and the other a mule, the assumption 
being that the two riders have met on the road 
side, and have alighted to exchange con- 
fidences. On the north side of the sanctuary, 
fixed unmeaningly within a mysterious sort 
of dwarf screen, is a carved oak fifteenth- 
century miserere. It is somewhat decayed, 
and has a central corbel carved as a grotesque 
head, with simple foliage terminations on 
either side. It bears no inscription. 

Mafeking, Bechuanaland. 

"A CHALK ON THE DOOR" (9 th S. i. 408). 

Chalking of the door is in Scotland a legal 
form of warning burgh tenants to remove, 
by a burgh officer giving verbal notice and 
then chalking on the door the initials of the 
reigning sovereign with the year of our Lord 
forty days before the term of Whitsunday, 
thus: "V.R. 1898." This, being certified, en- 
titles a landlord to a summary warrant of 
removal from the burgh magistrate at the 
lapse of the term. This legal solemnity of 
giving notice to quit may have given rise to 
the saying referred to as indicating a desire 
of parting company with a particular indi- 
vidual. It is also common in Scotland on 
the evening before burgh or town fairs to 
chalk the doors, probably to put people in 
mind of the event of the following day. 

A. G. REID. 

This expression, with some variants, is old, 
and used to be a common one in Derbyshire. 
I have heard old Derby folk say that it 



[9 th S. II. JULY 9, 

originated in the practice of putting a chalk 
mark on doors when the plague raged. " A 
chalk behind the door" was the tippler's 
score at the alehouse, or any running account 
which was easy to keep on a door or board 
with a piece of chalk, when " re'din', 'ritin', 
an' 'rithmik " were not necessary qualifications 
for carrying on trade in a village. A man 
saying " I '11 chalk him one " meant that, as 
a reminder, he would "chalk up" a grudge, 
and pay it off at the first opportunity. " I '11 
chalk it up " was equal to a note nowadays 
made in a diary of a coming event. To put 
" a chalk mark on his back " meant the in- 
tention to " show up " some one for an offence 
against the village code of unwritten laws ; 
but to " chalk him one " did not necessarily 
imply the use of a piece of chalk, for folks 
and children "chalked" by making a cross 
with the toe of the boot, or a finger, or a 
stick, on the ground, the cross made being the 
registration of "sure an' certin " bad luck coming 
to the person chalked. In playing the game 
of ring-taw, when an opponent was about to 
shoot with an almost certainty of hitting, the 
owner of the taw to be shot at " chalked " a 
cross with his finger on the ground, saying, 

Figure o' four ! 

Sure ter leap ower ! 

the "four" being the "cross-overs," as they 
were called, in the X mark. 



I have never heard the expression quoted 
by MR. ADDY, but I know that it is a common 
custom among beggars to put a chalk mark 
on gate-posts or doors to inform the fraternity 
that the house should be avoided. At least, I 
have always imagined that such was the ex- 
planation of the gate-posts of my own house 
being thus honoured, and MR. ADDY'S note 
seems to correspond with my theory. 


Branksome Chine, Bournemouth. 

With regard to my query on this subject, I 
am told that there is a saying in Scotland, 
" He 's thrown a stone at our door," meaning 
he has taken offence at something and ceased 
to call. S. O. ADDY. 

[Many replies to the same effect are acknowledged.] 

HONGKONG : KIAO-CHOU (9 th S. i. 348, 398). 
In reply to INQUIRER, Pekin is northern 
capital, Nankin southern capital, Tonkin 
eastern capital, Hongkong fragrant streams. 
I am unable to give the meaning of Kiao-Chmi, 
as I have not seen it in Chinese characters. 



Dictionary of National Biography. Edited by Sid- 
ney Lee. Vol. LV. (Smith, Elder & Co.) 
THE fifty-fifth volume of this great national work 
appears with the exact punctuality we have been 
taught to expect. It extends from Stow to Taylor, 
and brings, accordingly, the end of the undertaking 
within measurable distance. That the same level 
of excellence is kept up needs scarcely be said. 
Successive volumes have witnessed no diminution 
of either value or interest. In this the ' Dictionary 
of National Biography' differs from similar com- 
pilations attempted abroad, the closing volumes of 
which attest lamentably loss of interest or absence 
of means. No character dealt with in the present 
volume rises to a foremost place in literature except 
Swift. This life is entrusted to the ex-editor, Mr. 
Leslie Stephen, whose knowledge of the man and 
the period has been attested. The biography is 
long and important, the bibliography alone occupy- 
ing close on three pages. A very interesting feature 
in it consists of the comments of the writer upon the 
labours of his predecessors. Among early authori- 
ties Delany is said to be the most trustworthy and 
judicious. Swift's own writings give the best in- 
formation. Dr. Johnson's life, in the ' Lives of the 
Poets,' is both perfunctory and prejudiced. Scott's 
life, though agreeable and judicious, is, as may 
readily be believed, not very critical. Anecdotes 
of Swift which are given in many books become 
more detailed and circumstantial as they are further 
from their sources. Upon Sir Henry Craik's life 
Mr. Stephen passes a high encomium, though he 
does not accept all its conclusions. With regard to 
Swift's marriage to Stella, it is held that though the 
evidence in its favour has weight, it can hardly be 
regarded as conclusive. In saying these things we 
have not quite adhered to the ipsissima verba of 
Mr. Stephen. We should like to quote the entire 
estimate of Swift that is expressed ; but being 
unable, through conditions of space, to do this, we 
will leave it undisturbed. Mr. Leslie Stephen also 
sends a life of Sir Henry Taylor. The editor con- 
tributes several excellent biographies, none of them 
of highest importance. John Stow, the antiquary 
and chronicler, is the subject of one. Of Stows 
worthy but troublous career, of his poverty and his 
persecutions, Mr. Lee gives an animated account, 
and he describes his subject as " the most accurate 
and businesslike of English annalists or chroniclers 
of the sixteenth century." Leaving to other hands 
such more attractive lives of poets as those of Suck- 
ling and Sylvester, Mr. Lee occupies himself vith 
William Strode, poet and dramatist, one of the few 
Stuart poets whose writings have not been collected. 
Mr. Lee credits him with a genuine lyrical faculty 
and a sportive temperament. The terrible story of 
John Stubbs, or Stubbe, is told with much spirit. 
A short life of John Studley follows. The brief and 
picturesque career of Suckling is dealt with by Mr. 
Seccombe, who gives the delightful poet much well- 
merited praise, but speaks of his plays as "some- 
what dreary," which, judged by the standard of his 
day, they scarcely seem. There are, at least, pas- 
sages in them of much grace. Mr. Seccombe is 
justified in saying, concerning Joshua Sylvester, 
that his influence upon Milton, about which 
much has been spoken and written, was chiefly 

9 th S. II. JULY 9, '98. ] 



indirect. We are surprised to find Dryden quoted 
as saying, when a boy, he thought "inimitable 
Spenser a mean poet in comparison of Sylvester's 
' Du Bartas.' " The rhyming competition between 
Sylvester and Ben Jpnson is unmentioned, doubt- 
less as of no authority. Among many interesting 
contributions of Mr. Seccombe one concerning 
Robert Surtees, the Durham antiquary, stands 
conspicuous. The playful humour of Surtees, his 
hospitality at Mainsforth, and his impositions upon 
Scott are pleasantly described. Among many excel- 
lent historical studies by Mr. C. H. Firth are those 
of William Strode, politician, and Walter Strick- 
land and his brother Sir William. A capital life of 
Agnes Strickland is by Miss Elizabeth Lee, who 
also writes on Lady Emmeline Stuart- Wortley and 
others. Some comparatively modern writers are 
treated by Dr. Richard Garnett, who dwells appre- 
ciatively on the work of John Addington Symonds, 
and treats sympathetically Judge Talfourd, but 
has the courage to say that much of his verse is 
"unduly loquacious ana declamatory." John Taylor, 
the Water Poet, is in the hands of Mr. Gordon 
Goodwin, who supplies an admirable notice and an 
elaborate bibliography. Mr. Goodwin also supplies 
a most interesting life of Strype. Strutt, the anti- 
quary, is in the hands of Mr. Miller Christy. Dean 
1 remantle praises Archbishop Tait. Nahum Tate 
finds a competent biographer in Canon Leigh Ben- 
nett. Jeremy Taylor has been entrusted to the 
Rev. A. Gordon, and Tom Taylor, the dramatist, is 
treated very indulgently by Mr. Charles Kent. The 
rather mythical life of St. Swithun is dealt with 
scientifically by the Rev. William Hunt, who also 
supplies all that is known concerning King Sweyn. 
Mr. Thomas Bayne discusses the merits of Tanna- 
hill and other Scottish poets. Dealing principally 
with the representatives of literature, we nave 
been unable to devote the space they deserve to 
the contributions of such supporters of the 'Dic- 
tionary ' as Mr. Russell Barker, Mr. W. P. Court- 
ney, Mr. Rigg, and Prof. Laughton. Mr. Aitken, 
Mr. Thompson Cooper. Mr. Milner-Gibson-Cullum, 
Mr. Lionel Cust, Mr. H. Davey, Dr. Norman Moore, 
Mr. F. M. O Donoghue, and Mr. Warwick Wroth 
are well represented. 

Masters of Medicine. William Stokes. By his Son, 

Sir William Stokes. (Fisher Unwin.) 
THOUGH no one could pretend to place William 
Stokes on the same platform with his three prede- 
cessors in this series, Hunter, Harvey, and Simpson, 
yet his life well deserved to be written as the record 
of one who in great part founded the Dublin school 
of clinical teaching and who was a singularly acute 
observer of mankind, nature, and art. This record 
has been well and interestingly written by his son, 
who holds the position of burgeon in Ordinary to 
the Queen in Ireland. William Stokes's acumen 
perhaps can be shown in no way better than by 
stating the fact that while still a student he, much 
in advance of the bulk of his future profession, saw 
the greatness and importance of Laennec's dis- 
covery of the stethoscope, and published a treatise 
on its use, for which he received the sum of seventy 
pounds. As might be guessed from this beginning, 
the chief publication 01 his life was a ' Treatise oi 
Diseases qi the Chest,' which is a medical classic for 
the descriptions of disease, as we should expect 
from one who was such an admirable clinical 
observer. He was also no mean archaeologist, and 
he stimulated Petrie to bring out his well-known 

work on the ' Round Towers of Ireland,' as well as 
ihe late Lord Dunraven to complete the unfinished 
work on 'Irish Ecclesiastical Architecture.' 

WE have received Mr. Mayson M. Beeton'a 
aamphlet entitled The Truth about the Foreign 
bugar Bounties (Simpkin & Marshall). -It deals 
mainly with politics, British, colonial, and foreign, 
which are out of our orbit. We may, however, 
remark that some of the statements referring to 
the abolition of slavery in the West Indies now 
a purely historical question call for confirmation 
or authoritative contradiction. 

THE article in the Fortnightly that will, in certain 
circles at least ? attract most attention is that of 
M. Augustin Filon on Edmond Rostand and Jean 
Richepin, the authors respectively of ' Cyrano de 
Bergerac and ' Le Chemmeau,' plays concerning 
which the English mind is being considerably exer- 
cised. Both works come in for high commenda- 
tion, the writer saying with deliberation that 
'Cyrano de Bergerac' "is France France at her 
best France at the culminating point of her 
genius." This is unstinting, and we are disposed to 
think, though we dare not say so, excessive commen- 
dation. ' Cyrano de Bergerac' is, however, we will 
concede, from the literary standpoint, a master- 
piece. Mr. Knox Johnson writes on ' Leopardi,' 
and supplies an eloquent eulogy, with naturally 
perhaps necessarily a comparison with Schopen- 
hauer, and "so he [Leopardi] passes into gloom, a 
great and weary soul, proud and unhappy as some 

creation of Dante's and yet, after all, it is the 

submissive Christian Pascal who comes before us." 
Sir Henry Irving's Rede Lecture on 'The Theatre in 
its Relation to the State,' delivered in Cambridge 
last month, is printed, and commends itself to wide 
perusal. Very interesting is the paper of Mile. 
Yetta Blaze de Bury on ' 1 rench Women in French 
Industry.' Mr. T. H. S. Escott writes pleasantly on 
' Heredity as a Social Force,' and Prof. Max M tiller 
has a contribution on 'Coincidences,' which is of 
high literary interest. Mr. Stanley Young, in tho 
Nineteenth Century, gives one of many articles 
which appear on ' Cyrano de Bergerac.' With the 
drama of M. Rostand, by this time familiar to a 
section of playgoing Londoners, he deals com- 
petently enough. What is strange, however, with 
him as with others, is that, taking a well-known 
figure in French literature, he treats it wholly from 
the point of view of the dramatist. M. Rostand 
has presented with incomparable talent a Cyrano 
de Bergerac ; but there is another Cyrano concern- 
ing whom a student of literature should know more 
than is said by Th^ophile Gautier, Charles Nodier, 
or even M. Rostand. Writing on 'The Wagner 
Mania,' a title which, of course, pledges him to a 
view, Mr. Cuthbert Hadden has the courage to say 
that "we are having too much Wagner," and to 
indicate the results to be expected from such 
excess. ' The Art of Letter- Writing ' is illustrated 
by Mr. Herbert Paul, the text of his sermon being 
found in the letters of Byron, which he holds "by 
universal consent" a strong phrase among the 
best, if not the very best, in the English language. 
He also calls them " the most readable letters in 
the world." The Rev. Canon Wood has an article 
on ' The Just Punishment of Heretics,' showing 
the "amazing intolerance and equally amazing 
cruelty" of our forefathers. Sir Edmund Verney 
advocates 'Rural Education.' In 'Civilization in 
the Western Soudan" Canon Robinson holds 



s. n. JULY 9, . 

that in the Central Soudan the r6le of Moham- 
medanism is played out. Many other papers oi 
interest are found in an excellent number. 
' In Ainp-Land,' by Mabel Loomis Todd, which 
appears in the Century, gives the result of observa- 
tions made in 1896 during an expedition to Northern 
Japan for the purpose of viewing the total eclipse 
of the sun. Ihe pictures of Aino women, with 
their tattooed upper lips, conveying the idea of 
moustaches, of an Aino village, of chieftains, tribes- 
men, &c. , are good. The whole is the better worth 
attention as the Amos seem to be dying out. With 
Cole's ' Old English Masters ' are given reproduc- 
tions of portraits by Roniney, one of Lady Derby 
serving as a frontispiece. ' Modern Dutch Painters ' is 
profusely illustrated. 'Holy Week in Seville' is ex- 
cellent. 'The Author of "Quo Vadis,"' 'William II. 
as Art Patron,' and 'Heroes of the Deep ' may also 
be commended. Scribner's is first in the field with 
the new American-Spanish war, supplying an article 
by Mr. Richard Harding Davis, entitled ' The First 
Shot of the War,' and a second on ' The First Bom- 
bardment.' These are, we fancy, but avcmt-cowrriers 
of an army. They are followed by ' Manila and the 
Philippines,' by Mr. Elliott, ex-Consul at Manila. 
Capt. Mahan deals with ' John Paul Jones in 
the Revolution,' his admirable paper being accom- 
panied by a striking portrait of Paul Jones. 
' Undergraduate Life at Smith College ' continues a 
series of papers to which we have more than once 
drawn attention. 'The Story of the Revolution' 
and 'The Workers' are continued. In the Pall 
Mall Anthony Hope concludes his ' Rupert of 
Hentzau' without establishing the English Elph- 
berg on the throne, or even leaving him alive. The 
frontispiece consists of a capital engraving of ' A 
Storm by Van der Velde. ' Castle Bromwich ' is 
described by the Countess of Bradford, and ' The 
Divining Rod ' is another delightful contribution by 
Miss E. Nesbit. Mr. Clark Russell begins what is 
likely to be a valuable and well-illustrated series of 
papers on ' The Ship : her Story.' The pictures of 
triremes and early ships generally are very striking. 
' A Bundle of Letters is also to be commended for 
perusal. Part VII. of 'Fights for the Flag' in 
the Cornhill describes ' Wellington at Salamanca,' 
and is written in the author's customary brilliant 
and incisive style. Mr. W. B. Duffield has an 
anniversary study of ' The Anti- Jacobin.' ' The 
Etchingham Letters ' seem to suggest the author of 
' Pages from a Private Diary. Mr. Frank T. 
Bullen depicts 'Havana in 1870.' Mr. Garnet 
Smith writes on ' Cyrano de Bergerac.' ' Les Gro- 
tesques ' of The'opnile Gautier has apparently 
supplied a portion of the information concerning 
this strange personality now thrust into prorpin- 
ence. Mr. Stanley Lane-Poole writes on ' The Fight 
that lost Jerusalem.' Temple Bar is still largely 
given to fiction. ' A Few Parallels ' is fruitful in 
suggestion. ' Michael Fitton ' is a fresh record of 
naval heroism. ' A Secretary of State ' gives a 
spirited account of the eccentric and troublous 
career of George Digby. ' Winter by the Atlantic ' 
describes the coast of Clare. In 'A Generation of 
Vipers,' in Macmillan's, Mr. Andrew Lang shows a 
not very satisfactory aspect of Scottish history. 
and pours obloquy on some bearers of the honoured 
name of Douglas. Mr. Charles Edwardes describes 
' The Spanish People,' dwells upon their unpractical- 
ness, and admits to some extent the cruelty of their 
treatment of animals. Major Pearse describes ' The 
Goorkha Soldier ' both as a friend and as a foe. Mr. 

A. F. Davidson has a readable paper upon 'Alphonse 
Daudet.' Mr. H. Schiitz- Wilson contributes to the 
Gentleman's an account of ' Cyrano de Bergerac,' 
dealing wholly with the play, and rarely, if ever, 
going outside it to the historical aspects of the 
hero. 'Mothers in Shakespeare' deals to a great 
extent with Constance, one of the most tragic 
characters in the drama. There is a good account 
of ' Henri Beyle,' and a second of ' The Birthplace 
of Buddhism.' The English Illustrated has once 
more a prettily designed cover. It opens with a 
curious and an edifying paper on ' A Man's Chance 
of Life ' when lie is twenty years of age. ' Studies 
of the First Napoleon ' are continued. ' The Tsar 
and Tsaritsa oi Russia' are described at home. 
' Pamela ' is an account of the wife of Lord Edward 
FitzGerald, written by Miss J. A. Taylor. 'The 
Writing Master of Yore ' has antiquarian interest. 
Sir William Dalby sends to Longman's an import- 
ant paper on ' The Preservation of Hearing,' with 
some valuable counsels. Besides being edifying 
as usual in ' At the Sign of the Ship.' Mr. Lang 
reviews appreciatively Miss Ingelow s poems. 
Chapman's contains once more a well-assorted selec- 
tion of stories long or short. 

CASSELL'S Gazetteer, Part LVIII., passes from 
Welton to W 7 ick, with accounts, accompanied by 
illustrations, of W f endover, Westgate, Weston- 
super-Mare, Weymouth, Whitby, Whitchurch, and 
Wnitehaven. It has views also of Westminster 
Abbey, Wharfedale, and other spots, historical or 


We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rule. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. Correspond- 
ents who repeat queries are requested to head the 
second communication " Duplicate." 

SKAID ("Pedigree"). Searchers for pedigrees 
constantly advertise, and we refer you to them. 

CORRIGENDUM. 9 th S. i. 505, col. 1, 1. 11 from 
bottom, for "vanity" read variety. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to 
"The Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Advertise- 
ments and Business Letters to "The Publisher" 
at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print ; and to this rule we can make no exception. 


For this Year, Fifty-three Numbers. 

*. d. 
For Twelve Months 1 11 

For Six Months ,. 10 

ii. JULY 16, '98.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. No. 29. 

NOTES : Epitaph, 41 Female Terminations, 42 Angel 
and London as Surnames" Giving the dor" Aboriginal 
Fire Ceremonies Marble Slab, 44 Newspapers The 
Devil's Dam Bookseller's Stock B. R. Haydon, 45. 

QUERIES: "Horse-chestnut" Capt. Arthur Phillip 
" Tarr" Charter Burial-ground, 46 Ravensworth 
AndrS Old-time Punishments Muggerhanger Scar- 
mentado Oration by Dr. Croke Brimpsfield : Syde 
The Altamaha Mrs. Gibbs ' The Legend of the Spider* 
Antique Coin, 47 French Cardinal " Paying through 
the nose " Picot Scott Biography Thomas Keyes 
Poem on the Horse-chestnut, 4*. 

REPLIES :' Buondelmonti's Bride,' 43 Telescope Por- 
trait of Lady Wentworth Coronation Plate Siege of 
Siena, 49 A Bell with a Story Gentleman Porter- 
Herald's Visitation New Varieties of Cattle for Parks 
"To die stillborn," 50 Brothers with the same Christian 
Name, 51 African Names St. Syth, 52 The Standing 
Egg Yew Trees "To chi-ike" Catalogue of Alton 
Towers Sale Bishopric of Ossory, 53 George Eliot 
" Droo"" Textile "Marginal References in the Bible 
Carmicbael of Mauldslay John Wesley, 54 Ringers' 
Articles Scott's ' Antiquary 'La Misericordia Sneezing 
Superstitions, 55 The Duke of Suffolk's Head English 
School Sampler Mediaeval Lynch Laws, 56 Curious 
Christian ' Name Grub Street, 57 Hansom A Church 
Tradition, 58. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Hennessy's ' Novum Repertorium," 
&c. Baring-Gould's 'Lives of the Saints,' Vol. XV. 
Phillimore's ' Dante at Ravenna ' Kingsford'g ' Vigorian 
Monologues ' Huish's ' Old Stuart Genealogy ' Badde- 
ley's 'Guide to the Guildhall' Turner's 'Brentford' 
Lang's Scott's ' Legend of Montrose ' ' London Year- 
Book. ' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


AN epitaph exists in the Greek anthology, 
well known in every respect except as to its 
authorship, which has lately been under my 
consideration. The following note of my con- 
clusions may be of use. 

The epitaph in question is as follows : 

KCU (TV TUX>? ^y a X a 'PT. TOV At/iCV* 


It may be found, as No. 639, in Brunck's 
' Analecta Veterum Poetarum Grjecorum ' 
(Argentorat., 1772-6, vol. iii. p. 286), and the 
later edition, ' Anthologia Graca,' by Jacobs 
(Lips., 1794, vol. iv. p. 252) ; and, as c. ix. Ep. 49, 
in Jacobs and Paulssen's ' Anthologia Graca ' 
(Lips., 1813-17, vol. ii. p. 20) ancf Diibner's 
' Epigrammaturn Anthologia Palatina ' (Paris, 
1864-72, vol. ii. p. 10). 

Of this epitaph Latin versions abounded in 
the days of the revival of learning and on- 
wards, and of these I have found the follow- 
ing varieties : 

(a) Inveni portura : Spes et Fortuna valete. 

Nil mihi vobiscum : ludite mine alios. 

(b) Inveni portum : Spes et Fortuna valete. 

Nil mihi vobiscum est : ludite nunc alios. 

(e) Inveni portum : Spes et Fortuna valete. 
Sat me lusistis : ludite nunc alios. 

(d) Jam portum inyeni : Spes et Fortuna valete. 

Nil mihi vobiscum est : ludite nunc alios. 

(e) Jam reperi portum : Spes et Forturfa valete. 

Ludite, vobiscum nil mihi, nunc alios. 

Of these varieties : 

(a) is the work and, so far as appears, the 
independent work of Janus Pannonius, the 
Bishop of Fiinfkirchen, in Hungary, and of 
the Englishman William Lily, the gram- 
marian. See, as to the first, the edition of 
Pannonius's ' Poemata ' (Traject. ad Rhen., 
1784), pars i. p. 531, where it appears as 
Ep. 160, "E Graeco. Anthol., L. i. cap. 80"; 
as to the second, ' Progymnasmata Thomae 
Mori et Guilielmi Lilii Sodalium ' in the 
Frankfort edition of Sir Thomas More's works, 
1689, p. 233 ; or the Basle edition of his 'Utopia' 
and 'Epigrams,' 1518, p. 173. 

It also appears as the epitaph on the tomb 
at Rome "Francisci Puccii Florentini," but 
without any mention of source or date, in the 
' Variorum in Europa Itinerum Delicite ' of 
Nathan Chytreeus (Herborme Nassoviorum^ 
1594, p. 42= second edition, p. 32). 

(b) is the form attributed in his ' Memoires ' 
(ed. Paris [1882], vol. iv. c. 9, p. 297) to his 
Mentor by Casanova, who erroneously 
speaks of it as " la traduction de deux vers 

It is in this form, too, that the epitaph 
referred to under (a) is misquoted in an 
otherwise also careless note of Burmann 
Secundus, in his ' Anthologia Latinorum Epi- 
grammatum et Poematum,' iv. 274, 8 (Am- 
stelredam., 1759-73, vol. ii. p. 213). 

(c) In this shape Le Sage's hero proposed 
to place an inscription over the door of his 
house, on " retiring from the world and re- 
treating to his hermitage " (' Gil Bias,' liv. ix. 
extr., ed. Paris, 1836, p. 734) ; and doubtless 
hoc fonte derivata this form passed on to 
fulfil the same office for Lord Brougham at 
his chateau at Cannes. 

(d) is attributable to Sir Thomas More. 
See 'Progymnasmata,' as referred to above 
under (a). 

(e) This version is that of Hugo Grotius. 
See Diibner, as referred to above. 

While better, perhaps, than the others, in 
the preference 01 the word reperio to invenio 
" Reperimus nostra : invenimus aliena," 
says Cornelius Fronto, in Putsch's 'Gram- 
matics Latinse Auctores Antiqui ' (Hanoviae, 
1605, p. 2197) it is open to criticism, in that 
the translator has forgotten Priscian's warn- 
ing x. p. 905, Putsch = x. 9, 51, ed. Krehl 

ips., 1819) "Reperio duplicavit p in 

NOTES AND QUERIES. 19 th s. n. JULY ie, . 

prseterito, quippe diminuta una syllaba. 
[Reperio,] repperi."* 

As renewed attempts at translation, Latin 
and English respectively, I would submit 
the following: 

(a) Spes et tu Fors, longiim valete. Portum rep- 

peri : nihil 

Vobiscum mihi : qui me sequentur, eos, precor, 

(b) Spes et tu mihi Fors, valete longum. 
Portum conspicio : nihil relictum est 
Vobiscum mihi : ludite insequentes. 

(c) Spes longum et Fortuna valete. En, hie mihi 

Nil mecum vobis : ludite postgenitos. 

(d) Hope and thou Chance, a long adieu, 

My haven found and free ! 
Nought now is left 'twixt me and you : 

Sport with those after me. 
Before quitting this epitaph, I may add 
that the ideas embodied in it reappear in 
various forms in the Greek and Latin antho- 
logies. As thus : 

(1) 'EATu'Sos ovSe Tv^ 7 ?* en p.oi fieAei, ov6" 

AOITTOV T^S an-aTTjs* tj\vOov ets 
No. 108 in Brunck (vol. ii. p. 429), and 
Brunck by Jacobs (vol. iii. p. 136)=c. ix. 
Ep. 172 in Jacobs and Paulssen (vol. ii. p. 58), 
and Diibner (vol. ii. p. 34). 

(2) 'EAn-is Kai o~u T^X^J A'cya ^atptre' rrjv 
oSov evpov' 

yap ox^erepois riTe/37ro/A<u' Uppere 

No. 140 in Brunck (vol. ii. p. 437), and 
Brunck by Jacobs (vol. iii. p. 143) =c. ix. 
Ep. 134 in Jacobs and Paulssen (vol. ii. p. 45), 
and Diibner (vol. ii. p. 26). 

* Thus, for example, we find renperi, in Plaiit., 
'Merc.,' iv. 3, 38 ("Nimium negoti repperi: enim- 
vero haereo") ; ' Mil. Glor.,' ii. 2, 71 ; ' Rud.,' iv. 2, 
19, 20; 3, 87 ; 'True/ in 'Fragm.,' pars iii. extr. ; 
Ter., ' Haut. Tim.,' i. 1, 59 (" A'tque ibi | Simul rem 
et gloriam drmis belli repperi") ; ' Adelph.,' v. 4, 6, 
&c. Repperisti, in Plaut., ' Epid.,' v. 1, 45. Reppe- 
risse, in Plaut., 'Aulul.,' ii. 2, 63; Ter., 'Eun., 
i. 2, 124 ; v. 4, 9. The third person singular repperi< 
could alone appear in writers of hexameter or 
elegiac verse. We have it in Virgil (' Georg.,' ii. 22 
" Sunt alii, quos ipse via sibi repperit usus") 
Propertius (ii. 33, 27, Earth = iii. 25, 27, Paley: " Al 
pereat quicumque meracas repperit uvas"); Ovic 
('Met.,' viii. 245: " Ferroque incidit acuto | per 
petuos dentes, et serrse repperit usum " ; ' Pont. , 
ii. 2, 54 ; ' Trist ' iv. 1, 82 ; ' A. A.,' ii. 22, &c.) ; anr 
Ausonius ('Ep./ 22, 3; 25, 1, 3; 71, 2; 120, 3); anc 
among earlier writers, see Ter., ' Andr.,' iy. 5, 11 
v. 6, 5, &e. ; and Aquilius, ' Bceot. ,' i. 1 (in Ribbeck' 
'Scaenicse Romanorum Poesis Fragm enta': " U 
illiim cli perdant primus qui horas repperit "). Rep 
pererit occurs in Catullus, 79, 4 ; reppereris in Ovid 
' A. A.,'ii. 719. Repereris, in Ter., ' Phorm.,' i. 4, 1 
is not more than a conjecture, too hastily accepte 
by Bcntley. 

The former of these passages, if not the 
atter also, is attributable to Palladas the 

(3) Actum est, excessi. Spes et Fortuna, valete. 
Nil jam plus in me vobis per secla licebit ; 
Quod fuerat vestrum, annsi ; quod erat meum, 

hie est. 

'Anthol. Latin.,' iv. 274,8=No. 1373. 
Meyer (Lips., 1835). 

(4) Fuscus habet titulos mortis : habet tumulum. 
Conditus hoc lapide [est] : bene habet : Fortune 

valebis. Ibid., iv. 340, 11. 

^o. 1598 in Meyer, who puts the piece among 
;he ' Suppositicia,' and reads in 1. 12, "Con- 
;egit ossa lapis : bene," &c. 

(5) Effugi tumidam vitam. Spes, Forma valete : 
Nil mihi vobiscum est : alios deludite quasso. 
Hsec domus seterna est : hie sum situs : hie ero 


Ibid., iv. 344, 13= No. 189, Meyer. 
And see 

(6) Cura, labor, meritum, sumpti pro munere 

Ite, alias posthac sollicitate animas. 

Ibid., ii. 228= No. 838, Meyer. 

Lectores tetrici, 
bad said Martial (xi. 2, 7), 

salebrosum ediscite Santram. 

Nil mihi vobiscum est : iste liber meus est. 

Athenaeum Club. 

I HAVE recently met with the following words 
ending in ess and ix, which it may be of ser- 
vice to record in your columns, as none of 
them has as yet found a place in the 'H.E.D.' 
They will all, we may hope, be calendared 
there in due course. Most of them are 
examples of what to avoid, but there are a 
few, such as huntress, portress, and the Scot- 
tish law term life-rentrix, that have become 
so much a part of the language as to be 
beyond reach of effective protest. 

Oardeneress. "Lady gardeners in trousers are 
much better equipped for the work than was the 
first gardeneress Eve." Daily Telegraph, 23 Jan., 
1896, p. 5, col. 3. 

Generaless. "My service and dear affections 
to the general and generaless. "Oliver Cromwell, 
Letter, 25 Oct., 1646. In Carlyle. 

Geniusess. "She was not a common woman, but 
a geniusess and an elegant writrix." Tho. Nugent, 
trans, of ' Hist, of Friar Gerund,' 1772, vol. i. p. 144. 

Guardianess.Ford, ' The Fancies,' Act I. sc. ii. ; 
Act 11. sc. ii. 

Hermitess. "She is a young creature full of 
grace and beauty, living in London like a hermitess 
and teaching her little brothers Greek." Miss 
Mitford (1836), quoted in Good Words, June, 1895, 
p. 382. 

Huckstered." An enormous umbrella . . . under 
which the hucksteress crouched as beneath a mighty 


inverted eschscholtzia." Baring-Gould, 'Strange 
Survivals,' p. 129. 

Huntreim. Gawyn Douglas, ' Trans, of JEneid,' 
reference lost. 

Queen and huntress chaste and fair. 

Ben Jonson, 'Cynthia's Revels,' Act V. 

sc. iii. 

Beyond the outmost wall she stood, 
Attired like huntress of the wood. 

Scott, ' Bridal of Triermain,' ii. 9. 
Her dress like huntress of the wold. 

Ibid., ii. 14. 
She springs like a huntress from the chace. 

Anna Jameson (1837) in 'Memoirs of,' by 

Geraldine Macpherson, p. 128. 
The chaste huntress of mythology. 

Miss J. M. Stone in Dublin Review, 

Oct., 1894, p. 370. 

Inp09ton8, Southey, ' Commonplace Book,' iv. 

Infirmaress. "There is the prioress . . . the 
chambress. the infirmaress, the portress, and 
others." Lina Eckenstein, ' Woman under Monas- 
ticism,' p. 416. 

Inxpectrew. "Miss Carr, Government inspectress 
of the Western and Southern Circles of Madras." 
Indian May. and Rer., Jan., 1896, p. 52. 

"A community of ladies of sound constitution 
and good conduct under an inspectress." Catholic 
May., Feb., 1896, p. 81. 

Inventrew." Sappho had composed hymns . . . 
in a kind of metre of which she was the invent ress." 
Eng. trans, of Barthelemy, ' Trav.. of Anacharsis 
the \ounger' (1796), vol. i. p. 275. 

"This does not detract from the merit of the 
inventresses." Daily Telegraph, 26 May, 1896, p. 5, 
col. 2. 

Janitress. " Mademoiselle Daguerre was restored 
to consciousness by the janitress of the house." 
Ibid., 18 Oct., 1894, p. 5, col. 7. 

Life-rentrix. Scott, ' Old Mortality,' Abbotsford 
ed., pp. 409, 646. 

Metaphyfricianets. " I believe, my dear Sir Wil- 
liam, that you will not need ' one to come from the 
grave ' to inform you that I am a metaphvsicianess 
(is there such a word?)." Miss Mitford (1812) in 
' Life ' by A. G. L'Estrange, vol. i. p. 190. 

Millionaire**. "The American millionairess who 
is about to marry a French count." Catholic JVetM, 
13 June, 1895, p. 6, col. 1. 

Monkexn. "A sufficient proof how little she 
desired to be a monkess." Eng. trans, of Monta- 
lembert, ' Monks of the West,' vol. i. p. 426. 

Negotiatrix. " A most elegant young woman 
. . . negotiatrix of the forgeries." Miss Mitford in 
' Life ' by A. G. L'Estrange, vol. iii. p. 242. 

Organ-grindreM. " Get married, even though you 
wed an Italian organ-grindress." Catholic Xew, 
21 Aug., 1897, p. 6, col. 6. 

Paintrets. Archwolot/ia, vol. xxxix. p. 40. Gent. 
Man., 1801, vol. ii. p. 897. 

Peasantexs. "A handsome and strong peasantess 
was selected to nurse the Prince." Eng. trans, of 
Madame Carette's 'My Mistress the Empress of the 
French,' p. 223. 

In the court of the fortress 
Beside the pale portress. 

Shelley, ' The Fugitives, 1 iv. 

Thither he came the portress show'd, 
But there, my liege, made brief abode. 

Scott, ' Lord of the Isles,' v. 8. 

"A humble portress at the gates." F. W. Faber, 
' Styrian Lake,' p. 241. 

"I walked off, leaving the puzzled portress with 
her mouth wide open." Lady Georgian^ Fullerton, 
'Ellen Middleton^ (1844), ed. 1884, p. 83. 

Preacheress. " When sweet - voiced preacher- 
esses ask an open-air crowd to embrace religion." 
Daily Telegraph, 21 Aug., 1895, p. 5, col. 4. 

Prexbyteress. "Some of these were presbyter- 
esses." John Bale, 'Actes of Vnchaste votaries,' 
pt. i. fol. 13, ed. 1560. 

Protectrix. " The epithet of Paralia, or protectrix 
of the seashore, given to the goddess, was thus an 
appropriate one." Louis Palma diCesnola, ' Cyprus : 
its Ancient Cities, Tombs, and Temples,' 1877, p. 52. 

Rectrexs. "Mrs. Aikenhead appointed as rectress 
of the convent at Clarenbridge. Rev. J. Fahey, 
' Hist, and Antiq. of L)ioc. of Kilmacduagh,' p. 419. 

Regeneratresx. " There is only this one cardinal 
point of difference between such patients and the 
regeneratress of France." Miss E. M. Clerke, in 
Dublin Review, Oct., 1894, p. 307. 

Regentess. "Nominated her to be regentess 

of the Empire." Sir Fra. Palgrave, ' Hist, of Norm, 
and Engl., vol. ii. P. 815. 

Seigneures*. "The seigneuresses, if such a word 
may be used, of the monastic lands." English trans., 
Montalembert, ' Monks of the West,' vol. v. p. 300. 

Sextoness. "It has been decided that a woman 
may be chosen for, and exercise the office of, sex- 
toness, and vote in the election of one." J. E. 
Vaux, 'Church Folk-lore,' 1894, p. 197. 

tiheriff'etuf. "As hereditary sheriffess of Westmore- 
land, she sat on the bench with the judges at 
assizes." R. S. Ferguson, ' Hist, of Westmoreland,' 
p. 111. 

Speakeress. " We have now a House of Ladies as 

wefl as a House of Lords the dowager Duchess of 

Richmond is the Speakeress, and Lady Jersey the 
first Clerk of the table." Lincoln Herald, 14 Oct., 
1831, p. 3, col. 6. 

Spectatre**. " I by no means interdict them for 
being spectatresses of the couj} d'tvil." Sporting 
Magazine, 1829, vol. xxiv. N.S. p. 32. 

Subjected. " Men only ought to be called sub- 
jects, and women subjectesses." Tho. Nugent, 
trans, of ' Hist, of Friar Gerund,' 1772, vol. i. p. 145. 

SuitrcxK. "Both suitresses are of some position 
and worldly prospects." Daily Telegraph, 1 Dec., 
1894, p. 5, col. 4. 

Superioress. " Letters written to superioresses 
of religious communities." Lady Amabel Kerr, 
'Life of Blessed Sebastian Valfre,' p. 230. 

She is scouted and scorn'd, tho' not many months 


She was thought a fit Tut'ress for statesman and 

Sporting Magazine, 1801, vol. xvii. p. 42. 

Vicarec-*. "The present superior and the vicaress 
of the community are Poles." Tablet, 25 March, 
1893, p. 460. 

VotrM*. "The votre&s insisted that she must 
plump for ' Annie Sinclair.' "Daily Telegraph, 
23 Nov., 1894, p. 5, col. 4. 

Wait re**. " The Waiters', Waitresses', Barmen's, 
and Domestic Servants' Protection Union." Daily 
Telegraph, 29 Jan., 1894, p. 5, col. 4. 



n. JULY ie, 

Wardress. " The prisoner's daughter was brough 
up in the custody of a wardress. Ibid., 23 May 
1896, p. 8, col. 5. 

Witnessess. " If a man be a witness, a womar 
must necessarily be a witnessess." Tho. Nugent 
trans, of ' Hist, of Friar Gerund,' 1772, vol. i. p. 144 

Workeress. " The new wasps thus producer 
are all workers, or rather workeresses. P. M. 
Duncan, ' Transformations of Insects,' i>. 233. 

Writrix. See Geniwess. 


of your correspondents says (ante, p. 17) he 
has once or twice met with Angell as a 
Christian name, doubtless derived, as in the 
case of John Angell James, author of 'The 
Anxious Inquirer,' from a surname. Angel 
as a surname probably belongs to the same 
class as Swan, Bull, Bell, Rose, and perhaps 
Bush, which are no doubt derived from the 
signs of houses of residence. We know that 
the Angel was a common sign for shops and 
inns. MR. PEACOCK considers that the crea- 
tion of a surname in quite modern times is 
worthy of note (ante, p. 6). Of this the fore- 
going are probably instances, as I can find no 
trace of them in Tudor times, but I may add 
another instance certainly quite recent. In 
a Buckinghamshire village I knew a man 
bearing the name of London. Inquiring 
how he came to be so called, I found that in 
his youth he was the only man in the village 
who had travelled as far as the capital, and 
hence had got the name or nickname of Jack 
Lunnon. This, I need hardly say, was before 
the days of railways. ISAAC TAYLOR. 

ING. This phrase is mentioned by Scott in 
'The Fortunes of Nigel,' chap, xviii. In 
Kingsley's ' Westward Ho ! ' chap, ii., it 
seems to be used in the sense of the collo- 
quialism being "one too many for," or, as 
Mrs. Hardcastle puts it, being "too hard 
for the philosopher." See 'She Stoops to 
Conquer,' Act I v. JONATHAN BOUCHIER. 
[See ' H. E. D.' under 'Dor.'] 

ing extract from the Melbourne Argus of 
24 May is so interesting to folk-lorists and so 
curious in itself that it seems to deserve a 
place in 'N. & Q.': 

" There was an interesting discussion at the last 
nieeting of the Otago Institute on the fire ceremony 
in Fiji. Drs. Hocken and Colquhoun, of Dunedin, 
have just returned from a trip to the islands, and 
while there they had an opportunity of watching 
the ceremony, which was described by Dr. Hocken. 
The ceremony is now seldom performed, and the 
power, so far as Fiji is concerned, appears to be 
confined to a family resident on Mbenga, an islet 
lying twenty miles south of Suva. These people, 

almost nude and with bare feet, walk quickly and 
unharmed across and among the stones, made white- 
hot, forming the pavement of the cooking oven. An 
attempt was made to register the heat, but when 
the thermometer had been placed for a few seconds 
about 4ft. or 5ft. above the stones it had to be 
withdrawn, as the solder of the tin covering began 
to melt. The thermometer then registered 282, 
and Dr. Hocken estimates that the range was over 
400. The fire-walkers, seven or eight in number, 
then approached, and in single file walked leisurely 
across and around the oven. The leader was a 
second or two under half a minute on the stones. 
Then heaps of the soft and succulent leaves of the 
hibiscus were thrown into the oven, causing clouds 
of steam, and upon the leaves and within the steam 
the natives sat or stood. The men were carefully 
examined by the two doctors, both before and after 
the ceremony. The fire had not affected the simple 
articles of dress they wore. The soles of their feet 
were not thick or leathery. The men showed no 
symptoms of distress, and their pulse was unaffected. 
The soles of the feet were not in the least blistered. 
Simple tests made failed to show that there had 
been any special preparation. Both doctors, while 
denying anything miraculous about the experiment, 
xpressed themselves unable to form any scientific 
xplanation of the matter." 


Trinity College, Melbourne. 

YARD. My old friend the late Mr. Henry 
Poole, for many years the master mason to 
the Dean and Chapter of Westminster, in 
ose hands was placed nearly the whole of 
;he work having to be done to the fabric of 
the Abbey, made many discoveries in its 
vicinity, few of which were of more interest 
than the one which I feel it but right and 
proper to place upon record in the pages of 
N. & Q.' This slab of marble is easily seen 
)y any one who looks for it, being, in the 
anguage of my old friend, situated " at the 
ntersection of two lines, one being the pro- 
ongation of the axis of the parish church, 
;he other being the prolongation of the axis 
of the transepts of the Abbey." This was its 
)osition some few years ago, since which it 
las been shifted a few feet further west, as 
t was in the way when the pathways were 
'ormed, and is now in contact with the stone 
sdging which bounds the greensward. Mr. 
oole records that he had it in his knowledge 
' from boyhood," and he then goes on to say 
.hat it was the "only instance of white 
marble among the many hundreds of ordinary 
;ravestones which then so closely covered 
he whole surface," and furthermore that it 
md always been "believed to be a common 
gravestone, having only initial letters." In 
" 881 a determination was arrived at to cover 
ip all the gravestones, when a complete 
xamination of this slab took place, resulting 
n the confirmation of the opinion that it 

8.ii. JULY 16, m] 



was of "great antiquity," and also that it 
was of " intense compactness, hardness, and 
durability," a small piece being chipped off 
and one of its surfaces polished. The date of 
it is said to be confirmed " to the third cen- 
tury of the Christian era by three incised 
letters Til, which are in exact keeping with 
many Roman inscriptions of the conquerors 
of the Britons scattered throughout the 
country." When temporarily removed to the 
Abbey stoneyard, it was viewed by the public, 
and it is recorded that the opinion generally 
expressed was that it was a "veri table Koman 
relic, a landmark or boundary, the three 
letters signifying 'Terminus No. 2,' or some 
such military expression." It has been sug- 
gested that it may have been buried for many 
centuries and at last brought to light by the 
gravedigger, who, taking it to be an ordinary 
gravestone arid nothing more, raised it with- 
out comment quietly to the surface and left 
it there, either in indifference or "ignorance 
as to its claim to great antiquity." Perhaps 
some reader of 'N. & Q.' versed in these 
matters will pay a visit and report impres- 
sions after inspection. I merely record its 
existence. W. E. HARLAND-OXLEY. 

14, Artillery Buildings, Victoria Street, S.W. 

NEWSPAPERS. The following fact is a use- 
ful illustration of the very slow manner in 
which knowledge spreads. A small farmer 
who lives on Kelsey Car, a district some eight 
or nine miles from here, adjoining the river 
Ancholrae, called last summer on a newspaper 
agent in this town and purchased a news- 
paper of the day. He then asked for some 
more. The agent, not clearly understanding 
what he required, said, " Do you want them 
all alike?" "No" replied the farmer, "I 
want them all of different sorts. You see, I 
don't get from home ofter than once in two 
or three months ; so when I do come to a town 
I like to buy a good lot of papers, that I may 
see what has been going on since I was last 
abroad." This reminds me that I was told, 
many years ago, by one of the first settlers in 
Van Diemen's Land, that in the early days of 
the colony the persons who took English 
newspapers used to receive them in three- 
monthly packages. EDWARD PEACOCK. 

Dunstan House, Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

THE DEVIL'S DAM. Butler in his ' Hudi- 
bras ' has the lines : 

That bore them like the Devil's dam, 
Whose son and husband are the same. 

Towneley, in a note to his French translation 
of. ' Hudibras, ' says that these lines allude 
to Sin and Death in Milton's ' Paradise Lost.' 
The third part of ' Hudibras,' in which the 

lines appear, was published after ' Paradise 
Lost,' though the first and second parts 
appeared before Milton's poem. But Death 
is not the Devil ; and Shakspeare mentioned 
the Devil's dam in his plays before Milton 
was born. Without doubt Shakspeare and 
Butler referred to Lilith, whose double con- 
nexion with Asmodexis was exactly that 
which Butler mentions. Butler's lines con- 
firm what I have remarked before in 
'N. & Q.,' namely, that Shakspeare, in his 
expression of "the Devil and his dam," 
referred to Asmodeiis and Lilith. Asmodeiis 
is the same as Samael. E. YARDLEY. 

[See 8 th S. iv. 442; v. 442; vi. 44, 284; vii. 203; 
viii. 25.] 

TURY. The following extract from wills and 
inventories at York, found among the MSS. of 
the late Canon Raine, is interesting as showing 
the stock of a thriving bookseller, oopkbinder, 
and stationer in the metropolitan city at the 
beginning of the Civil War. Mark Foster, 
the tradesman whose goods are appraised in 
this document, had his shop under shadow of 
the Minster, and is named in Davies's 
'Memoir of the York Press,' p. 56, as the 
publisher of a political broadside (B.M. 
190/G 13, No. 45) printed by Stephen Bulkley, 
the Royalist printer there, in 1642, just a 
month before the two Houses, by special 
resolution, forbade the printing, publishing, 
or uttering any book or pamphlet reflecting 
upon the proceedings of Parliament. 

"1644, May 2. Inventory. Marke Foster, of Yorke, 
stationer, 'praised by Fr. Mawburne and Raiph 
Brocklebancke, stationers, Wm. Calvert and Win. 
Davy, pinners: 

" j parcell of course pastboards, &*. ; j old inapp, 
I*. ; j litle payre of playinge tables with men, 3*. 

" To printed bookes in folio and nine paper bookes 
in folio, 3/. All the bookes on the second foreshelf e in 

Suarto, 31. ; third foreshelf e in octavo, 21. ; fowerth 
sreshelfe in octavo, 21. ; fifte foreshelfe in octavo, 
2/. ; all the bookes on the five short end shelves 
next the Minster doore, 67. 10*. ; all the other 
bound bookes on 12 shorte shelves att the lowe end 
of the shop, being all old ones, '21. All the other 
stitched bookes and printed papers in the shopp, 
II. 10s. ; 3 reames of white paper, I/. IN. ; all the other 
wast papers and some old mapps in the shopp and 
imperfect bookes, fts. 8d. ; 2 pounds of softe wax, 
2s. The stooles in the shopp, 2*. ; 2 cuttinge presses 
with knife stone and old tubb. I/. ; 2 sowinge 
presses, 3a. 4d. ; all the other boards about the 
shopp, 2*. 0(1. ; j payre of weigh scales with other 
implements, 2*. m. Dec. 22, 1G44. Administration 
granted to Thos. Bambrough of York, yeoman." 

Haydon the painter die? Mr. Wheatley 
('London Past and Present') says at No. 4, 
Burwood Place, Edgware Road. Mr. Wil- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. n. JULY ie, . 

mot Harrison ('Memorable London Houses,' 
pp. 148-9) says : 

"At the corner of Burwood Place on the west 
side, numbered 12 (formerly 4), Burwood Place, is the 
house memorable as the scene of the tragic death of 

B. R. Haydon His painting room was on the 

first floor, with the window facing the street. The 
entrance at the corner is an alteration of recent 

Mr. Harrison gives an illustration of the 
house at the north-east corner of Burwood 
Place, now called No. 125, Edgware Road, as 
having been Hay don's residence. 

No. 12, Burwood Place was altered in 1868 
to No. 125, Edgware Road, but, with this 
exception, the numbering of the houses in 
Burwood Place has not been changed. No. 4, 
Burwood Place is on the north-west side of 
the street, and it is improbable that this was 
Hay don's house, as if his painting room fronted 
on the street, as it appears it did, it would 
have had no north light, which is indispens- 
able to a painter ; and the house is described 
in the report of the inquest in the Times of 
25 June, 1846, as being " three doors from 
the 'Norfolk Arms'" public-house, which is 
on the opposite side of the street. I think the 
house must have been on the south-east side 
of Burwood Place ; but the house at the 
corner of Edgware Road does not exactly 
correspond with the description given in the 
report of the inquest, as it is only two doors 
from the " Norfolk Arms " instead of three. 


Canonbury Mansions, N. 

WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
iri order that the answers may be addressed to 
them direct. 

" HORSE-CHESTNUT." (See 3 rd S. x. 452, 523 ; 
xi. 45, 67, 123, 241 ; 4 th S. i. 208 iv. 40.) In 
a notice in the Quarterly Review (xix. 49) 
of Evelyn's 'Memoirs' (ed. Bray), Southey 
quotes from Evelyn the statement that the 
horse-chestnut is " so called for the cure of 
horses broken- winded, and other cattle of 
coughs." Can one of your readers supply the 
reference for the 'Historical English Dic- 
tionary"? ROBT. J. WHITWELL. 

70, Banbury Road, Oxford. 

CAPT. ARTHUR PHILLIP. Can any reader- 
send me particulars of the naval career of 
Capt. Arthur Phillip (afterwards Governor of 
New South Wales) in the Portuguese service, 
and also of his share in the taking of Havana 
in 1762? No doubt there is some record of 

both matters, though our own Admiralty 
Office knows nothing of Phillip (practically) 
beyond his services as the first Governor of 
Botany Bay. INQUIRER. 

"TARR." The following occurs in some 
extracts from a terrier of glebe and parson- 
age of Stopham, ami. 1635, printed in the 
' Sussex Archaeological Collections,' vol. xxvii. 
p. 66 : 

" Also there is aTarr or little Island belonging to 
the said Parsonage and Glebe, called ' the Parson's 
Tarr,' lying a little below Stopharn bridge ...... unto 

which Tarr there was anciently a Ware belonging." 

Is this a Sussex expression 1 


VERHAMPTON. I shall be glad to be furnished 
with an explanation of the following extracts 
from a charter relating to our old collegiate 
church of St. Peter, Wolverhampton (formerly 
dedicated to St. Mary). The date assigned 
for the charter is one of the closing years 
of the tenth century. Sigeric, who signed 
the charter, was made Archbishop of Canter- 
bury 990, died 994. Among the other signa- 
tories are Eadwulf, Archbishop of York, 993 : 
Godwin, Bishop of Rochester, 995; and 
ic, Bishop of " Confensis." 

" Regnante Domino nostro Jhesu Christo anno a 
passione ejusdem Domini et Salvatoris nostri Jhesu 
Christ! DCCCCXCVI. indictione septima." 

' ' Scriptum per Calamum et atramentum et manum 
notarii et scriniarii Ethelredi regis Anglorum in 
inenseOctobrisinDoniinico diexvii.'Kal.,luna xxij. 
indictione vij." 

"Ego Ethelredus gratia Dei rex Anglorum et 
patricius Nprthanhumbrorum consentiens signo 
sanctje crucis subscripsi in Olimpiade iii. regni 

Here are various dates, viz., 996, the ninth 
not the seventh indiction. "17 Kal. Octob.," 
i.e., 16 October on the Sunday. " Third Olym- 
piad of Ethelred's reign": this was in 990. 
"Seventh indiction": 994 was the seventh 
indiction, but this year 16 October fell on 
Tuesday, and on Friday in 996, so that 
neither of these years is correct. Can any 
one explain the expression "luna xxij." or 
twenty-second moon ? 



DANES. Is anything known of the former 
churchyard and burying - ground of St. 
Clement Danes, Strand? The tombstones 
have almost disappeared from the churchyard 
as now enclosed; the few which remain, 
utilized as paving stones, have inscriptions 

9 th S. II. JULY 16, '98.] 


which are almost illegible, as I noticed during 
the late reparations, and most of these seem 
to have been laid with the inscribed faces 
downwards. King's College Hospital is said 
to occupy the site of the old burial-ground. 
At what date was that burial-ground con- 
secrated ; and when was the churchyard 
abandoned for further interments? Was a 
record or plan kept of the graves in either 
churchyard or burial-ground before modern- 
izing ? Are the registers of the church likely 
to be published ? Would these not be ome of 
the most interesting of London registers'? 


RAVENS WORTH. Can any of your readers 
give me information as to origin and meaning 
of the above ? It is a place which has given 
its name to an earldom in the north of Eng- 
land. E. T. 

ANDRE. How can records of death and 
burial-places be found of Marie Louise Andre, 
who died at Bath 22 Feb., 1813, and of her 
daughters Mary Hannah, Anne Marguerite, 
and Louisa Catharine ? They died about 1830, 
1835, and 1845. M. S. 

like a complete list of the stocks, pillories, 
gibbets, ducking-stools, and other obsolete 
instruments of punishment ever been pub- 
lished ? Numerous references to these occur 
throughout the pages of ' N. & Q.,' in various 
topographical works, and elsewhere. No 
attempt, however, seems to have been made 
to compile an accurate list of places where 
these still survive. W. B. GERISH. 

Hoddesdon, Herts. 

MUGGERHANGER. Can any one give the 
derivation of the name of the Bedfordshire 
village now generally spelt Muggerhanger ? 
It does not appear to be mentioned in Domes- 
day. In early times it was spelt Moger- 
hanger, Mogranger, and Moggenhanger. 


SCARMENTADO. Who is this, referred to 
in one of Lord Byron's letters ? Apparently 
a character in fiction or satire. 


Richard Croke, of King's College, Cam- 
bridge, the first Public Orator in the Uni- 
versity and (as it is thought) the first or 
secona Professor of Greek, preceptor in Greek 
to King Henry VIII., made, in or about July, 
1518, a famous oration in favour of Greek 
learning, in which he highly praised Erasmus. 
Will any one of the correspondents of 'N. & Q.' 
furnish me with a quotation from this ora- 

tion, showing the words in which Erasmus 
is praised ? I have consulted the ' Athense 
Cantabrigienses ' and Mr. Thompson Cooper's 
excellent ' Biograph. Diet.' (ed. one volume). 


BRIMPSFIELD : SYDE. Can any one give 
me any information about the monastery 
once at Brimpsfield, or Brympesfield, near 
Gloucester? Also, respecting the church 
at Syde, near Cirencester? Is there any 
tradition connected with its beautiful heart- 
shaped door handle ? Miss CLEVELAND. 


THE ALTAMAHA. There can, I suppose, be 
no doubt that in the lines in ' The Deserted 

To distant climes, a dreary scene, 

Where half the convex world intrudes between, 
Through torrid tracts with fainting steps they go 
Where wild Altama murmurs to their woe 

Goldsmith is alluding to the river Altamaha, 
in Georgia, the colonization of which had 
taken place not long before. But his ex- 
pressions are not very accurate. So far from 
being torrid in the strict sense of the word, 
the latitude of the mouth of the Altamaha 
is more than 31 ; no part, indeed, of the 
present United States is located within the 
tropics. But, besides this, although there are 
certainly rattlesnakes and, I believe, scorpions 
of a certain species in Georgia, there are no 
tigers there to " wait their hapless prey," 
which the poet reckons amongst the horrors 
of the region where some of the inhabitants 
of Auburn have gone. What are the origin 
and meaning of the word Altamaha ? 

W. T. LYNN. 


MRS. GIBBS. Wanted the burial-place of 
Mrs. Gibbs (otherwise Colman). maiden 
name Logan, who is supposed to have died 
at Brighton between 1844 and 1847. She 
made her defait, 18 June, 1783, at the Hay- 
market. Will any reader kindly inform 1 


one give any account of a tradition of ' The 
Legend of the Spider,' as there is said to be 
one ? I have been reading Mr. Bertram Mit- 
ford's book ' The Sign of the Spider.' 

S. F. G. 

ANTIQUE COIN. Will some reader kindly 
inform me of the value and mintage of a 
silver coin that I possess, about the size of 
an old crown piece ? Upon the right side is 
a head in medallion looking to the left ; around 
the edge of the border in Roman capitals, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. n. JULY ie 

LUD . XVI . D . G . FR . ET . NAV . EEX. On the 

sinister side, three fleurs-de-lis, surmounted 
by a crown bearing a cross. Between two 
sprays or branches round the edge in 
Roman capitals, SIT . NOMEN . DOMINI . M . BENE- 
DICTEN . [tie] 1786. In good preservation. 


14, Livingstone Road, Hove. 

FRENCH CARDINAL. Can you inform me 
what Frenchman obtained a cardinal's hat 
at eighteen years of age 1 J. GIFFARD. 

Cowley Rectory, Cheltenham. 

reader be good enough to explain the origin 
of the phrase "Paying through the nose"? 
I have referred to the ' Slang Dictionary ' 

Sublished by Chatto & Wind us, 1874, also 
rewer's 'Dictionary of Phrase and Fable,' 
new edition, but imagine the explanation 
incomplete. J. F. BLACKMORE. 

[See I 8t S. i. 333, 421 ; ii. 348; 5 th S. vi. 134.] 

PICOT OR PIGGOTT. Picot is a very old 
English personal name, at least as old as 
Domesday Book. I presume the surname 
Piggott very old in Herts and Beds, because 
it is common to landed and unlanded families 
is the same name. Can it be connected 
with the Italian Christian name Pico ? 



SCOTT BIOGRAPHY. I have a small volume 
of 374 pp. en titled "Life | of | Sir Walter Scott, 
Bart., | with | Notices of his Works, | &c. | 
by G. M'Donald, Esq. | London : | Published 
by Jones and Co. 1838." It contains a por- 
trait of the author of ' Waverley.' From its 
general appearance I should imagine it to be 
a cheap production. But who was the author, 
G. M'Donald ? Until I saw this ' Life ' I had 
never heard of it or its author. 

C. P. HALE. 

THOMAS KEYES. The name Keyes occurs 
in various Berks marriage registers. Who 
was Thomas Keyes, husband of Lady Mary 
Grey ? Where and when did he die ? 


reader of ' N. & Q.' kindly tell me who is the 
author of the humorous poem (often used as 
a comic recitation) beginning, 

An Eton stripling training for the law, 
A dunce at syntax, but a dab at taw, 

and proceeding to demonstrate that a horse- 
chestnut is a chestnut horse? Where and 
when was it originally published ? 

... &. H. MURRAY. 
Oxford. Iy , 


(9 th S. i. 489.) 

THE picture alluded to may have been an 
intended illustration of one tragic result of 
the famous Buondelmonti affair in Florence 
in 1215, when Guido Orlandi was Podesta. 
To be brief, a young Buondelmonti had 
promised himself in marriage to a daughter 
of the house of Amidei. As he was passing 
one day by the house of a lady of the 
Donati family, Lapaccia by name, the 
latter blamed him for affiancing himself to 
a damsel quite unworthy of mm, at the 
same time declaring to him that she had 
been reserving for him her own daughter 
Ciulla, who was one of the most beautiful 
young ladies in all Florence. Beholding the 
latter, Buondelmonti " per subsidio diavoli," 
says Villani (v. 38) became instantly en- 
chanted, and before he quitted the mansion 
placed a ring upon her fatal finger. The 
kinsfolk of the jilted maiden of the Amidei, 
soon learning of the shame done them, coun- 
selled together how they might be revenged 
upon Buondelmonti ; and this is how it came 
to pass. On Easter morning a number of 
them contrived to surprise him, mantled in 
white and riding upon a white horse, as he was 
returning from the house of the Bardi ; and 
presently, while he was approaching the foot 
of the Ponte Vecchio, " precisely where stood 
the statue of Mars," they made a rush for 
him. Although he defended himself as best 
he could, Schiatta degli Uberti dragged him 
from his horse, while two of the Amidei did 
him to death with their daggers. In addition, 
Villani says that Oderigo Fifanti (surely a 
superfluity !) opened the victim's veins. "And 
this death of Messer Buondelmonti was the 
origin of the woeful Guelf and Ghibelline 
factions in Florence." Perhaps he should 
have said rather that it was the spark which 
determined the conflagration. In any case, 
the quarrel of Pontiff and Emperor was of 
older date, and it would seem, therefore, that 
a local social outbreak was easily made to 
square with a political and general one, and 
bring it to a disastrous culmination. 


Buondelmonti was a Florentine, betrothed 
to one of the Amidei. He broke his engage- 
ment in order to marry a beautiful girl of the 
Donati family, and was murdered in revenge 
by the family of his first choice at the foot of 
the Ponte Vecchio in 1215. It was this family 
feud which gave rise to the factions of the 
Neri and Bianchi. Rogers tells the story in 

9* s. ii. JULY 16, m] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


his 'Italy,' and Dante alludes to it in the 
sixteenth canto of the ' Paradise. ' HADJI. 

TELESCOPE AT SLOUGH (9 th S. ii. 8). When, 
after 1 remaining for nearly fifty years in a 
serviceable condition, Sir William Herschel's 
forty-foot telescope was finally dismantled 
in 1840, the massive four -foot speculum 
and the long sheet-iron tube of the instru- 
ment were preserved. The mirror and a 
portion of the great tube which carried it 
are still in the possession of some members of 
Sir John Herschel's family, who reside in the 
house at Slough occupied by Sir William, 
and in the garden of which the telescope 
formerly stood in its entirety. 

Observatory House, Slough. 

The fortj'-foot telescope was dismounted 
and taken down by Sir John Herschel about 
the end of 1839, and all the family got inside 
the tube on New Year's Eve. 1840, and sang a 
song which he had composed for the occasion, 
beginning "In the old telescope's tube we 
sit." It has since fallen into decay ; but the 
speculum is, I believe, still in the possession 
of Prof. A. S. Herschel at Slough. 

W. T. LYNN. 


(9 th S. i. 347, 475 ; ii. 12). I have to plead 
lapsus calami in my communication at the 
last reference, where I represented Anne, 
Countess of Strafford, as sole daughter of Sir 
Henry Johnson by Martha, Baroness Went- 
worth, his second wife. The baroness had 
no child, and Sir Henry's daughter was by 
his first wife, Anne Smithson, of which 
family are the Dukes of Northumberland, 
although, as of Percy descent, they bear the 
famous name so long associated with their 
historic title. W. L. BUTTON. 

27, Elgin Avenue, W. 

In compliance with MR. RUTTON'S sug- 
gestion, the following is a short description 
of the portrait in my possession. I shall be 
pleased to send him a photograph of it should 
he wish. Seen to below the waist in a standing 
position, left arm resting on object concealed 
by her mantle, which she wears over an olive- 

reen gown, open at neck and shoulders, 
he face ana blue eyes toward the spectator, 
but face turned slightly to right ; right arm 
hanging down ; pretty face, florid complexion, 
hair brown and raised above forehead, large 
curl over left breast ; no rings or other 
ornaments. HUMPHREY WOOD. 


CORONATION PLATE (9 th S. i. 447). The right 
of claiming the plate used at the coronation 
is very ancient. In Bohun's ' Privilegia Lon- 
dini,' 1723, there is a petition to Edward III. 
by the then (1326) Lord Mayor*, Richard 
Betayne, showing that he performed the 
office of butler at his Majesty's coronation 
with 360 valets, all clothed in the same livery, 
and each bearing in his hand a white silver 
cup, " as other maiors of London, time out of 
mind, used to do at the coronation of the 
kings your predecessors." The fee appendant 
to the service was a gold cup with a cover 
and a ewer of gold enamelled. 

In ' London and the Kingdom,' published' 
by the Corporation, it is stated that in No- 
vember, 1429, the City made their usual 
claim to attend the coronation of Henry VI. 
William Estfeld, the Mayor at that time, 
attended, and received as his fee the gold cup 
used at the ceremony. This cup remained in 
his possession until his death, and by his will, 
dated 15 March, 1445 (' Calendar of Wills '), 
he evidently considered it to be his own pro- 
perty, for he bequeathed it to his grandson, 
John Bohun. 

On the coronation of Richard III., in July, 
1483, the City again claimed their right, when 
Hugh Bryce, the Mayor, received as his fee 
the gold cup used by his Majesty, which was 
claimed by the Common Council, as the fol- 
lowing extract from ' London and the King- 
dom,' under the date of 13 July, 1486, will 
show : 

"It is agreed this day by the Court that whereas 
Hugh Bryce, Mair of this Citie, hathe in his kepyng 
a coppe of gold, garnished with perle and precious 
stone, of the giite of Richard, late in dede, and not 
of right, Kyng of England, which gifte was to those 
of the Cominaltie of the said Citie, and if the saide 
cuppe be stolen or taken away by thevys out of his 
possession, or elles by the casualtie of nre hereafter 
it shall hapne the same cuppe to be brent or lost, 
that the same Hugh Bryce hereafter shall not be 
hurt or impeched therefore." 

In the account of the coronation of King 
George IV., on 19 July, 1821, given in Allen's 
' History and Antiquities of London,' 1828, I 
find the office of Chief Butler of England was 
executed by the Duke of Norfolk, as Earl of 
Arundel and lord of the manor of Ken- 
ninghall, who received a gold basin and ewer 
as his fee. Queen Victoria was crowned on 
28 June, 1838, but there was no banquet in 
Westminster Hall, with its accompanying 
feudal services. When the City lost their 
claim to act as chief butler I have not ascer- 

71, Brecknock Road. 

SIEGE OF SIENA (9 th S. i. 168, 369). In addi- 
tion to MR. W. B. DUFFIELD'S reply to the 



s. n. JULY IG, 

query of F. B. on this subject, the latter may 
care to know that the precise date upon 
which the Signora Forteguerra (doubtless 
the wife of Niccodemo), Signora Piccolomini,* 
and Signora Livia Fausta, and their three 
thousand Sienese women worked so valiantly 
at the fortifications of their town was 10 August, 
1554. According to Ascanio Centorio, this 
veritable feminine army had organized itself 
as far back as January, 1553. Niccodemo 
himself had been brought in badly wounded 
the day before. In the following January, 
however, we find him on his feet again, and 
appointed " Commissario della Republica " in 

Slace of Giulio Cacciaguerra, deceased. The 
[archese di Marignano must have been 
forcibly reminded, one would think, of the 
similar work performed on the fortifications 
Of Musso on the Lake of Como, twenty 
years before, by his own two sisters, Clarina 
Altemps and Margherita Borromeo (after- 
wards mother of San Carlo). 


A BELL WITH A STORY (9 th S. i. 406). 
Copper is always the larger constituent in 
bell-metal, which is thus defined by Dr. 
Murray : "An alloy of copper and tin, the 
tin being in larger proportion than in 
ordinary bronze." Sir H. Davy is cited (1812) : 
" Copper alloyed with from one - twelfth to 
one-fifth of tin forms the different species of 
bronze and bell-metal." According to Dr. 
Raven (' Church Bells of Suffolk,' p. 64) there 
are barely a hundred bells from the medueval 
Bury foundry now in existence, chiefly in 
Suffolk and Norfolk. We may hope that 
the find chronicled bv COL. MALET will be 
scientifically examined and taken care of. 


GENTLEMAN PORTER (8 th S. xii. 187, 237, 
337, 438, 478 ; 9 th S. i. 33, 50, 450). MR. W. L. 
RUTTON, at the last reference, quotes the 
following couplet as Lady Mary Wortley 
Montagu's, in the ' Town Eclogues ' : 

At the Groom-Porter's battered bullies play ; 
Some Dukes at Mary-bone bowl time away. 

I have not the ' Town Eclogues ' at hand, nor 
do I remember ever coming across them in 
the course of my reading; but is not 'The 
Basset-Table,' in which this couplet occurs, 
by Pope ? In Pope's ' Poetical Works,' edited 
by the Rev. H. F. Gary, edition 1863, the 
poem is given without any intimation that 
it is other than Pope's ; and in Mr. W. M. 
Rossetti's edition of Pope, published by 

* Wife of Pomponio Piccolomini, captain of 
mounted arquebusjers, presently killed, 5 Sep- 
tember, 1554. 

Moxon, there is the following prefatory note 
by Warburton to ' The Basset-Table': 

" Only this of all the town eclogues was Mr. 
Pope's ; and is here printed from a copy corrected 
by his own hand. The humour of it consists in 
this, that the one is in love with the game, and the 
other with the sharper." 

In this poem "tea" is rhymed both as 
" tea " and " tay." See Mr. Austin Dobson's 
charming poetic sketch 'A Gentlewoman of 
the Old School.' JONATHAN BOUCHIER. 

Ropley, Hampshire. 

[The lines are by Pope.] 

I have referred to ' The Alchemist ' (edition 
1612, Brit. Mus. 644 b. 56), and found the 
reference as I gave it, viz., "Act III. 
scene iv." I think, therefore, that you will 
find the foot-note correction incorrect, and 
that Act III. has five scenes. 


[In Gifford's ' Jonson,' edition 1816, to which we 
referred, not having the early edition at hand, 
Act III. has but two scenes.] 

HERALD'S VISITATION (9 th S. i. 387). In 
answer to MR. SCATTERGOOD'S inquiry, Mr. 
Walter C. Metcalfe edited the ' Visitation of 
Northamptonshire,' and it was published, with 
a plate of Northampton seals, by Mitchell & 
Hughes, I believe. He also produced ' A Book 
of Knights Banneret, Knights of the Bath, 
and Knights Bachelor, from Henry VI. to 
28 Elizabeth, and also a List of Knights made 
in Ireland.' Both books are getting scarce, 
and the ' Visitation of Rutland,' published by 
the Harleian Society, has been for years out 
of print through the effects of a fire. 

M. G. 

PARKS (9 th S. i. 468). Indian humped cattle 
are kept in the park at Wentworth Wood- 
house, Yorkshire, and so are Wallachian 
sheep with four horns. What with these and 
red deer and fallow deer, the population of 
that great park is undeniably varied. General 
Pitt-Rivers keeps the small St. Kilda sheep in 
his park at Rushmere, on the Dorset and 
Wilts border. H. J. MOULE. 


At Strathfieldsaye there are (or were) 
llamas. A good story is told of the Duke of 
Wellington, that years ago the first llamas 
brought there were shorn, and a waistcoat 
made for the duke ; but a late frost set in, and 
they had to make flannel waistcoats for the 
llamas instead of their own wool. 

E. E. T. 

"To DIE STILLBORN" (9 th S. i. 285). This 
phrase is more common than many woylcl 

9* s. ii. JULY 16, 



suppose it to be, and I hear it now and again 
in connexion with still-births. " It was dead 
stillborn," and " It died stillborn," I heard not 
long ago in connexion with a police case. It 
is nonsense, to be sure, but none the less a 
form of expression to which many besides the 
less educated cling. It means death in the 
act of being born. THOS. RATCLIFFE. 


NAME (9 th S. i. 446). I do not think that the 
practice of giving two brothers the same 
Christian name was very uncommon in by- 
past times. I have come across many 
examples of it, but, I am sorry to say, have 
noted but few of them. 

It is stated in the ' Monasticon ' that 
"Ralph de Tony the younger, the grandson of 
Roger de Tony, the Conqueror's standard-bearer, 
had two wives, Alice and Margaret, by each of 
whom he had a son named Roger. Vol. iv. p. 299. 

One of these sons but which, it seems, is 
not certainly known was the founder of a 
nunnery at Flamstead, in Hertfordshire. 

The will of Thomas Malory, of Papworth, in 
Huntingdonshire, dated in 1469, whom some 
have surmised to have been the same person 
as he who wrote of the death of Arthur, men- 
tions John, his son and heir, and "John filius 
meus junior" (Athenaeum, 11 Sept., 1897, 
p. 354). 

John Leland, the antiquary, who died in 
1552, had a brother known as John Leland, 
senior (' Diet. National Biography ' sub nom.). 

John Walgrave the elder, of Helpringham, 
Lincolnshire, who made his will in 1542, 
made certain bequests to " John my sone the 
eld." and to " John my sone ye young." 

Thomas Reade, of Calcott, in Huntingdon- 
shire, whose will was executed in 1595, men- 
tions " my daughter Katheryn the younger," 
and "my eldest daughter Katheryne," who 
had become the wife of Henry Brownyng. 

Sir George Manners, a member of the ducal 
family of Rutland, who died in 1623, had a 
younger brother of the same name (Pro- 
ceedings of Society of Antiquaries, 11 June, 
1874, p. 2471 

Unless there be some misprint or other 
mistake, the late Rev. George Oliver fur- 
nishes us with what may be regarded as a 
recent instance, as he makes a record of 
Charles Waterton, S.J., who was a younger 
brother of Charles Waterton, of Walton Hall, 
Esq. This second Charles is stated to have 
died at Stonyhurst in 1852 ('Collections illus- 
trative of History of Catholic Religion in 
Cornwall,' &c., p. 433). 

The following further references may be 
worth giving. I am sorry to say that I have 

not the volumes at hand for consulta- 
tion : Meadows Cowper, ' Holy Cross, Can- 
terbury,' p. 12; Cruise, 'Thomas a Kempis,' 
pp. 194, 200; Gillow, 'Bibliographical Diet, 
of English Catholics,' vol. iii. p. 328*. 

Though not directly relating to the subject, 
as these were not Christian names, it may be 
well to note that Herod the Great had two 
sons called Philip, two Phasael, and two 
Herod (Fouard, ' The Christ, the Son of God,' 
English translation, i. 385). 

I have often been asked why Christian 
names have been duplicated in this fashion, 
but have not hitherto been able to give a 
satisfactory answer. It has been suggested 
by others that in former times it was cus- 
tomary to give the babe the name of its god- 
father. If this were so which has not, so far 
as I know, been demonstrated it fully 
accounts for the occurrence of the same 
Christian name more than once among the 
children of the same parents. 


An almost exact parallel to the instances 
quoted is to be found in the 'Placitorum 
Abbreviatio,' p. 214. It is there recorded that 
in A.D. 1288 Johannes de Bosco ( = de Bois 
= de Boys), son of Johannes de Bosco and 
Eduse de Crull, surrendered all his father's 
lands in county Lincoln to his half-brother 
Johannes de Bosco, son of Johannes de Bosco 
and Juliana Gunnesse. The father of the 
two Johns above mentioned was doubtless 
the Sire John du Boys of the Counte Nichole 
( = county of Lincoln) whose name and arms 
are recorded in the Roll of the Bannerets of 
England compiled in the early part of the 
reign of Edward I. (circa A.D. 1280) ; see 
p. 410 et seq. of vol. xxi. of Parliamentary 
Writs in the British Museum. His father, 
again, was almost certainly the Johannes de 
Bosco, of Coningsby, county Lincoln, to 
whom, in A.D. 1253, was granted free warren 
in that manor (see ' Calendarium Rotulorum 
Cartarum,' p. 81), and hence doubtless arose 
his wish to bestow on each of his sons, by his 
two wives, the same patronymic. 

The name John was a favourite name in 
this family, and the pedigree-hunter often, 
therefore, finds himself at fault. A double 
scent like the above, however, when dis- 
covered, sometimes solves the difficulty. 


Hullbrook, Guildford. 

This was very common, although an out- 
of-the-way subject. The most noticeable case 
I have met with was in the Paston family. 
John Paston, the letter - writer, who died 
1466, ha.d. two sons of the same I. Sir 

NOTES AND QUERIES. & s. n. Jn.v 10, 

John, died 1479/80 ; 2. Sir John the junior, 
who survived till 1503, A. H, 

In ' Parish Registers,' by Chester Waters, 
a most valuable little book for reference, this 
custom is alluded to. E. E. THOYTS. 

NOUNCED (9 th S. i. 466). It would be easy to 
add to MR. PLATT'S list. Sir Robert Napier, 
when raised to the peerage as Lord Napier 
of Magdala, went so far as to lengthen the 
penultimate on his card. The correct pro- 
nunciation is Magdala, as I can assert on the 
strength of nearly two years' enforced re- 
sidence in the place, and not Magdala, as 
Lord Napier wrote it. Kassala, in the 
Egyptian Sudan, is often mispronounced. 
The word is a dactyl, and the stress should be 
laid on the first syllable. I spent some days 
in the town in the autumn of 1865. 

Sahara is rather a glaring case, because, 
correctly speaking, the word is a dissyllable, 
and should be written Sahra. We first of all 
misspell the word, and then mispronounce it. 
About Kumassi I do not feel quite sure. One 
of my sons served with his regiment in the 
last Ashanti expedition, and spent some 
weeks at Kumassi. On his return I noticed that 
he pronounced it in the usual way, with the 
accent on the penultimate. He also strongly 
reprobated the common pronunciation of 
Ashantee, with the stress on the final syllable, 
and said that it was properly Ashanti. My 
son does not, however, profess to be a philo- 
logist, and merely gave the sounds as he 
heard them from the natives. 

I have not Sir Richard Burton's works at 
hand, and cannot refer to his remarks on the 
word Swahili. He doubtless gave the correct 
derivation from Sahil, the Arabic word for 
coast or shore. The regular plural of this is 
Suwahil, and the hybrid native of the East 
African coast is called by the Arabs Suwahili, 
or longshoreman. An Arab would accent this 
word on the antepenultimate, but it is a 
peculiarity of the East African that he throws 
the accent on Arabic words as far forward as 
he can. He pronounces, for instance, 'askari, 
a soldier, as askdri; khabr, news, as habdm. 
MR. PLATT will find many instances of this 
tendency in any Swahili grammar, but I have 
given these two examples because they illus- 
trate another peculiarity of the East African 
his aversion to gutturals. Similarly, he 
calls himself a Swahili, and his language 

I may take this opportunity of saying that 
I was sorry to see the terms in which, in a 
former note (9 th S. i. 261), MR. PLATT spoke of 
Bishop Steere's works on Swahili grammar. 

I was intimately acquainted with Dr. Steere, 
in whom earnest piety and profound learning 
were united to a geniality of disposition that 
rendered him a favourite in every circle 
which he entered. His books on the lan- 
guages and folk-lore of the East Coast have at 
least the merit that attaches to the work of a 
pioneer. It was at the request of Dr. Steere 
that on Christmas Day, 1873, 1 was privileged 
to lay the first stone of the cathedral of 
Zanzibar on the site of the old slave market ; 
and photographs which I have recently seen 
prove to what an extent the progress of the 
sacred edifice has answered to the expectations 
of the self-denying man to whose exertions 
the foundation was principally due. I ven- 
ture to assert that without the assistance 
afforded by Dr. Steere's grammatical works 
on the Swahili, Yao or Makua, and other 
languages, missionary enterprise on the East 
Coast would have encountered many more 
difficulties than has fortunately been the case. 

45, Pall Mall, S.W. 

ST. SYTH (8 th S. xii. 483 ; 9 th S. i. 16, 94, 
238). St. Eadburgh, sister of St. Osyth, and 
daughter of Frithewald, King of Surrey. 
Rfedwald was King of East Anglia, and 
died 599, while St. Osyth was married quite 
young to Sigehere of Essex, 654. Frithewald 
gave Aylesbury to Eadburgh and her sister 
Eadgytn. She had Bicester Priory dedicated 
to her. 

St. Eadburghs are, I suspect, more in 
number even than MR. SEYMOUR gives, as the 
aunt of this St. Eadburgh is said to have been 
head of the religious house at what is now 
Edlesborough, where two of her nieces, St. 
Osyth and St. Eadburgh, were educated. 
Leland calls the place Ellesburrowe. Elles- 
borough and Edlesborough are within a 
dozen miles of each other. This aunt, I 
fancy, must have been aunt by marriage, 
and not a daughter of the old pagan Penda. 

Was Eadburgh, daughter of Offa, a saint ? 
She was wife of Brihtric, King of Wessex, 
who must have died about 800. Broadway, 
near Pershore, might have been dedicated to 
this lady. 

The St. Eadburgh, daughter of Centwine, 
I did not know of, unless she was the same 
as Heaburga, or, as usually called, Bugga. 
This lady's mother, Abbess Eangith, may 
have been widow of Centwine ; but it is not 
a safe conclusion, says Bishop Stubbs. 

Then Eadburgh, daughter of Eadweard 
the Elder, who chose the religious life at 
the age of three. She died in 960 as nun of 
Winton, and was there buried, The story of 

9 th S. II. JULY 16, '98. ] 



the translation of the body to Pershore seems 
hardly supported. Her brother vEthelstan 
gave her Drocenesford in 930, then " sancto 
velaraine consignatw," Ebrington, Bicester, 
Broadway, Yardley, and Leigh are all dedi- 
cated to some St. Eadburgh, 

There was an Eadburgh, daughter of King 
Ealdwulf of East Anglia. As she was abbess 
of Repton, she was probably called saint. 

Eadburgh, wife of King Wulfhere of 
Mercia, who died 735, second abbess of 
Gloucester, might have been the " principal " 
of Edlesborough, the aunt who brought up 
the first St. Eadburgh. T. W. 

Aston Clinton. 

THE STANDING EGG (9 th S. i. 386, 472). As 
no ungrammatical expression occurring in 
' N. & Q.' should pass unnoticed, I am sorry 
to note one at the last reference given above, 
where the writer says that " an egg can be 
stood on end." The correct expression is, of 
course, " made to stand," or, in abbreviated 
form, "made stand." "Stand," as an in- 
transitive verb, has no passive. 


It would be interesting to know on which 
end MR. HISSEY makes eggs stand. Their 
centre of gravity is always nearest the small 
end ; but the ability to stand depends upon 
the equilibrium being stable, which requires 
the centre of gravity to be no further up 
than the centre of curvature. I can imagine 
some eggs standing on the large end and 
some on the small, but no single egg on both. 
Another question is the possibility of so 
shaking an egg as to detach its air-bubble 
from the large end. Some other part would 
then feel warm to the lips instead of the large 
end ; but I never have known this to happen. 

E. L. G. 

If MR. HISSEY will first shake his egg well 
he will have no difficulty at all in making it 
stand. The shaking breaks the yolk, which 
soon settles to the bottom of the egg, and 
gives it a stable equilibrium. C. C. B. 

THE AGE OF YEW TREES (8 th S. x. 431 ; xi. 
276, 334, 433). On 28 August, 1886, I was 
making a water-colour sketch of Bowdon parish 
church, Cheshire, with a view of a large 
ancient yew tree in the churchyard. A 
local gentleman came to look at my drawing, 
so I inquired whether he knew the age of 
this tree. His reply was, " It is said to be 
1,000, and was very healthy till a few years 
ago, and was killed by banking up the earth 
round the trunk." He further said, "The 
two yew trees near the gates are over 200, 
from records in the church." These two are 

much smaller than the old one, and they are 
quite in their prime. FRED. L. TAVARE, 
30, Rusholme Grove, Rusholme, Manchester, 

"To CHI-IKE": "CHI-IKE" (9 th S. i. 425).*- 
The late Mr. Milliken, the author of the 
' 'Arry Letters ' in Punch, repeatedly used the 
word in the effusions just referred to e.g., 
Punch, 26 December, 1891, 303a ("Arry on 
Arrius ') : 

Though Arrius's haspirates rucked, and made 

Mister Cat Ullus chi-ike, 
He M r as probably jest such a rattler as poets and 

prigs never like. 

Punch, 7 May, 1892, 217b (' 'Arry on 

Pace, dust, and chyike make yer chalky, and don't' 
we just ladle it down ? 


Nijmegen, Holland. 

(9 th S. i. 468). The late Earl of Shrewsbury's 
collection of pictures was disposed of during 
the week ending 12 July, 1857, by Messrs, 
Christie & Manson. The whole amount of 
the six days' sale exceeded 13,000^. The 
price paid for any particular picture and 
the name of the purchaser could DC obtained 
from the auctioneers. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

It may be of interest to many inquirers 
besides INCUS to know that this sale was 
conducted by Messrs. Christie & Manson, 
and that a fully priced catalogue may be 
consulted at their offices at 8, King Street, 
St. James's (Square. Brief accounts of the 
sale appear in Bedford's 'Art Sales,' i. 154, 
and in my 'Memorials of Christie's,' i. 190. 


BISHOPRIC OF OSSORY (8 th S. xi. 489 ; xii. 34, 
253). In reply to your correspondent from 
Cheltenham, who asks, "What is the origin 
of the name Ossory ?" I may quote from 
'Topographical Poems,' &c., ed. by O'Dono- 
van, and published by the Irish Archaeo- 
logical Society, 1862, introduction, p. 8, where 
we read : 

" Many Irish names of tribes are formed by the 
addition of terminations, such as raighe, to the cog- 
nomens of their ancestors, as Kiarraighe (Kerry), 
Osraighe (Ossory)." 

Os in Gaelic means fawn. The name which 
is anglicized Ossory was first that of a tribe, 
then the name of a sub-kingdom, and after- 
wards that of a bishopric, whose seat is now 
in the city of Kilkenny. The dean of the 
cathedral in Kilkenny, however, is still 
called "Dean of Ossory," according to the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. p* s. 11. JULY ie, '93. 

'Clergy List,' This is not so remarkable 
as that the only dean in the diocese of 
Meath, which is conterminous with the 
ancient kingdom, is called "of Clonmac- 
noise," where there is now no cathedral. 
We have also a " Dean of Ardagh," in which 
diocese there is only a parish church at 
Ardagh. T. C. GILMOUR. 

Ottawa, Canada. 

344). George Donnithorne Elliott was posted 
to the 33rd Regiment Bengal Native Infantry 
as ensign 24 September, 1835; promoted 
lieutenant in the same, 12 February, 1838; 
posted to the invalid establishment at Nynee 
Tal, 7 September, 1846; transferred to Meerut, 
1851 ; drowned at Nynee Tal, 29 July, 1854. 


" DROO " (8 th S. xii. 189, 237). This word is 
said to be a Berkshire word, " used to express 
the condition bees are in just before winter." 
In the ' E. D. D.' material the word (written 
" drew ") is found in Berkshire glossaries and 
collections. I should be glad to get any 
information showing that the word was in 
use in the surrounding counties or elsewhere. 



"TEXTILE" (9 th S. i. 8). The use of the 
word textile = spinnable fibre is not new 
either in France or England. My use 
('Folk-lore of Filatures') of "filatures" as 
a collective name for things spun, things 
spinnable, and things of like nature or sub- 
stance, I believe is new. Perhaps no one has 
hitherto had occasion to speak of these things 
collectively, and so the word has not been 
required in that sense. It is certainly more 
appropriate than "textile," since all textile 
fabrics, except mere mats or wickerwork, 
must first be spun before they are woven, 
whilst the great bulk of things spun is never 
destined to be woven at all. This is less the 
case, certainly, in these days of mastless anc 
riggingless vessels with chain cables ; bul 
still there is plenty of rope, twine, and sew- 
ing-cotton still used. THOMAS J. JEAKES. 

S. i. 446). The explanation of the variation 
in the number of references in our common 
Bibles of the Authorized Version at the pre 
sent time, in comparison with those in the 
1611-1769 editions, is this : 

" Considerable errors in process of time crept into 
the text ; so much so that ' Archbishop Seeker 
recommended that aversion of the A.V. should be 
made in the University of Oxford ; and severa 
learned persons undertook, in conjunction with th 

Delegates of the University Press, to prepare an 
:dition more perfect than any which had preceded 
t. The result of this undertaking was the pub' 
ication, in A.r>, 1769, of two editions commonly 
snown as Dr. Blayney's, one in 4to., and the other 
n folio, the latter of which was taken as the 
jtandard for the A.V.' (Dr. Cardwell's letter to the 
editor of the British Mayazine, March, 1833)...... At 

the suggestion of Archbishop Seeker a large addition 
was made by Dr. Blayney to the number of marginal 
references," Latham's ' Oxford Bibles, and Printing 
n Oxford,' Oxford, 1870, pp. 31-2. 

The references were largely increased. 
Thirty thousand four hundred and ninety - 
ive new references were inserted in the 
margin. Dr. Blayney communicated to the 
9entlemaris Magazine for November, 1769, a 
:ull account of his alterations (vol. xxxix. 
pp. 517-9). The italics, the etymology of 
proper names, the summaries of chapters, the 
running titles, the punctuation, the chrono- 
,ogy, came in for revision as well as the 
references. See H. Home on 'S. S.,' 1846, 
vol. v. pp. 100 sqq. ED. MARSHALL, F.S.A. 

Not only from Ecclesiasticus does our Lord 
quote, but from the most questionable of all 
Apocryphal books, the second Esdras. See 
Matt, xxiii. 34, 37, and Luke xi. 49, 50, which 
repeat 2 Esdras i. 30, 32. Besides omitting 
all references to the Apocrypha, we are now 
greatly losers by the rejection of the fashion 
of putting capital letters to every substantive, 
which began about 1660, and still continues 
in German, Danish, and Norse, though not 
so necessary in any of those languages as in 
English, as Franklin pointed out in one of 
his last letters. In Proverbs xx. 25 the sense 
varies according as the word " vows " be taken 
as a verb or a substantive. In some foreign 
versions it is taken each way ; and without 
reference to a Bible of Queen Anne's time we 
cannot tell which is right. 


454). The present representative of the 
Earls of Hyndford is Sir Robert Windham 
Carmichael Anstruther, of Carmichael and 
Westran, co. Lanark, also of Anstruthers of 
Elly. E. E. THOYTS. 

JOHN WESLEY (9 th S. i. 449). During the 
years 1809-13 the works of John Wesley 
were published by Mason in sixteen volumes. 
The first six contain his 'Journal' from 
1735 to 1790, probably in full. Another 
edition of the ' Journal ' only was issued in 

71, Brecknock Road. 

John Wesley records in his ' Journal ' three 
visits to Downpatrick. On the first occasion, 
in June, 1778, he slept there, and refers to the 




noble abbey ruin and the beauty of the grove 
adjoining. He preached in the middle of this 
grove to large congregations on this and his 
two subsequent visits in the months of June, 
1785 and 1789. Wesley's ' Journals ' are pub- 
lished complete, and are easily accessible. 

33, The Watton, Brecon. 

The account of John Wesley's visit to 
Downpatrick in June, 1778, may be found on 
p. 128 of the fourth volume of Wesley's 
'Works,' published by the Wesleyan Book- 
Room, 2, Castle Street, City Road, or 66, 
Paternoster Row, Conference Edition, 1872. 

RINGERS' ARTICLES (9 th 8. i. 424). The lines 
from St. Cleer are curious and quite new to 
me, and my friend MR. I. C. GOULD deserves 
our thanks for recording this item of bell 
literature. The lines, dated 1756, which may 
be seen in the belfry of All Saints', Hastings, 
have been so often printed and quoted that it 
is scarcely necessary to do more than call 
attention to them. The first time they ap- 
peared was (I believe) in Moss's ' History and 
Antiquities of Hastings,' 1824, and they are 
to be found in nearly all the later guide-books. 

Wanstead, Essex. 

The best collection of these rules in rhyme 
occurs in ' Curiosities of the Belfry ' (Simp- 
kin, 1883). Variants of the "articles" quoted 
by MR. I. C. GOULD occur in that little 
volume. They are to be found at Southill, 
Beds ; Wendron, Cornwall ; and Calstock, 
Cornwall. D'ARCY LEVER. 

Variants of the lines quoted by MR. GOULD 
will be found in ' Curious Church Customs ' 
(Andrews, 1895), p. 73, and in 'A Book about 
Bells ' (Tyack, 1898), p. 149. 


West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

267, 454). I have always understood that 
there were only two places on the east coast 
from which the sun could be seen both to rise 
and set in the sea, viz., Cromer and Whitby. 
From the west pier at the latter picturesque 
old town the sun may be observed to set in 
the sea. An incised line on the parapet 
directs to the furthest point at which the sun 
sets on the longest day. T. SEYMOUR. 

9, Newton Road, Oxford. 

457). There is an interesting account of the 
Compagnia della Misericordia at Florence in 

vol. ii. pp. 204-7 of ' What I Remember,' by 
my late friend Thomas Adolphus Trollope, 
showing the order as it existed perhaps 
about 1844. The dress seems to have been 
the same for more than five hundred years 
from 1348, when the plague devastated Flo- 
rence : " A loose black linen gown drapes the 
figure from the neck to the heels, and a black 
cowl, with two holes cut for the eyes, covers 
and effectually conceals the head and face." 
Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

One may mention in this connexion Mrs. 
Ewing's touching little story for children 
' Brothers of Pity,' of which the compagnia 
supplies the motive. 


SNEEZING (8 th S. xi. 186, 314, 472, 516). I 
should like to add to what your various corre- 
spondents have said as to the "custom of 
salutation" when a person sneezes, that 
amongst the Pacific islanders (I speak more 
particularly as to the Fijians) one often hears, 
upon a person sneezing, a native exclaim, 
"Bula!" which means "May you live !" or 
" Bless you ! " J. S. UDAL. 


SUPERSTITIONS (9 th S. i. 87, 249, 351). Cen- 
turies before Milton, Csedmon had made the 
angel of presumption declare that 

He in the north part 
a home and lofty seat 
of heaven's kingdom 
would possess ; 

and, again, that " he west and north would 
begin to work"- while, centuries before Caed- 
mon, Isaiah had written of Lucifer (xiv. 13), 
"I will sit also upon the mount of the 
congregation in the sides of the north." We 
must remember that on " the north side lieth 
the city of the great King " (Psalm xlviii. 2). 
" Le Nord c'etait la zone du Diable, 1'enfer de 
la nature, tandis que le Sud en etait 1'fiden," 
says Abbe Plomb in Huysmans's ' La Cathe- 
drale,' p. 311. I think, with Durtal, though 
not altogether on the same grounds, that 
symbolists have made a mistake. 


A note in the Clarendon Press edition of 
Milton's poems on the passage referred to 
('P. L.,' v. 688-9) says : " Satan is called 
'monarch of the north' in '1 Henry VI.,' 
V. iii. Cf. Isaiah xiv. 12, 13." Knight's note 
on the above line of Shakspeare is as follows : 
"'The monarch of the north,' says Douce, 
'was Zimmar, one of the four principal 
devils invoked by witches." Kirke White, 
in his ' Christiad,' represents the devils as 



assembling at the North Pole. See Brewer's 
'Dictionary of Phrase and Fable' on the 
north side of the altar and the north side 
of a churchyard : " The north, the devil's 
side," fec. The passage in Isaiah is said by 
Delitzsch to embody the Babylonian notion 
that the north was the seat of Deity (see 
Barnes's long note on that passage). 


In '1 Henry VI.' La Pucelle calls one of 
the devils " the lordly monarch of the 
north." In a note to this passage Steevens 
refers to a verse of Isaiah, which may have 
been the origin of the belief that the devils 
had their ha citation in the north. 


The " well - known superstition " which 
Milton was following was doubtless the fine 
passage in Isaiah, thus given in Coverdale's 
Bible, 1535 : 

"How art thou fallen from heauen (0 Lucifer) 
thou faire morninge childe ? hast thou gotten a fall 
euen to the grounde, thou that (notwithstandinge) 
dyddest subdue the people? And yet thou thoughtest 
in thine harte : I will clymme vp in to heauen, and 
make my seate aboue the starres of God, I wyll syt 
vpon the glorious mount towards the North, I wyll 
clymme vp aboue the cloudes, & wilbe like the 
highest of all. Yet darre I laye y* thou shalt be 
brought downe to the depe of hell." Esaye xiv. 

R. R. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

SUFFOLK (9 th S. i. 508). Your correspondent 
MR. SYLVESTER is wrong in his statement that 
the church of Holy Trinity, Minories, has been 
pulled down. It is still standing, and, fortu- 
nately, likely to remain so while Dr. Kinns, 
the vicar, maintains his present attitude. In 
writing to ' N. & O.' correspondents should 
take care to verify their statements. 


Belle Vue, Bengeo. 

(9 th S. i. 184). I have for a number of years 
taken a deep interest in old samplers, and 
from time to time collected them. One 
sampler I possess is worked by Anne Radley, 
agea nine years, 1844. Round it is a neatly 
worked border. In the centre are the fol- 
lowing words, similar to those referred to by 
your correspondent : 

Jesus, permit thy gracious name to stand 
As the first effort of an infant's hand, 
And, while her fingers o'er the canvas move, 
Engage her tender heart to seek thy love. 
With thy dear children may she have a part, 
And write thy name thyself upon her heart. 

At the top of this sampler the alphabet is 
worked in three different styles of lettering ; 
also the figures from 1 to 12. The figures 
and letters are beautiful in form, and the 
general design of this sampler is exceedingly 

Another sampler in my possession is beau- 
tifully worked in coloured silk by Leah 
Hughes, 1811. In the centre are the follow- 
ing words : 

Whate'er we do, where'er we be, 

We 're travelling to the grave. 

Infinite joy or endless woe 

Attends on every breath, 

And yet how unconcerned we go 

Upon the brink of death. 

\fy aken, O Lord, our drowsy sense 

To walk this dangerous road, 

And if our souls be hurried hence 

May they be found with God. 

At the top is a shield, and the words upon it 
are, "Glory be to God on high." On each 
side is the figure of a warrior, and over each 
figure is worked a crown. Around the centre 
verse are a number of stags, dogs, and trees. 
At the bottom of the sampler are flowers 
in vases. It has a beautifully designed 
border, about one and a half inches wide, the 
whole being an excellent piece of work. 

I have another interesting sampler ; the 
subject, boy and girl with dog and basket of 
flowers. The drawing of figures, which are 
about ten inches high, is very good ; the 
probable date 1800. I possess six other early 
specimens of needlework in oval frames illus- 
trating nursery rhymes one 'Little Blue 
Billy,' another " Mary had a little lamb," and 
various other illustrations of rhymes. The 
date of these specimens is about 1780. There 
was a competition for designs of samplers 
and also alphabets some time ago in the 
Studio, and the specimens submitted cer- 
tainly fall short in simplicity and beauty 
of design and formation of letters, compared 
to the early examples left to us. 

While upon the subject of early school 
samplers it may be of interest to refer to the 
penmanship of early school copy-books, a 
number of which I have recently seen. Tiie 
copies written by these early instructors had 
beautifully formed letters, and the scroll- 
work surrounding the letters was very artistic. 
This kind of lettering is often to be found in 
old deeds. Now that type- writing is becoming 
so general, this interesting art in penmanship, 
one fears, will become obsolete. 


18, Shrewsbury Road, .Sheffield. 

(8 th S. xii. 465 ; 9 th S. i. 37, 116, 298, 477). To 
the instances given by your correspondents 

8*8. II. JULY 16, ' 


should be added that of a Dorset " skimming- 
ton, or skimmity riding," which, to quote 
from a paper on local customs I contributed 
to the Proceedings of the Dorset Natural 
History and Antiquarian Field Club, vol. xiv. 
p. 182 (1893), is 

" a kind of matrimonial lynch law or pillory in- 
tended for those in a lower class of life who in certain 
glaring particulars may have transgressed their mari- 
tal duties, and have thus brought upon themselves 
this, the strongest expression of outraged public 
opinion that a country district is capable of con- 

There is an excellent and full description, both 
as to what a " skimmington riding is and of 
the causes for which it takes place, given in 
Roberts's ' History of Lyme Regis,' published 
in 1834. Mr. Roberts prints an interesting 
letter he had received from Sir Walter Scott 
on the subject, in which he says : 

" We had, or perhaps I might say still have, a 
similar ritual of popular interference in Scotland, 
in case of gross scandal or nuptial transgressions and 
public quarrels in a household. It is called ' riding 
the stang,' the peccant party being seated across a 
l>ole (or stang) in no very comfortable position." 

Sir Walter refers Mr. Roberts to the fact 
that Burns had composed some verses on 
the subject (not in nis collected works*), 
and to Prior's larger collection of poems 
(not the folio edition). See also a parallel 
amongst the Kaffirs in " Mumbo Jumbo " in 
Mungo Park's 'Travels in the Interior of 
Africa ' (1799).t 

In the paper already alluded to I gave an 
account of a " skimmerton riding " that took 
place in 1884 in a West Dorset parish. Many 
of your readers will hardly need to be re- 
minded of the dramatic description of a 
" skimmington riding " given by Thomas 
Hardy in chap. xvi. of the second volume of 
his Dorset novel ' The Mayor of Casterbridge,' 
published in 1886, and of the tragic effect 
which that coarsely humorous spectacle had 
upon the unfortunate woman whose sup- 
posed laxity of conduct had afforded the 
excuse for the exhibition. J. S. UDAL. 


A representation of " riding the stang " is 
on one of the brasses at King's Lynn. An 
engraving of it will be found in Waller's 
' Monumental Brasses.' ANDREW OLIVER. 

MR. PICKFORD is not familiar with Scandi- 
navian onomatology, or he would have seen 
nothing curious in Erica as the Christian 

* Can any one say where these verses are to be 
t See'N. &Q.,'8 th S. ii. 95. 

name of a lady owning so Scandinavian a 
surname as Storr. The Christian name 
Eric has been borne by several Danish and 
Swedish kings, the last of the name who 
reigned in Sweden, Eric XIV., having been 
son of the great Gustavus Vasa. Some female 
names are identical with plant-names, e.g., 
Daisy, Lily, Rose, Violet ; but Erica has no 
connexion whatever with Latin erica, heath. 
It is merely the feminine form of the Swedish 
Eric, or rather Erik ; so Henrik makes Hen- 
rika, Fredrik Fredrika, Ulrik . Ulrika. The 
Danish form of Erika would be Erike. 

106A, Albany Road, Camberwell. 

Is this very pretty name not more 
likely to be the feminine form of Eric than 
to be derived from erica, a heath ? Miss 
Charlotte M. Yonge (the talented author of 
'The Heir of Redclyffe'), in her 'History 
of Christian Names,' p. 400, says : 

"One great name of this derivation is the Northern 
Eirik. The first syllable is that which we call aye 
to the present day, the word that lies at the root of 
the Latin n-rum, the German eiriy, and our own 
ever. Ei-rik is thus Ever King. An ancient Erik 
was said to have been admitted among the gods, 
and Earic was the second name of JEsc, the son of 
Henghist; but it was the Northern people who 
really used Eirik, which comes over ana over in the 
line of succession of all the Northern sovereignties, 
figures in their ballads, and, in the person of King 
Eirik Blodaxe, is connected with their finest poetry. 
In the present day it is scarcely less popular than 
in old times, and has the feminine Eirika." 

Is this "feminine Eirika" not just the 
"Erica" of your correspondent? I think I 
have met with Erica as a girl's name in 
Scotland I fancy in the north, but 1 cannot 
give chapter and verse. J. B. FLEMING. 

Kelvinside, Glasgow. 

As I see mention of a curious Christian 
name in a recent issue of ' N. & Q.,' I write 
to say that while searching the Dublin 
marriage licences the other day my attention 
was arrested by a curious female Christian 
name, Atleanadiolagra. Has any one seen 
this name before, or ascertained what is its 
origin? FRANK S. MARSH. 

Office of Arms, Dublin Castle. 

GRUB STREET (8 th S. xii. 108, 212, 251, 373 ; 
9 th S. i. 15, 312). There is a public-house at 
the corner of Sweden Passage, in Milton 
Street, Cripplegate, in the lease of which the 
street is called "Milton Street, alias Grub 
Street." In 1883 a friend of mine on whom 
I frequently called was in business in Chapel 
Street, a turning out of Milton Street. One 
day, in his absence, I got into conversa- 
tion with an old man, a porter in the ware- 



house, who spoke of the many changes he had 
seen in the neighbourhood. Amongst other 
items he mentioned a public-house called 
" The Jacob's Well," and a penny gaff which 
stood " over there," pointing to the block of 
buildings occupied by Messrs. Hildesheimer 
& Co., the Christmas-card people. He said he 
could remember it as a fine playhouse, but 
it sank into a gaff. AYEAHR. 

An extract from ' The Records of St. Giles, 
Cripplegate,' by the Rev. W. Denton, M.A., 
vicar of St. Bartholomew's, Little Moorfields 
(London, 1883), will answer S. J. A. F.'s query : 

"Opposite Hanover Court, between Silk Street 
and Chapel Street, was a building erected for a 
chapel (City Chapel), but afterwards (1831) turned 
into a theatre (known as the City Theatre), where 
the elder Kean and other dramatic celebrities of 
this day acted. After it served this purpose it was 
converted into public baths, and then occupied as a 
schoolroom and mission hall, supported at the ex- 

Jiense of a Congregational chapel in the Poultry, 
t has been pulled down within the last dozen 


HANSOM (9 th S. i. 148, 273). Mr. Hansom, 
the inventor of hansom cabs, was father of 
Mr. Hansom, an exceedingly talented archi- 
tect of Bristol, and one of the smartest volun- 
teer officers in that city during the early days 
of the national defence movement. His 
(Roman Catholic) churches at Bath and 
Cheltenham are amongst the finest modern 
structures of their kind in England. He 
died some few years ago, but has a son prac- 
tising in the same profession at Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne. HARRY HEMS. 

Mafeking, Bechuanalancl. 

Mr. Hansom's partner, in conjunction with 
whom he designed and carried out Birming- 
ham Town Hall, with disastrous results to 
themselves, was Mr. Edward Welch (1806-68). 
Mr. Welch did not recover from his failure over 
Birmingham Town Hall in the same mannei 
as his partner succeeded in doing, and did 
not regain his practice. When I remember him, 
he had an office in Southampton Row, where 
he carried on business as the maker of a hot- 
air stove, founded on the principle suggested 
by Count Rumford for warming the air al 
the back of the fire, for which he obtained a 
patent. JOHN HEBB. 

A CHURCH TRADITION (9 th S. i. 428). It 
Neale and Webb's translation of the first 
book of Durandus's 'Rationale Divinorum 
Officiorum' the following paragraph occurs : 

" Another reference <|the Atonement will be 
found in the deviation J*r* JH the line of the chance 
often presents from ths&T 1 -?? "the nave. It is some 
times to the north, but more frequently to the 

south. There are many more churches in which it 
occurs than those who have not examined the 
subject would believe ; perhaps it is not too 
nuch to say that it may t>e noticed in a quarter 
of those in England. Of our cathedrals, it is 
most strongly marked in York and Lichfield ; 
among the parish churches in which we have 
observed it, none have it so strongly as East- 
xmrne and Bosham in Sussex, and St. Michael's at 
Coventry, in all of which the most casual glance 
;ould not but detect the peculiarity of appearance 
t occasions. This arrangement represents the 
^nclination of our Saviour's head on the cross. In 
roods the head generally inclines to the left." 

The well-known church of St. Aldate, 
Oxford, in spite of the lamentable restoration 
of 1863, is a case in point. 


See 'Handbook of English Ecclesiology,' 
1847, pp. 39-41 ; Bloxam's ' Gothic Ecclesias- 
tical Architecture,' ed. 9, 1849, pp. 313, 314, n. ; 
Walcott's ' Church and Conventual Arrange- 
ment,' n.d., pp. 60-62, 136 ; Poulson's 'Holder- 
ness,' under ' Patrington.' The subject has 
been dealt with in 'N. & Q.,' 2 nd S. x. 68, 118, 
253, 312, 357, 393, 430 ; xi. 34, 55, 76, 138, 412, 
498 : 3 rd S. i. 154 ; iii. 57, 138 ; 7 th S. i. 387, 
435. W. C. B. 

[Very many replies are acknowledged.] 


Norum Repertorimn Ecclesiasticum Parochiale Lou- 
dinenxe. By Rev. George Hennessy. (Sonnen- 
schein & Co. ) 

MR. HENNESSY must be a man of indefatigable 
energy. What Bishop Stubbs has done for the epis- 
copal order of the Anglican Church in his ' Registrum 
Sacrum Anglicanum,' Mr. Hennessy has essayed 
to do for the beneficed clergy of the great London 
diocese from the earliest times a much more 
formidable task, as involving an infinitely greater 
amount of varied research. A suggestion thrown 
out by the late Archbishop Benson, that every 
parish should compile, or have compiled, a com- 
plete list of the succession of incumbents who have 
held it in historic continuity, fell on fruitful ears, 
and Mr. Hennessy resolved that he would do the 
work, as far as London was concerned, not for one 
parish, but for all. The result lies before us in this 
goodly quarto, and the compiler deserves to be con- 
gratulated and thanked on the completion of his 
laborious work. 

We shall best give the reader an idea of its 
compass by taking a typical example. Dealing 
with the parish of Stepney, he first of all gives a 
brief historical sketch of the manor and the right 
of presentation, the dedication of the church, and 
some notice of its monuments ; then he tabulates 
the succession of the rectors, forty-five in number, 
beginning with W T illiam de Berkhampstod in 1233, 
down to the present time. To each name are 
appended the date of appointment and voidance 
of the living, the name of the patron from time to 
time, and the authority upon which the information 
is based. In the majority of instances a reference 

9*S. II. JULY 16, '98.] 


sends us to the notes, where further details are 
supplied as to the career, university, published 
works, and preferments of the divine in question. 
The arrangement of these notes, we must say, does 
not seem to us an ideal one. With a pagination 
running from i to clxxix, they are printed on the 
recto side of the first 179 pages, which verso form 
the text. In this unusual position the notes are 
grouped under the letters of the alphabet, 300 
entries under each letter, and ending with W, 264. 
Thus no fewer than 6,864 separate notices are given 
of the clergy registered. Though an alphabetical 
index at the end makes reference to them fairly 
easy, this seems an eccentric arrangement of what 
would naturally come at the close of the volume. 
These annotations, moreover, though laudably full 
and accurate, are not meted out in strict proportion 
to the comparative merits of their subiects. Thus 
the renowned Tom Fuller is dispatched in four 
lines, while on the previous page a much smaller 
man, Thomas Goocn, is allowed to monopolize 
sixteen. In some few instances (and no marvel) 
the information as to preferments is not quite up to 
date, as in note L, 297; and a lacuna for the dis- 
tance of Teddington from London is left unfilled 
(p. 425). Weever, of the ' Funerall Monuments,' is 
incorrectly cited as Weaver ; and p. 1Q4A is appa- 
rently intended to be a cancel of p. 104, of which it 
is all but a duplicate. 

The Lives of the Saints. By the Rev. S. Baring- 
Gould, M.A. Vol. XV. (Nimmo.) 
THE penultimate volume of the revised edition oi 
Mr. Baring-Gould's ' Lives of the Saints ' concludes, 
in a sense, the work, ending with 31 December. 
There remains, however, the sixteenth volume, the 
index in which is necessary to the full utilization oi 
the book. The most picturesque life in the presenl 
volume, and that of most historical interest, is 
that of Thomas a Becket, commemorated or 
29 December. The lives of St. William Longsworc 
and St. Ambrose are also of high interest. The 
story of St. Crispina is told almost in full, the 
author declaring that when so many of the Acts o 
Martyrs are forgeries, it is a pleasure to come unoi 
those which are undoubtedly genuine. The illus 
trations to the present volume include an engraving 
of the murder of Peter Martyr, said to be "pro 
bably " after the picture by Titian formerly in the 
chapel of SS. Giovanni e Paolo at Venice. We 
were fortunate enough to study that picture before 
its lamentable destruction, and have no hesitation 
in saying that the design is after it. Of two view 
of the translation of the Holy House to Loreto, the 
more curious is taken from the ' Atlas Marianus ' o 
Pere Kucher. The Vienna Missal supplies som 
half-dozen illustrations. From the Louvre is taken 
the picture of the Madonna enthroned, by Cima di 
Conegliano, which forms the frontispiece, and fron 
the Pinakothek, Munich, that of St. Barbara 
Guide's ' Massacre of the Innocents ' is engravec 
from the Museum in Bologna. Among the plate 
is also a very faithful presentation of the grotto a 

Dante at Ravenna: a Study. By Catherine Mar 

Phillimore. (Stock.) 

DANTE, like our own Shakspeare, has so vast 
literature gathering round his name that it is almos 
impossible to say whether what we read from tim 
to time is new knowledge or whether it has bee 
communicated to the world before. We are in 

.ined to believe that, so far as relates to the 
leasantly written book before us, the information 
ontained therein has none of it been given for the 
rst time ; but whether this be so or not, it has a 
ermanent value for all students of the Florentine 
rho have not a vast library at hand.* Sadly too 
.ttle is known of the outer life of Dante, especially 
n the latter years of his exile, and it is pleasant to 
ave so many of the facts gathered together, accom- 
>anied by a commentary which is always bright 
nd never sinks into tnat verbose commonplace 
vhich disfigures the writings of so many who under- 
ake to instruct us about poetry and poets. The 
uthpr understands the world in which her hero 
Nourished ; and by this we mean not only that she 
s familiar with the sort of men who were his con- 
emporaries, but that she possesses the faculty of 
eading the feelings and beliefs of the times, and 
loes not go blundering on like those unhappy per- 
ons who judge the men of the Middle Ages from 
he standpoint of our own narrow ideals. The fact, 
which has been a puzzle to so many, that Dante, 
although, or perhaps because, he was a loyal son of 
lie Church, had 110 hesitation in branding with the 
ire of his infinite detestation and scorn certain 
of the Popes with whom he was contemporary, 
^resents no difficulties to her, because she realizes 
vhat were the ideas at the root of the long quarrel 
>etween the Church and the Empire. To see things 
now as an honest and patriotic Ghibelline saw them 
centuries ago is by no means easy ; but it is neces- 
sary for every one who would understand the inner 
meaning of mucli of the ' Divine Comedy.' 

The paper on the ' Volgare Eloquio' is well 
worthy of attention. Dante y s theories as to dialects 
were in some ways in advance of those of the stupid 
people, yet to be found, who fancy that they are 
corruptions of the " polite" diction. It is striking 
to find him maintaining that Hebrew was the 
original language of mankind. We believe, how- 
ever, this was the current, though by no means the 
universal opinion little more than a century ago. 
The volume contains many very good verse-transla- 
tions, some of which, we think, are original. 

Vigorian Monologues : a Series of Papers in Illus- 
tration of the Dialect of Worcestershire. By Rev. 
Hamilton Kingsford. (Worcester, Humphreys 
& Co.) 

MR. KINGSFORD is a beneficed clergyman in Wor- 
cestershire who, it is evident, has devoted much 
time and thought to the composition of these dia- 
logues. They are excellent alike in matter and 
manner, though we are not sure that the spelling 
might not have been made more intelligible to such 
of his readers as are not students of dialect. To 
the latter class it will present no difficulties ; but 
they are at present but a feeble folk, and it is very 
much to be desired, both for social and literary 
reasons, that all those who dwell in the country 
should understand, and be able to speak on occa- 
sion, the language of their poorer neighbours. 
Glossaries we have in abundance ; but the dialect 
literature of most parts of the country is small in 
the extreme in fact, in many places it is non- 
existent. Few people seem to realize the undoubted 
fact that to many an English peasant the language 
of the educated classes presents as great difficulties 
as his dialect does to them. Mr. Kingsford knows 
this, and tells a good tale in illustration. He was 
once asked, at a time when a great political crisis 
seemed at hand, what was his opinion on the matter, 



[9> s. n. JULY IG, m 

and replied, " What is to be feared is a general 
war." " ! who be thot?" was the reply. " Be 'e 
a relation o' Lard Dudley?" The word "general" 
had struck on the Worcestershire man's ear, and 
Mr. Kingsford says he was thought to be referring 
" to some fierce and formidable general of the noble 
family of Ward." Mr. Kingsford has not appended 
a glossary. This we regard as a mistake. Many 
persons \vill read his pages, we trust, who have no 
ready means of access to those books of reference 
in which the Worcestershire dialect is illustrated. 

An Old Stuart Genealogy. By Marcus B. Huish, 

LL.B. (Privately printed.) 

To the opuscula of the Odd Volumes Mr. Huish 
has issued in an edition strictly limited in number, 
like the previous works in the same series, the book 
named aoove. It is a work of more than private 
interest, which will commend itself to the herald 
and the genealogist, and is illustrated by portraits 
and coats of arms. The original, which is written 
on a roll of parchment fourteen feet long, came into 
the possession of the author's family when his great- 
grandfather, Mark Huish, married Margaret Stuart. 
The genealogy, which is from the Heralds' College, 
is printed in black-letter, and accompanied by notes 
and illustrations by Mr. Huish. Among other 
points with which it deals is Shakspeare's 'Mac- 
beth.' It differs in some respects from Boece, whom 
in parts it follows, and deserves more attention 
than we are able to bestow upon it. 

A Guide to the Guildhall of the City of London. 
By John James Baddeley. (Simpkin & Marshall. ) 
THIS serviceable and trustworthy guide to the 
Guildhall, giving an account of its historic associa- 
tions and the municipal work therein carried on, is 
printed by order of the Corporation of London 
under the direction of the City Lands Committee, 
by whose chairman for the present year it has been 
arranged. It supplies in small space a large amount 
of useful information. 

Brentford. By Fred Turner. (Stock.) 
MB. TURNER has reprinted from the Brentonian 
a series of papers of much interest, historical and 
antiquarian, upon Brentford. Among its contents 
are papers on 'The Battles of Brentford,' 'Brentford 
Bridge,' ' The Establishment of St. Lawrence's 
Church,' a disquisition on the origin of the name 
Brentford, and a chapter on ' Brentford in Litera- 

A Legend of Man/rose and The Black Dwarf. By 
Sir Walter Scott. Edited by A. Lang. (Nimmo.) 
THE seventh volume of Mr. Nimmo's reprint of the 
large -type "Border Edition" of the Waver ley 
Novels gives ' A Legend of Montrose ' and ' The 
Black Dwarf,' with the author's and editor's pre- 
faces and notes, and with the half-dozen etchings of 
the original edition. It still continues the most 
agreeable shape in which to read these immortal 
works, a task we conscientiously continue with 
the appearance of each successive volume of the 

The London Year-Book, issued by the Grosvenor 
Press, has reached the second year of issue. In 
addition to the useful information it conveys, it has 
miscellaneous articles and illustrations, including 
designs by the late Aubrey Beardsley. 

To A Barrister's Collection of Stories which hare 
been sworn on Oath to be True has been added a 

third volume, no less entertaining than its prede- 
cessors. The publisher is Mr. Horace Cox. 

WE have received from the Dublin Association 
for Promoting Christian Knowledge (Depository, 
37, Dawson Street) the first number of a series of 
lectures on Irish Church history. It is by the Rev. 
John Healy, LL.D., and is entitled St. Patrick. 
There is, of course, nothing new in it, but the 
subject is treated of gravely and in a picturesque 
manner. We are glad to find that Dr. Healy is in 
no sort a partisan. He is very far from holding the 
crude notion which keeps cropping up from time to 
time that Patrick had never any real existence, but 
should be classed with mythological persons, such 
as the gods of Greece and some of the shadowy 
saints whose names appeared in certain of the local 
church calendars in the Middle Ages. On the other 
hand, we need hardly say that he rejects the wild 
legendary lore which gathered around the life of 
the Irish apostle. There are interesting remarks on 
cursing-stones, holy_ wells, Easter fires, and other 
things more or less intimately connected with folk- 

WE hear with much regret of the death of the 
Rev. William Graham Foster Pigott, M.A., rector 
of Abington Pigotts, Royston. The deceased 
gentleman, who was in his sixtieth year, had been 
of late a pretty frequent contributor on genealogical 
and general subjects. A communication from him 
appeared in our last number (p. 28). 


We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

Ox all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rule. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the Signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. Correspond- 
ents who repeat queries are requested to head the 
second communication "Duplicate." 

CECIL CLARKE ("Fusillade"). The 'Historical 
English Dictionary ' gives fusillade ; but in the pre- 
sent century there are instances of the word being 
spelt fusilade. 

W. SHANLY ("Col. Wall"). Your query appeared 
9 th S. i. 508. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to 
"The Editor of 'Notes and Queries ' "Advertise- 
ments and Business Letters to "The Publisher" 
at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print ; and to this rule we can make no exception. 


For this Year, Fifty-three Numbers. 

s. d. 
For Twelve Months 1011 

For Six Months ..' .. 10 6 




CONTENTS. -No. 30. 

NOTES: On Accent, 61 Ancient Zodiacs, 62 Crypto- 
grams, 63 " Wishy-washy " "Go about" "Tommy 
Atkins, "64 Col. Dalbiac's ' Dictionary of Quotations' The 
Printer Again Historic Stones at the Royal Exchange, 65 
Sbipton Parish Registers' Comin' thro' the Rye ' Book- 
Borrowing " Solamen miseris," &c. ' The Birds of Ciren- 
cester,' 66. 

QUERIES: "Whose curtain never outward swings" 
Lords Lieutenant" Uno avulso," &c. M.P. and Statue 
of Gold Upham Spade Guinea Child's Hymn Ham- 
lake = Helmsley, 67 The Septuagint ' Kilmarnock 
Mirror' "Whitsul" "Come, lasses and lads," &c. 
Picture Marks, 68 Rev. S. Rogers Johnson Thoroton 
Gould's Marriage The Six Clerks in Chancery Duchess 
of Kendal Authors wanted, 69. 

REPLIES : " Strenua nos exercet inertia" " To Sue," 70 
Johnson's Residence in Bolt Court, 71 Gladstone as a 
Verse- Writer Source of Quotation Malcolm Hamilton, 72 
" Down to the ground " Patches San Lanfranco, 73 
Charles III. Beards Christian Names " Choriasmus,' 
74 Horace Walpole Bishop Ezekiel Hopkins" Flam" 
The Mauthe Doog The Greek Church in Soho Massage, 
75 Titles of Pictures Oakapple Day Pickwickian 
Manners Stonyhurst Cricket, 76 "Buried for truth" 
Short a v. Italian a" Campus "Stolen Relics Restored, 
77 Miles Stan dish's Wife Reference Wanted James 
Cox's Museum "Tiger" Arms of Slane Port Arthur 
Branding Prisoners The "Scouring" of Land Authors 
Wanted, 78. 

NOTES on BOOKS : Murray's 'Historical English Dic- 
tionary ' Weaver and Bates's ' Index to Collinson's His- 
tory of Somerset' Rye's ' Church and Parish of Cawston ' 
Macmillan and Brydall's ' lona' 'Journal of the Ex- 
Libris Society ' ' The Reliquary.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


A BOOK as interesting as useful might be 
written upon the subject of the accentual 
laws of different languages, but so far as I 
know there is nothing of the sort in English. 
The one writer who has ventured upon this 
delicate ground is, I think, the late A. J. 
Ellis, and he only in a short section of his 
long article on 'Speech Sounds' in the 
' Encyclopedia Britannica.' As this is now 
somewhat out of date, containing at any 
rate serious errors, I purpose pointing out 
these and adding a few notes of my own 
touching this most important and much 
neglected topic. 

The different kinds of accent may be classed 
under three chief heads, as follows, and if 
anybody desires to know of a language which 
unites them all, I may suggest that such a 
language is the Greek. In England it is 
accented according to quantity ; in Greece in 
ancient times the musical accent prevailed, 
for which the modern Greeks have substi- 
tuted the stress. 

1. The quantitative is the first kind of 
accent, and Ellis names as instances the 
Indian, Arabic, and Persian tongues. What 
he means by Indian I do not know ; it is a 
term singularly vague to come from the pen 

of so precise a writer. If it implies the 
modern Aryan vernaculars of India, it is quite 
true that they are accented quantitatively ; 
in the Gujerati and Marathi, however, as in 
Gipsy, we often meet with stressed final 
vowels. There is an admirable article on the 
subject, by Dr. Grierson, in the journal of the 
Royal Asiatic Society for 1895. Arabic is a 
better example better than Latin, because 
Arabic has been accented according to quan- 
tity from the beginning, whereas in Latin 
the quantitative accent is a development out 
of an earlier musical one. As to Persian, 
Ellis is wrong : altogether wrong according 
to the unanimous voice of the Persian gram- 
mars, which class Persian with Turkish so 
far as its accentuation is concerned ; partly 
wrong according to another authority, Dr. 
Trumpp, who says that the grammars are in 
error, and that Persian is quantitative as 
regards the accent of its nouns and adjec- 
tives, but not as regards its verbs. It will 
be perceived that there is some mystery as to 
the laws of accent in Persian ; there are two 
irreconcilable schools of teaching, but neither 
of them agrees with Ellis. Even if we side 
with the splendidly isolated Trumpp, we 
must admit that Persian, partly quantitative, 
stands on a footing widely different from 
Arabic, which is quantitative throughout. 

2. Of the second or musical accent the 
instances given are the Sanscrit, Latin, and 
ancient Greek, but these, it will be observed, 
are all dead, and their accent is more or less a 
matter of theory. It would surely have been 
better had Ellis mentioned Lithuanian or 
Serbo-Croatian, in which the original Aryan 
accent is accompanied by a heightening or 
lowering of pitch to the present day. 

3. The third or stress accent is coupled by 
Ellis with the names of the Teutonic, Italian, 
and modern Greek. I have no complaint to 
make of these examples, but it would have 
been as well, side by side with the Teutonic 
family, which, as every one knows, throws 
the accent uniformly upon the first syllable, to 
have made some mention of languages which 
accent uniformly the final (the most familiar 
to the general reader will be French and the 
least so Armenian) or the penultimate (Welsh 
and Polish, Malay and Javanese, the Bantu 
dialects of Africa, Mexican and Peruvian). 
Sometimes there are interchanges between 
the final and penultimate ; thus in Brittany 
the dialect of Vannes accents the final, pos- 
sibly under the influence of French, while all 
other dialects accent the penultimate : but 
the most interesting case is that of Hebrew. 
Classically it preferred the final accent, and 
the Seventy in their Greek orthography of 

NOT&S AND QUERIES, [^s.ii. JULY 23,* 

proper names preserve this, as also do the 
modern Romance languages, such as Spanish, 
where (contrary to every Spanish instinct) 
we find the stress remaining even on a, con- 
cluding vowel (Jepte, Jose, Josue, Npe, Levi, 
and Esau). This final accent is still to be 
heard in the conservative Sephardic syna- 
gogues, whereas the Polish and Kussian Jews 
read the sacred tongue with the stress upon 
the penultimate. 

My last words will be upon the vexed 
question of " even stress." Personally 1 doubt 
whether it exists. When a grammarian states 
that a certain language has " even stress," my 
natural scepticism drives me to suspect some 
labour-saving device calculated to conceal 
ignorance or laziness. The nearest thing to 
" even stress " which I have come across in 
my own experience is in tongues of the 
Turanian type (Finnish or Hungarian), where 
to the English ear there is an accent upon 
the first syllable, much as in the Teutonic 
family, which may have borrowed this prin- 
ciple from them. Ellis quotes as having 
" even stress " Turkish and Japanese. About 
the latter there may well be some doubt, but 
he is absolutely wrong as to the former. ^ In 
Turkish, as in Persian, there is a clear distinc- 
tion drawn between nouns and adjectives on 
the one hand and verbs on the other : their 
mode of accentuation is quite different ; 
obviously no theory of " even stress " can fit 
in with a fact like this. Probably Ellis was 
misled by the faulty Turkish grammars 
published in English. In German there are 
several which explain in full the Turkish 
system of accent ; the best authority is 
Leopold Pekotsch. JAS. PLATT, Jun. 


(Continued from 9 th S. i. 203.) 

Roman Zodiacs. 

49. Circular sardonyx intaglio gem, around 
a biga and Victory. Found near Lake Thrasy- 
menus (Perugia). Probably a prize in the 
Circensian games. 1 B.C. 217. Worsley coll. 
In 'Museum Worsleyanum,' 1824, i. fig. 21 
Savage, 'The Librarian,' 1808, i. 199. 

50. A broken cameo, with the zodiac, stars, 
and winged Victory on it, was found in the 
ruins of Tiberius's villa on the Castiglione hill, 
Capri, in 1786. It was given to the painter 
Tisnbein. Rezzonico, ' JDescrizione di Capri ' 
A. B. G., 'Notes from Isola di Capri,' No. VIL, 
in Buxton Advertiser, 22 March, 1879. Tiberius 
died in 37. 

51. In 1662, "when t}^ chair of St. Peter 
in Rome was cleaned, <-^~ zodiac was founc 
on it. Bartolini wrote on"it, and explainec 

^ as referring to the Pope. Clement X. 
approved of this (Bower, ' Lives of the 
Popes '). When the French (under Napoleon) 
occupied Rome they examined the chair and 
xmnd the same" (Higgins, ' Anacalypsis,' 
1836, i. 691). This wooden chair is covered by 
a bronze one by Bernini, and is against the 
end wall, above the altar, in the tribune of 
St. Peter's. It is engraved in Primmer, ' In 
Rome,' 1897, p. 96, and in Archosologia. 
Peter died circa 67. 

52. Painted on the wall of a room at 
Pompeii, existing A.D. 70. Archceologia. 

53. On a coin of Trajan, Rome (d. 117). 
Stevenson, 'Dictionary of Roman Coins,' 1889. 

54. In a MS. of Cicero's translation of the 
' Phenomena ' of Aratus, second century. In 
Ottley, Archceologia, 1836, xxvi. 162, pi. xxii. 

55. On a coin of Hadrianus, Rome (d. 138). 

56. Upon a coin of Antoninus Pius (d. 161), 
Rome. Stevenson. 

57. On a large medal of Antoninus Pius 
Alexandria. Around Serapis surrounded by 
the heads of the planetary deities. In King, 
i. 252. Stevenson. 

58. On a coin of Antoninus Pius, with the 
seasons. Stevenson. 

59. On a coin of Commodus, Rome (d. 192). 

60. On a medallion of Septimus Severus, 
Rome (d. 211). Fosbroke, ' Encyclopaedia of 
Antiquities,' 1825, i. 192. 

61. On a medal of Julia Moesa (d. 217), 
Amastris. Stevenson. 

62. On a coin of Elagabalus, Ptolemais, 
Galilee (d. 222). Stevenson. 

63. On a coin of Alexander Severus, 
Perinthus (d. 235). Stevenson. 

64. On a medallion of Alexander Severus, 
surrounding Jupiter enthroned, with eagle 
and rod ; below two men holding corn ears, 
above Sol and Luna in chariots. Perinthe. 
In Montfaucon, Supp., i. 22, pi. ii. fig. 1. 

65. On a coin of Valerian, ^Ege (d. 260). 

66. On the white marble ceiling of the 
naos in the Temple of the Sun, surrounding 
seven busts, at Palmyra (Tadmor). Diam., 
6ft. In Wood, 'Ruins of Palmyra,' 1753, 
pi. xix. ; in Wright, ' Palmyra and Zenobia,' 
1895, p. 67. Post 275. 

67. On a coin of Constantino I., Thessa- 
lonica (d. 337). Stevenson. 

68. On a medal of Constantine. Stevenson. 

69. On the tomb of Junius Bassus, Prefect 
of Rome (d. 359), on the floor of the basilica 
of St. Peter's, Rome. Within it is sculptured 
" Christ seated between SS. Peter and Paul 
standing, his feet resting upon an aged man 

9 th S. II. JULY 23, '98.] 



emerging from beneath." Called the earliest 
Christian monument. King, i. 243. 

70. On the medals of Contormades. 

71. Circular medallion, round Jupiter 
enthroned, with eagle, Sol, and Luna, above 
two men bearing fasces. Choul coll. In 
Montfaucon, i. 36, pi. x., fig. 8. 

72. On a gem, enclosing Jupiter with mural 
crown, rod, fulmen, eagle, and Pleiades. 
Raspe, 'Descriptive Catalogue of Engraved 
Gems,' 1791, i. 219, No. 3125. Sulphur cast in 
Tassie coll. 

73. Sculpture of Cybele seated, inscribed 
"Mater Deor. Mater Syriae," wearing two- 
horned mitre, rayed circlet, alb, and stole bor- 
dered with the twelve signs, holding fulmen, 
caduceus, sprinkler, sistrum, hoop, with two 
lions seated at her side. In Montfaucon, 
i. 15, pi. v. fig. 2. 

74. Sculptured diptych of Consul Basilius 
(541 A.D.), above the apotheosis of Romulus. 
Six signs, from Libra to Pisces, in an arc 
above. In Montfaucon, Supp., iii. 224, 
pi. Ixxv. 

75. Circular intaglio in lapis lazuli. Jupiter 
enthroned, with eagle, fulmen, and Pleiades, 
within the zodiacal circle. In King, ii. 78, 
pi. viii. No. 7. 

76. Circular gem. Jupiter enthroned, 
holding fulmen and rod, above eagle. Venus 
and Cupid to right ; Mercury with caduceus 
to left ; within the zodiac. Bourdaloue coll. 
In Montfaucon, Supp., i. 41, pi. xvii. 

77. Stone table with zodiac in a centre 
circle, the winds, as heads, outside. In Mont- 
faucon, Supp., i. 43. 

78. Circular gem. Sun, wings, crescent, 
serpent within the zodiac. Diam. an inch. 
In Raspe, i. 220, fig. 3135. Sulphur cast in 
Tassie coll. 

79. On a gero, around Serapis and the 
planetary deities. King, i. 252 ; in Caylus, 
' Recueil d'Antiquite's,' 1 752. 

80. On a gem, around Serapis and the 
planetary deities. Bosanquet coll. King, 
i. 252. 

81. On a gem surrounding Pan. Stosch ; 
Mariette, ' Pierr. Grav.,' ii. pi. 45 ; ' Mus. 
Florent.,' t. ii. pi. 88, n. 3 ; Fosbroke, i. 147. 

82. " The celebrated Mithras with a serpent 
coiled round him, between the folds of which 
are sculptured the signs of the zodiac." In 
St. Anne Museum, Aries, France. Blessing- 
ton, ' Idler in France,' 1841, i. 35. The same 
or a similar sculpture is engraved in Mont- 
faucon, I. ii. 378, pi. ocxv. 

83. On a circular marble sculpture, sur- 
rounding Jupiter, Mercury, Venus, and 
Cupid, In Montfaucon, Supp., i, pi. xvii, 

84. A statue of Serapis enfolded in a snake, 
between whose coils are seen the signs of 
the zodiac. President Bon coll. In Mont- 
faucon, Supp., ii. 149, pi. xlii. 

85. Sculptured on twelve shields, on a 
pedestal supporting statues of Pluto and 
Proserpine, with Jupiter, Hercules, Minerva, 
Ceres, and Cupid. Aleander coll., Rome. In 
Montfaucon, I. i. 80, pi. xli. fig. 1. 

86. On a rectangular white marble almanac, 
from Pompeii, in the Naples Museum. 
' Pompeii,' by L. E. K., ii. 287. 

87. Sculptured on a marble wheel found 
near Baise, Italy. Holcroft, ' Travels,' 137. 

88. On a cameo, around Jupiter, Mercury, 
Mars, and Oceanus. Webb coll. King, i. 

89. Four signs on an arc, above Apollo in 
a quadriga, Cupid and Fortuna near, on a 
medal, "e Mus. Pisano, Tab. 18." In Sandby, 
' E. C. T. Publii Virgilii Maronis,' 1750, i. 72, 
pi. xiv. fig. 5. 

90. On a large circular medallion, around 
Jupiter seated, with rod and eagle, Sol and 
Luna with their emblems above, Neptune and 
Thetis below. IIEPIN 0IMN BNE fiKO 
PMN IMNMN. In Sandby, i. 34, pi. ix. fig. 3; 
"Ex Museo Florent., Tom. 4, Tab. 66." 

91. Large circular zodiac enclosing Jupiter 
seated, with fulmen and rod, above eagle, 
attended by Mercury, Venus, and Cupid. 
Bourdaloue coll. In Sandby, i. 113, pi. xix. 

92. "A pavement, representing in black 
mosaic on a white ground the signs of the 
zodiac, with the Rape of Europa in the 
centre." In Naples Museum. Murray, ' South 
Italy,' 1878, p. 148. 

93. Statue of Atlas sustaining a celestial 
globe with forty-two constellations (of the 
original forty-eight). Ursa Major and Minor, 
Sagittarius, Pegasus, and Canis Minor are 
omitted. Probably ante Hadrian. In Naples 
Museum. Murray, p. 155. 

94. In the Naples Museum is a " cornelian 
with the head of Apollo surrounded by the 
twelve signs of the zodiac." Murray, p. 161. 

95. In the Naples Museum is a calendar 
consisting of a square block of white marble, 
on which are inscribed the months and the 
corresponding signs, the names of the months, 
the number of the days, the nones, the desig- 
nations of the signs, the names of the 
tutelary divinities, the religious festivals; 
that the sun was in Capricorn, that Juno was 
the divinity, &c. Found near Rome. Murray, 
p. 150. A. B. G. 

(To be continued,) 

lately fell into my hands a. curious treatise by 



. n. JULY 23, 

John Falconer with the title "Cryptomenysis 
Patefacta ; or, the Art of Secret Information 
disclosed without a Key, containing Plain 
and Demonstrative Rules for decyphering 
all Manner of Secret Writing. London, 1685," 
pp. 180. Among the various methods then 
in use for conveying secret information, I 
do not notice the very obvious one of im- 
bedding an English sentence in a Latin com- 
position. In the seventeenth century, when 
communications in Latin between learned 
men were common enough, such a device 
might have easily escaped detection. I have 
put together ten lines, which, though appa- 
rently only a fragment of a satire on the 
intemperance of language and waste of sub- 
stance incident to contested elections, really 
convey the following information on the 
recent East Herts election : 

" Evelyn Cecil, Robert Spencer crash in contest 
for Parliament in June. Conservatives hold the 
seat. Reduced numbers." 

All that need be claimed for the Latin is 
that it should pass muster scan and construe 
and make tolerable sense. Few, probably, 
reading the following lines would suspect 
that there was anything cryptogrammatic 
about them, though they might fairly be 
puzzled about the sense here and there : 

Rauca revelavit synodus convitia. Cedit 
Concilio robur, nee tristis inertia vulgus 
Arcet, ne faciant lucri dispendia certi. 
Cras his in vicis sicci convivia testes 
Culpent, at forsan partes et prselia mentes 
Constringunt, nee nunc jejune vivere prodest. 
Conservat rivus sedes atque irrigat hortos 
Pulchr^, si soldus ex theca ssepe sequatur 
Soldum ; sic plebes aurum ludique reducunt 
Ante pedes, nummosque beant, bursamque salutant. 


If it be objected that the person for whom 
the information is intended might fail to 

Eerceive the whole, it would be a simple plan 
)r the writer to accent slightly each word 
containing an English element. 

According to Lowndes, Falconer published 
another book on the same subject : "Eules 
for decyphering Secret Writing. By J. f\ 
London, 1692," 8vo. He is not included in the 
' Diet. Nat. Biog.' Does Mr. Thos. Falconer's 
'Bibliography of the Falconer Family ' throw 
any light upon him 1 C. DEBDES. 


"WiSHY - WASHY." Perhaps it is worth 
while to note that this form is not peculiar to 
English. Koolman quotes the East Friesic 
wisje-wasje, in the sense of stupid chatter, 
from the verb waschen in the sense " to 
prattle." The German waschen means both 
to wash and to chatter. Hence G. wascherei, 
gossip ; waschhaft, loquacious ; gewasch, idle 

talk. The G. wascherin means (1) a washer- 
woman, (2) a gossip. One sense of ivishy- 
washy appears to have been " twaddling." 

"Go ABOUT." This expression formerly 
meant to attempt or set about doing any- 
thing ; but it has so completely lost that 
meaning that the revisers of the New Testa- 
ment did well in John vii. 19, 20, and Rom. 
x. 3, to substitute " seek." One is the more 
surprised that they have left the A.V. trans- 
lation " go about " in Acts ix. 29. The Greek 
word there is not (as in the other places re- 
ferred to) taken from ^TCIV, but is kir^eipovv. 
Now this verb occurs in only two other 
places in the New Testament in Luke i. 1 
and in Acts xix. 13 in both which it is 
translated as " take in hand " or " take upon 
them." Some equivalent expression, such as 
"undertook," would surely have been better in 
Acts ix. 29, where the idea of " going " is no 
more involved than in the passages above 
referred to in John vii. and Rom. x. So far 
as I am aware, the expression "go about" 
is never used now in the above sense. Doubt- 
less the rude retort, "Go about your busi- 
ness," originally meant simply " work at " or 
" attend to," but the literal sense of " go " is 
now generally understood to be conveyed in 
it, and the user does mean to bid his inter- 
locutor to go away and do his own business, 
which is implied to be somewhere else. 

W. T. LYNN. 

ATKINS." An interesting correspondence on 
this subject has recently appeared in the 
Western Morning Neivs, which perhaps is 
worthy of preservation in the columns of 
'N. & Q.' F. H. A., who writes the first 
letter, says : ; .;.. 

" Thomas Atkins made his first appearance in 
public about 1845, near which date an authorized 
pattern ledger was introduced for soldiers' accounts, 
with headings and all trading items printed, much 
to the relief of pay sergeants, who had always been 
required to enter everything in manuscript. The 
introduction of printed ledgers had been attempt sd 
in some regiments, but all general officers were not 
agreed in accepting them at their inspections. The 
new ledger had a model form of completed account 
pasted inside the cover, and this bore the signatures 
Thomas Aitkens' and 'A. J. Lawrence, captain,' 
showing that it had emanated from the Rifle 
Brigade, in which presumably the original T. A. 
then served as a private." 

But Capt. J. W. Mills (14th Regiment) 
gives quite another account of Tommy's 
origin. He says : 

'F. H. A. has not given the correct history of 
' Tommy Atkins' as applied generally to the British 

II. JULY 23, '98.] 



soldier. He made his very first appearance at the 
beginning of this century. He was a gunner in the 
Royal Regiment of Artillery. At that time soldiers' 
accounts were not well kept, and monthly settle- 
ments of soldiers' pay were not regularly made. 
Thomas Atkins kept a book in which he balanced 
his accounts monthly, and so originated the idea of 
a soldier's pocket ledger, or, as it was called in the 
Royal Artillery, a ' Tommy Atkins,' for I have 
heard it so called during my service in the army. 
It may be certain that several improvements and 
alterations have taken place since the book was 
first introduced. I may add that the above-named 
facts I heard from my father, who knew Thomas 
Atkins well, for he served in the Royal Artillery 
at the time." 

And in this latter account another writer 
who signs himself R.A. concurs. He writes : 

"I quite agree with the remarks of Capt. J. W. 
Mills (late 14th Regiment) with respect to the his- 
tory of 'Tommy Atkins.' My grandfather who 
was a colour-sergeant in the Royal Artillery the 
beginning of this century, was present at the taking 
of the Cape of Good Hope, 1805-6, and was dis- 
charged to out pension a few years after called his 
account-book 'Tommy Atkins.' So did my uncle, 
late gunner R.A. (a Waterloo man). Being born in 
the artillery, I never heard the account-book called 
by any other name than ' Tommy Atkins.' It is 
quite an artillery word. Possibly the word 'pocket 
ledger ' is used now. Any old pensioner from the 
Royal Artillery will say that Capt. J. W. Mills's is 
the most correct account of the word." 

Thus while Tommy's birth is at first stated 
to have taken place in 1845, that date is 
clearly too recent, and it is not certain from 
the correspondence that his origin can be 
dated from the early part of the present cen- 
tury even, as it may have taken place some 
time during the eighteenth century or pos- 
sibly earlier. Capt. Mills's statement that 
his father knew Thomas Atkins only proves 
that he knew a gunner of that name, and it 
does not follow it was " the " Thomas Atkins 
of proverbial celebrity. 



[See 6* S. viii. 469, 525.] 

TIONS.' The press notices which enterprising 
publishers append to the advertisements of 
their wares have generally to be taken cum 
grano salis ; but a recommendation from 
' N. & Q.' has always possessed a value of its 
own, and when it appeared that Col. P. H. 
Dalbiac's ' Dictionary of Quotations ' had 
secured this advantage, the desirability of 
possessing the book became obvious. Its 
preface claims for it that it is at once com- 
plete, up to date, and explicit in references. 
That it is arranged on a good plan and that 
its index is the result of much labour may be 
admitted, but Col. Dalbiac's claim to com- 
pleteness is so glaringly opposed to fact that 

it ought not to pass unnoticed. Starting 
from Chaucer wnose line 

His studie was but litel on the Bible 
finds no place in the volume through the 
subsequent course of English literature, the 
omissions of quotations which stand in the 
first rank of fame are simply innumerable. 
Shakespeare has naturally received more 
attention than most writers, yet such well- 
known passages as the following are omitted : 

I could have better spared a better man. 

Like quills upon the fretful porcupine. 

A local habitation and a name. 

Nothing extenuate, 

Nor set down aught in malice. 

After life's fitful fever he sleeps well. 
As examples of the losses which less famous 
authors sustain, the following, noted at 
random in a half-hour's search, may be cited 
to show what this dictionary does not 
contain : 
Fears of the brave and follies of the wise. 

S. Johnson. 

Superfluous lags the veteran on the stage. Ibid. 
I am a part of all that I have met. Tennyson. 
A power is passing from the earth. Wordsworth. 
And when a lady's in the case, 
You know all other things give place. Gay. 
The glory dies not, and the grief is past. Brydgea. 
The women pardoned all except her face. Byron. 
To sport with Amaryllis in the shade. Milton. 
No fiends torment, no Christians thirst for gold. 

The parson knows enough who knows a duke. 


Who peppered the highest was surest to please. 


It is unnecessary to prolong the list. Col. 
Dalbiac's dictionary is very nicely got up 
and contains a great many quotations, but he 
must not call it complete. A. G. CARDEW. 

THE PRINTER AGAIN? In an edition of 
Marvell's ' Poems ' issued by Ward, Lock & 
Co. (no date) I find the following couplet 
(p. 67, ' The Mower against Gardens ') : 
Another world was searched through oceans new 
To find the Marble of Peru. 

We used, as boys, to call marbles " marvels," 
but this conversion of a flower into stone 
strikes me as particularly comical. 

C. C. B. 

The following extract from the report of 
the proceedings of the Court of Common 
Council, held on 23 June, given in the City 
Press, deserves a corner in ' N. & Q.': 

"Mr. R. W. Edwards asked the Chairman of the 
Gresham Committee if it was intended to replace 



s. IL JULY 23, 

the old stones forming the pavement of the Royal 
Exchange with something more modern in character. 
Mr. Deputy Parnwell said it was not likely that 
the stones in question would be removed, as they 
were the identical stones which were brought over 
in one of Sir Thomas Gresham's ships, and formed 
the pavement of the original Exchange. There was 
such a history attached to them that the Committee 
would be loth to disturb such historic associations." 


haps the following may interest some of your 
readers. At p. 408 of the Tenth Report, 
Appendix, Part IV., of the Hist. MSS. Com., 
I find " Register of Baptisms, Marriages, and 
Funerals in the Church of Shipton from A.D. 
1538 to A.D. 1792. in two boots," preserved 
among the MSS. of Mr. Jasper More at 
Shipton Hall. KNOWLER. 

' COMIN' THRO' THE RYE.' Much discus- 
sion has been caused in New York by the 
letter of a Scot in the Times, in which he 
states that Burns meant a stream named the 
Rye, and not a field of rye-grain ; and that 
Jenny came over the stepping-stones of the 
Rye-burn. He further states that in the 
Motherwell and Hogg edition of Burns (vol. 
iii.) there is a picture of a lass and laddie 
comin' thro' the Rye, in which there is not a 
field of grain, but the bank of a stream with 
a stepping-stone in view. He writes : 

" I am fully aware of the fact that most (perhaps 
more than 99 per cent, of the editions of Burns's 
works) give rye with a small r. But I am also 
aware that the text in most of these editions is a 
mere servile reprint of the edition published by Dr. 
Cnrrie in Liverpool in 1800. This edition was 

Printed in London by men who knew nothing of the 
cottish language, and the text, so far as typo- 
graphy is concerned, is probably more corrupt than 
that of any author of the time. But it is a curious 
fact that while the word rye in the text always has 
a small r (English compositors at that time knew 
no other rye than rye-grain), in the name of the tune, 
as given with the song, Rye is always capitalized. 
And the tune is far older than Burns's version." 

If this plausible interpretation is to explain 
also the line 

She draigl't a' her petticoatie 
in the chorus, and if this interpretation is as 
true as it is plausible, then we nave to thank 
Mr. John Phin, the writer of the letter, for 
enlightening us ; but I should like to hear 
some opinions from more local authorities 
than a Scotchman in America. 


New Jersey, U.S.A. 

[See 5 th S. v. 87, 116, 150, 191, 309, 350.] 

BOOK-BORROWING. In spite of some losses, 
I continue a book-lender. Some losses from 
books not returned are imaginary. Probably 

others have felt the difficulty of accurately 
keeping a register of loans ; one may forget 
to mark the return. I commend this system, 
which also forms an interesting memento of 
departed friends. Cut wood blocks to about 
the size of a book, with the sides smooth 
enough to write on. When a book is lent, 
write the title, the borrower's name, and the 
date on the block, and put it in your book- 
case in the place of the book. When the 
book is returned, replace it, and withdraw 
the block, writing date of return. The same 
block, without erasure, will do service twenty 
or thirty times. T. WILSON. 



LORIS." An inquiry for the source of this 
line appears in 1 st S. viii. 272. Others follow 
from time to time, until in 6 th S. i. 132 there 
is a summary by me of what was known at the 
time of the sentiment in early writers, as 
well as of the Latin line in its several forms. 
I have just seen in Buchmann's ' Gefliigelte 
Worte,' Berlin, 1892, p. 261, a notice of this 
line. The only new reference for the sentiment 
is the moral of the ^Esopian fables of ' The 
Hares and the Frogs,' fables 237, 237B, Lips., 
1852, p. 114. But there is an earlier reference 
for the Latin line. The earliest authority for 
it appears to be Dominicus de Gravina in the 
'Chron. de Rebus in Apul. Gest.,' ab ann, 
1333-1350, where it is "Juxta illud verbum 
poeticum, ' gaudium est miseris socios habuisse 
poenarum,' " Nap., 1781, ii. 220. Then there is 
" Solamen miseris socios habuisse doloris," in 
Marlowe's 'Faustus,' 1580. Next, in Spinoza 
it is " Solamen miseris socios habuisse mal- 
orum," ' Eth.,' iv. 57 (ob. 1677). 


under this title, by Bret Harte, appears in 
Scribner's for January, and details how the 
Saxons in A.D. 552, having laid siege to this 
town, and having failed to reduce it, had 
recourse to stratagem. They netted the 
swallows whose nests were in the eaves of 
the doomed town, 

And they stuck on their feathers a rude lighted 


Made of resin and tow. Then they let them all go 
To be free ! As a childish diversion ? Ah, no ! 
To work Cirencester's red ruin and woe. 
For straight to each nest they flew, in wild quest 
Of their homes and their fledgelings that they 

loved the best ; 

And straighter than arrow of Saxon e'er sped 
They shot o'er the curving streets, high overhead, 
Bringing fire arid terror to roof-tree and bed, 
Till the town broke in flame, wherever they came, 
To the Briton's red ruin the Saxon's red shame. 

On what authority, historical or legendary, 

9 th S. II. JULY 23, '98.] 



is this incident based 1 In February last, in 
a Dublin daily paper, a letter appeared stating 

"in Dr. Hanmer's 'Chronicle of Ireland,' 1571, at 
p. 35, there ia a curious reference to Dublin, thus : 
'In the time of Aug. Caesar, Fridelenus, King of 
Denmark, puffed up with pride through some 
fortunate successes, arrived in Ireland, laid siege 
to the city of Dublin, and, finding it not so easy a 
matter to achieve, fell to policy ; he caught some 
swallows that bred in the city, tied fire to their 
wings, set them flying to their nests, and so fired 
the houses. While the citizens endeavoured to 
quench the fire the Danes entered the city and took 
it.' 'His son Frotho was monarch of Ireland, and 
during his reign the Light of the World, the Com- 
fort of all Christians, Jesus Christ, the Son of God, 
was born in the flesh.'" 

The author of this letter makes no mention 
of 'The Birds of Cirencester.' Dublin would 
thus appear to have, at least, a prior right to 
this picturesque method of destruction ; or 
is it altogether a case of "another injustice 
to Ireland " ? Are we to be deprived of our 
misfortunes as well as of our rights ? Perhaps 
the bird-borne flambeau was the ultima ratio 
of the wily Northmen in all such cases. 

S. A. D'ARCY, L.R.C.P. and S.I. 

Rosslea, Clones, co. Fermanagh. 

[The poem in question is included in ' Some Later 
Verses/ by Bret Harte (Chatto & Windus).] 

WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be addressed to 
them direct. _ 

We shall be very much obliged if you can 
kindly help us through ' N. & Q.' to find out 
the author and name of work in which the 
quotation "Whose curtain never outward 
swings " may be found. We have searched 
in all the ordinary works of reference without 
finding it, and shall be glad of your kind 
assistance. WILLIAM CLOWES & SONS. 

13, Charing Cross, S.W. 

LORDS LIEUTENANT. How should one 
address the Lord Lieutenant of a county 
when not a peer? Should one begin "My 
Lord" and end "Your Lordship's Obedient 
Servant," and direct " The Lord Lieutenant 

of ," or how ] A Lord Mayor is a Right 

Honourable, but I do not know that a Lord 
Lieutenant has the like honour. 



quotation from the '^Eneid,' yi. 143, 144, is of 
common occurrence, but it is not taken up 

by the writers of books of quotations, so far 
as I have seen. At the Mansion House on 
15 June (see the Standard, 16 June) one of 
bhe judges quoted it in the form above. But 
the exact expression of Virgil is :. " Primo 
avulso non deficit alter aureus." "Can any 
one refer to an early use of the quotation 
with the substitution of " uno " for " primo," 
or trace the alteration to its source ? 


M.P. AND STATUE OF GOLD. Who said, and 
of whom was it said, that a certain M.P. 
deserved a statue of gold 1 J. GIFFARD. 

Cowley Rectory, Cheltenham. 

UPHAM. I should like to know the origin 
of the name Upham as given to a village in 
Hants, near Winchester. M. S. 

SPADE GUINEA, 1796. I have amongst my 
collection of gold coins the spade guinea of 
the year 1796 ; but, although I have made all 
inquiries, I have been unable to find another 
with this date. Are there any more in ex- 
istence, and why is this date so very scarce 1 
What is its value in Mint preservation ? 


CHILD'S HYMN. Can any of your readers 
furnish information regarding the infant 
rime, some forms of which are subjoined? 
Is it a rime of any antiquity 1 What is the 
date of its earliest appearance in print ? Is 
it peculiar to any part of Britain ? Is there 
any evidence of its having been translated 
from any other language ? Or is a parallel 
to it found in any other language 1 ? What 
may be regarded as its primary or standard 
form 1 ? 

Traditional (?) Form. 
I lay my body down to sleep, 
And give my soul to Christ to keep ; 
If in this life I ne'er should wake 
I pray the Lord my soul to take. 

Aberdeenshire (?) Form. 
This night when I lie down to sleep 
I pray the Lord my soul to keep ; 
Wake I now or wake I never, 
May I be the Lord's for ever I 

Another Form. 

This night when I lie down to sleep 
I pray the Lord my soul to keep ; 
III should die before I wake 
I pray the Lord my soul to take. 

[See 7 th S. x. 248, 377 ; xi. 74.] 

be glad to learn in regard to the name of this 
place (twenty-one miles north of York) how 
the transition came about. It seems to me 
to be regretted inasmuch as the barony of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. n. JULY 23, 

Roos of Hamlake is the first, as the most 
ancient, on the English roll, dating from 1264 
by writ, and by tenure a century and a half 
earlier. In consequence of the variation in 
name the location of the " premier barony " 
is now difficult of discovery, and probably 
many besides myself have had to search for 
Hamlake, not identifying it in Helmsley. 

In that valuable exposition of the descent 
and transition of titles, Courthope's edition 
(1857) of Nicolas's ' Historic Peerage,' it ap- 
pears that of the Roos, or De Roos, family 
there were eleven barons by writ, the last of 
them dying s.p. in 1508. The barony, having 
been sixteen years in abeyance, was next held 
by Manners,* of which family five barons 
succeeded. It then, in 1591, passed to a 
Cecil,t and in 1618 returned to a Manners. 
From 1632 to 1687 it was held by two members 
of the house of Villiers,J and after the latter 
date was in abeyance 119 years, which in 1806 
was terminated in favour of one of the coheirs, 
Lady Charlotte Fitz-Gerald. This branch of 
Fitz-Gerald added, by royal licence, De Ros 
to their surname, and hence it is considered 
(according to the foot-note, p. 406, of the 
| Historic Peerage ') that a mistake was made 
in the writ of summons, in consequence of 
which the latest holders of the ancient 
barony are styled Barons De Ros of Hamlake. 
In the nebulous age of spelling, however, the 
name was not invariably written De Roos. 
Of the Fitz-Gerald-De-Ros barons the pre- 
sent is the fourth, so that he is the twenty- 
fourth in the barony of Roos of Hamlake. 

The name of the place may have been 
variously written, as was the family name ; 
indeed, on p. xxiv of the same work it is 
quoted as " Hameslake," which might easily 
come to Hemeslake. But not knowing any 
relationship between the final syllables "lake" 
and " ley " (in Helmsley), I would ask for a 
reasonable explanation of the variation. 

Remains of Hamlake Castle are, I believe, 
yet to be seen in the demesne of the Earl of 
Feversham, Duncombe Park. 

27, Elgin Avenue, W. 

existence any lexicon to the Septuagint 1 I 

* The first Baron Roos of the Manners family 
was son of a coheiress of Roos. The second, 
third, fourth, and sixth Manners barons were 
Dukes of Rutland. 

t William Cecil.Baron Roos, was son of William, 
second Earl of Exeter, by Elizabeth Manners, 
Baroness Roos (fifth). Ob. v.p. et s.p. 

J Catherine Villiers, Baroness Roos, was sole 
daughter of the sixth Manners baron, and widow 
of George, Duke of Buckingham. Her son George, 
second Duke, succeeded to the barony. Ob. s.p. 

do not wish to be referred to Hatch and 
Redpath's work, which is a concordance, not 
a lexicon. PERTINAX. 


GLEANER ; consisting of Essays, Moral Tales, 
Poetry, &c. Vols. I. and II., 12mo. 1819-20. 
Printed and published at the Kilmarnock 
Press by Mathie & Lochore." These volumes 
consist of sixteen monthly numbers eight 
each beginning Thursday, 4 Oct., 1818, and 
ending January, 1820, misprinted 1819. Vol. i. 
pp. iv-332 ; vol. ii., pp. iv-316. In vol. ii. there 
is an original letter of Burns to his uncle 
Samuel Brown, dated Mossgiel, 4 May, 1789, 
and bits of Burnsiana in both volumes. How 
many volumes or numbers of this publication 
were there issued ? W. NIXON. 


this? It is frequently found among the 
articles extracted from the poor Cornish 
tithe-payer. The only definition I have ever 
found in a terrier is in that of 1727 for St. 
Keverne, in Cornwall : " It is understood that 
the white sowle is nine days' milk turned into 
cheese, and the cream into butter, and to be 
paid at the Vicarage House, or on the Com- 
munion table," on a fixed day in each year. 
Halliwell gives, " Sool. Anything eaten with 
bread, such as butter, cheese," &c., as in use 
in Northumberland and Pembroke. What is 
the origin of the word ? Does it occur in 
terriers of other counties as well as Cornwall? 

T. C. P. 

YOUR DADS." Is anything known of the 
author of the words, or the composer of the 
music, of this jolly old "pipe and tabor" 
ditty beyond the fact stated in Chappell's 
Musical Magazine that it is of the " time of 
Charles II."? In Alfred H. Miles's 'Five 
Hundred and Fifty Songs' it has four verses, 
but Chappell gives six. When one sings, or 
hears sung, this merry old ditty, our fore- 
fathers and fore-mothers seem to live " as if 
they ne'er had died," 

And young and old come forth to play 

On a sunshine holiday. 

Is it not delightful, and at the same time 
pathetic, to contrast these happy, light- 
hearted "lasses," Jess and Dolly and Sue, 
with poor Bess Cranage, "laid houldon," and 
terrified "out of her five sentences," by Dinah 
Morris's fearful preaching ? 


PICTURE MARKS. What gallery, public or 
private, marked its pictures on the back 
of the canvas, left-hand top corner, with 

9* 8. II. JULY 23, '98.] 



Arabic figures and an " H " dashed off with a 
brush in black, the "H" two and a half inches 
high, done about one hundred and fifty years 
ago? QUERIST. 

REV. SIMON ROGERS. Rector of Stour- 
mouth, Kent, 1606-8. Was he the same as 
Simon Rogers, a prebendary of St. Paul's, 
1602-4? On 14 June, 1608, administration to 
his goods was granted to his widow Winifred 
Rogers. Any additional information will be 
very acceptable. ARTHUR HUSSEY. 

Wingham, Kent. 

JOHNSON. Can any one give me a pedi- 
gree of a family called Johnson, described as 
of Minster in the Isle of Sheppey, and also 
of Loans in Surrey? The mother of George 
Byng, first Viscount Torrington, was Phila- 
delphia Johnson of this family. 


' History of Mansfield ' it is stated that from 
a house near Mansfield Woodhouse, in which 
Major Rooke lived and died, "Thoroton 
Gould eloped with the daughter of the last 
Earl of Sussex, and, riding over the border, 
was married to her by the blacksmith of 
Gretna Green. The lady succeeded to the 
title of Baroness Grey de Ruthyn on the 
death of her father." In the 'Complete 
Peerage' it is said that the pair eloped 
from an inn at Barnet to Gretna Green, 
where they were married. No reference 
is given with either statement. Can any 
of your readers inform me which of the 
statements (if either) is correct 1 The Major 
Rooke named above was an eminent anti- 
quarian writer on Sherwood Forest and the 
neighbourhood. The Gould family (his 
neighbours) were people of consideration 
who resided at Mansfield Woodhouse. The 
marriage took place in 1775. The descend- 
ants of E. Thoroton Gould and this lady 
(Lady Barbara Yelverton) are found among 
the most eminent families in the kingdom. 

St. Hilda's Terrace, Whitby. 

the six clerks had their offices in a building 
known as " Harflu (or Hereflete or Harflete) 
Inne " in Chancery Lane " over against the 
Rolls House." Tnis building was destroyed 
by fire in 1621, but was rebuilt the following 
year, and they continued there till 1778, 
when apparently they removed to a building 
still in Chancery Lane, but nearer Holborn. 
Here they remained till the office was 
abolished and replaced by the Records and 
Writs Clerks' Office in 1842. I shall be much 

obliged to any one who can tell me where I 
am likely to find views or engravings of the 
Harflu Inn and of the building that replaced 
it, and also of the other building in Chancery 
Lane nearer Holborn. I shall also be glad of 
any references to books or pamphlets giving 
a history of the six clerks and of their names. 

E. A. FRY. 
172, Edmund Street, Birmingham. 

DUCHESS OP KENDAL. Can any one give 
me particulars of the Duchess of Kendal ; 
her name before she was raised to the peer- 
age and her children (if any) ? 


Warley Barracks, Brentwood. 

[Thereneverwas a secoudDukeof Kendal. Charles 
Stuart, third son of James, Duke of York, was 
created Duke of Kendal in 1666 and died in 1667. 
George IV. when Regent promised the dukedom to 
Prince Leopold, afterwards King of the Belgians, but 
the creation was never made. See 8 th S. i. 356 ; iv. 
227 296 : also, under ' Melesina Schulenberg, 8 th b. 
i. 27, 98, 152, 197, 212, 237, 281.] 


Said Day to Night, " I bring God's light ; 

What gift have you ? " 

Night said, " The dew." 
" I bring bright hours," quoth Day, " and flowers." 

Night said, " More blest, 

I bring sweet rest." 

My recollection is that they are by some titled 
lady (perhaps Lady Lindsay). In any event could 
you inform me the oest means of ascertaining this? 
I have set them to music, and desire to obtain the 
requisite permission to publish them. 


Wo sind dieschonen Tage hin, dawir so unglucklich 
waren ? 

The lovelight in her eyes. T. G. 

[This is in some popular Irish poem.] 

La mort est le baiser de Dieu. 


Ingratitude, thou, child of hell, 
Wert born when the archangel fell. 

United States, your banner wears 

Two emblems : one of fame. 
The other one, alas ! it bears 

A token of your shame. 
'Tis true your constellation types 

White freedom by its stars, 
But what 's the meaning of the stripes ? 

They are your negroes' scars. B. 

"Thinking of these things, and kneeling before 
the altar, my heart became filled with gratitude ; 
and no petition suggested itself to me save one, 
and that was ' Let me believe and love. I thought 
of the fair, strong, stately figure of Christ standing 
out on the world's history like a statue of pure 
white against a dark background ; I mused on the 
endurance, patience, forgiveness, and perfect inno- 
cence of that most spotless life which was finished 
on the cross, and again I murmured, Let me 
believe and love.' " M. BROOKE. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s, n. JULY 23, 

(9 th B. i. 381.) 

I CANNOT tell KILLIGREW what critic or 
commentator rendered these words, " The im- 
mobility of our idiosyncrasies possesses us"; 
but I make bold to say that, whoever he may 
have been, he was wrong, and that his inter- 
pretation is little better Aan grotesque. In 
point of Latinity, is it to be thought that 
the adj. strenuus describes a dead weight 
of passive resistance ; that exercere means to 
repress, to hold a man down like a Jack-in- 
the-box, with no chance given to bob up ; or 
that the following clause, "Navibus atque 
quadrigis," &c., is in opposition to, not con- 
tinuous with and explanatory of, the fore- 
going? "Strenua" must mean, as always, 
vigorously energetic. " Exercet " can only 
mean " keeps us on the move, on the stretch," 
possibly, even, "on the rack"; and the structure 
of the sentence naturally leads us to take 
yachting and four-in-hand driving as samples 
of strenuous inaction, not, as the commentator 
must understand, mere futile attempts to 
overcome it. 

KILLIGREW does not like to think that 
Horace spoke of travelling as working hard 
at doing nothing. I do not think he need be 
afraid that Horace held any such notion. 
The journey to Brundusium was matter of 
political business ; but if it had been nothing 
more than a pleasure trip, he would certainly 
not have been doing nothing, nor would he have 
affected to call it nothing, when laying up 
that store of pleasant and comic memories 
which he intended to be a possession for 
evermore. In later days, though he loved 
the quiet of his villa beyond Tivoli, yet he 
also enjoyed a run down to Baise for change 
of air ; and when Dr. Musa told him that 
Baise was "worse than useless" to him, he 
thought of going further south, to Salernum 
or Velia. On horseback or muleback, with his 
portmanteau carried behind, he could scarcely 
do the distance under a week. Beyond ques- 
tion he enjoyed the journey for its own sake, 
and found plenty to amuse him and occupy 
his mind on the road (even as this present 
writer recalls among his pleasantest memo- 
ries plodding through Greece in like fashion 
at the rate of twenty miles a day). 

What he does stigmatize, or laugh at, or 
commiserate, is the craving for excitement 
felt by those who, having " plenty to get and 
nothing to do," a superabundance of money 
with utter want of outlet for their energies 
in definite healthy work, are for ever restless, 

ever toiling and travailing and travelling in 
vain pursuit of pleasure ; by those also who, 
having a mind ill at ease, seek through move- 
ment and change of place an escape from 
their own thoughts (Lady Dedlock, for in- 
stance, as vividly described by Dickens). It 
will not do, he says ; if there be not the "well- 
balanced mind " within, it is useless to seek 
for solid enjoyment from without, in yachting 
and four-in-hand driving, in a London season, 
or a winter at Monte Carlo, or a voyage round 
the world ; and as for the troubled soul, 
"What man, self -exiled from his country 
ever yet escaped himself ? " 

I have no doubt that the common inter- 
pretation of " strenua inertia " is correct. 
Except for the absence of religious sentiment, 
Horace says the very same that the prophet 
said, " Ye spend your money for that which 
is not bread, and your labour for that which 
satisfieth not." C. B. MOUNT. 

This happy oxymoron of Horace ('Ep.' i. 
12, 28), " busy idleness," finds an interesting 
parallel in the Book of Wisdom xiii. 13, 
where the idol-maker is said to carve a piece 
of wood "in the diligence of his idleness" 
(LXX., kv eTTijueAetp. apytas ; Vulgate, "dili- 
genter per vacuitatem suam "). Wordsworth 
speaks of 

Worldlings revelling in the fields 
Of strenuous idleness. 

'This Lawn, a Carpet all Alive.' 

South Woodford. 

When, in after years, I was expatiating to 
my old schoolmaster on my desire for fresh 
woods and pastures new, he pulled me up very 
short with the quiet remark, " You can't get 
away from yourself." THOMAS J. JEAKES. 

" To SUE " : " HERONSEW " (9 th S. i. 206, 316, 
354, 477). In answer to your correspondent 
W. H N B Y I supply him with the infor- 
mation he requires. Our word heron (vari- 
ously written in Middle English hairon, 
heiroun, heyrone, heroun, herne, heern, heryri) i.u 
taken directly from the French, heron being 
a later form of hairon, from *hagironem 
(aironem, says Brachet under 'Aigrette,' is 
actually met with in a tenth-century text), a 
Latinized form of O.H.G. heigir, heron. The 
guttural disappears from O.Fr. hairon, but 
is found in other O.Fr. forms, haigron and 
aigron (whence Fr. aigrette, Engl. egret), and 
still persists in Ital. aghirone. 

O.H.G. heigir and M.H.G. heiger, says 
Kluge, are by-forms of O.H.G. *reiar or 
*reijar and M.H.G. reiger. But the forms 
beginning with r lead back to older forms in 

II. JULY 23, '98.] 



hr, e.g., hreigir (cf. O.E. hrdgra), the only form 
which has maintained itself in German and 
Dutch, as reiher and reiger respectively. 
These rh forms have nothing to do with the 
etymology of heron, but may be appealed to 
in evidence of onomatopoetic origin ; cf. 
Welsh cregyr, a screamer, a heron, from creg, 
cryg, hoarse. Let it be observed, moreover, 
that a South American species of heron has 
been named era-era from its cry when on 
wing, and that the Russians call the night 
heron TcwaJca, from its cry, which resembles 
that word uncouthly expressed. 

As to heronshaw or hernshaw, I am now dis- 
posed to discredit its alleged use as signify- 
ing heronry. If we may trust Leland's ' Col- 
lectanea,' the word existed in Middle English 
for the bird with the two spellings heronshawe 
(vol. vi. p. 2) and herenshew* (p. 5), occurring 
in a programme of "the great feast at the 
intronization of George Nevell, Arch- 
bishop of York," in 1465, the latter form being 
intermediate between heronsewe and heron- 
shawe. We find herneshaw in Spenser's 
' Faerie Queene ' (VI. vii. 9), hearnshaw in 
Hakluy t's ' Voyages ' (iii. 520), and heronshaw 
in Bishop Hall's 'Quo vadis?' (p. 59) each 
with the meaning of heron. The assertion 
in Chambers's Etymological Dictionary' 
that heronsewe " was confounded with the old 
form hernshaiv, a heronry," and therefore 
that hernshaw for heron is a blunder, is, on 
present evidence, untenable. Where is there 
an instance of heronshaw for heronry earlier 
than 1465, earlier than the 'Faerie Queene' 
(1590), or, in a literary composition as dis- 
tinguished from a dictionary, earlier than the 
' Quo vadis ? ' (1617) ? If hernshaw = heronry 
is a legitimate word, we might expect to find 
compounds of other bird-names with -shaw, 
but, so far as I know, none such exist. It is 
not improbable, therefore, that hernshaw 
has been taken by lexicographers to mean 
heronry through ignorance of the true 
import of the latter half of the word. 

And there really is no phonological objec- 
tion to heronshaw as the doublet of heronsewe. 
The French diphthongs eau in beaute", and au 
in cause, pause, sauce, are identical in sound 
with the o in chose, being represented by 6 
in orthoepic lexicons. Beaute" comes into 
English with the pronunciation " bewty," as 
MR. JAS. PLATT, Jun., notes at the third 
reference, and peautre becomes pewter, while 
cause takes the sound of " cawse," and 
chose becomes -shaws in our kickshaws. 
These instances of our duplex rendering of 

" A kind of Hearneshewe " is the rendering of 
"pellos vQlpellus" in Holyoke's 'Diet.' (1640). 

the French d-sound amply suffice to account 
for heronsewe and heronshawe as different 
English pronunciations of heronceau, and the 
early example of heronshawe cited in the pre- 
vious paragraph makes it almost certain that 
they were. 

I would remark in conclusion that the 
East Anglian harnsey, referred to in my 
former communication, is an extreme instance 
of attenuation, but is outdone by harnsa, 
noted by Prof. Skefrt in vol. ii. of his Chaucer 
series (1874. p. 249). From such worn forms 
it would be impossible to determine the 
original spelling in full. F. ADAMS. 

106A, Albany Road, Camberwell. 

FLEET STREET (9 th S. i. 506). My attention 
has been called to MR. JOHN T. PAGE'S com- 
munication respecting Dr. Johnson's house 
in Bolt Court (No. 8), whether it was burnt 
down in 1819, as is generally supposed, or, 
as Lieut.-Col. F. Grant asserts in nis ' Life 
of Johnson ' (" Great Writers " series), it 
"still exists" (1887) and "remains in the 
same condition as when lived in by John- 

As one who has occupied offices in another 
house in Bolt Court (No. 3) for nearly forty 
years, I have naturally taken a deep interest 
in the houses in the court (about ten in 
number) and the changes that have taken 
place in them, and in 1893 I contributed the 
illustrations to an exhaustive article in the 
Leisure Hour, entitled ' The Doctors in Bolt 
Court,' by Mr. W. J. Gordon, who is well 
known for his thoroughness and exactness in 
all matters of antiquarian and topographical 
research. In that article Mr. Gordon states 
that Mr. Thomas Bensley, the well-known 
printer of his day, twenty years after John- 
son's death in 1784, bought the freehold of 
two houses in Bolt Court, and began to use 
one of them (No. 8) as part of his printing- 
premises. Bensley's presses soon came to be 
worked by steam, and so, on 26 June, 1819, 
a fire broke out, and Dr. Johnson's house 
(No. 8) was burnt to the ground. Bensley's 
son Benjamin was born in that house, and in 
1820 the son rebuilt the house, nearly, if not 
quite, on the site of that occupied by John- 
son. This is the house now standing in Bolt 
Court, which till recently was occupied by 
the Stationers' Company's school for boys. 

In Pennant's 'Account of London,' 1805 
(to be seen in the Soane Museum), which is 
copiously illustrated with original drawings, 
there is a drawing of Dr. Johnson's house in 
Bolt Court as it appeared in 1808 the house 
which was burnt down in 1819; and those 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. H. JULY 23, '98, 

who are curious in such matters can see an 
exact reproduction of that drawing in the 
article in the Leisure Hour already referred to, 
and also of the existing house, as well as an 
original portrait of Johnson (of that date) 
from the interleaved work by Pennant. 

More might be added about the garden at 
the back of Johnson's house (which afterwards 
became the playground of the Stationers' 
Company's school), where Johnson and Bos- 
well used to sit and converse together. 

Round the corner, in Gough Square, is 
another house which Johnson occupied for 
some years, and where some portion, at least, 
of his great ' Dictionary ' was compiled. This 
house still exists just as it was when Johnson 
lived there. 

Another house in Bolt Court (No. 3) has an 
interest of its own from its connexion with 
another doctor, Dr. Lettsom, a London phy- 
sician celebrated in his day. This house he 
presented to the Medical Society of London, 
who are still its present owners. It has a 
carved tablet over the doorway, intended to 
show in relief the healing art since the time 
of Isis of Sais, with a remarkable Greek 
inscription. It is often confounded with the 
house over the way which stands on the site 
of Johnson's old house; and strangers may 
be often seen peering at the tablet and trying 
in vain to see the great man represented 
there. In this house I have had rooms 
since 1858, and am in this respect the 
" oldest inhabitant " in the court. 


3, Bolt Court, Fleet Street. 

481 ^ ii. 16). It is amusing to learn that the 
Alliance News attributes the very charming 
little poem 'To Dorothy,' a paraphrase of 
"Est mihi nonum superantis annum" (Horace, 
|Od.,' iv. 11), to Mr. Gladstone ! The author 
is Mr. E. V. Lucas, and the poem was first 
published in Mr. C. L. Graves's clever volume 
' The Hawarden Horace ' (Smith, Elder & Co., 
1894). RICH. C. CHRISTIE. 

The verses as to the first appearance of 
which MR. AXON inquires are not by the 
deceased statesman, but by Mr. E. V. Lucas. 
They are an adaptation of Horace's Ode to 
Phyllis, and are to be found in 'The Hawarden 
Horace,' the playful humour of which was 
cordially appreciated by Mr. Gladstone him- 

[Other replies to the same effect have been 

SOURCE OF QUOTATION (9 fch S. ii. 7). These 
words form the first two lines of a song en 

titled ' Rock me to Sleep, Mother,' which 
appears in vol. ii. of Boosey's 'Household 
Music,' issued about thirty years ago. This 
particular volume is devoted to what was 
then known as Christy Minstrel music. The 
song in question bears the name of D. K. 
O'Donnel, but the name of the author of the 
words does not transpire. JOHN T. PAGE. 
West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

"Backward, turn backward, O Time, in 
your flight," is given as by Mrs. Akers in 
" The Royal School Series," No. 5, 1877. 


The verses beginning " Backward, turn 
backward, O Time, in your flight," were 
written by Mrs. Elizabeth Akers Allen, an 
American, whose nom de plume was Florence 
Percy. She is still living. M. B. W. 

[Many other replies are acknowledged.] 

MALCOLM HAMILTON (9 th S. i. 328). The 
extract following is from 'Works of Sir 
James Ware concerning Ireland,' by Walter 
Harris, vol. i. p. 486 (Dublin, 1764) : 

" A Native of Scotland, and Chancellor of Down, 
was together with Archibald Hamilton, Bishop of 
Killala. consecrated in St. Peter's, Drogheda, on the 
29th 01 June, 1623,* and the year following was 
called into the Privy Council. [He also obtained a 
facultyt to hold in Commendam the Chancellorship 
of Down, and the Rectory of Davenis, or Devenish, 
in the diocese of Clogher, and a grant of the Mesne 
Profits of the Archbishoprick during the Vacancy.] 
He died of a raging Feaver at his House at Camus 
on the 25th of Aprill, 1629 and was buried the 2d of 
May following in the Cathedral of Cashell where 
there is a Monument erected to his Memory on the 
North side of the Choir, the inscription on which is 
not legible. For the Letters being cut so as to stand 
raised from the Plane were, together with his Arms, 
defaced by a Chizel in the reign of King James the 
lid. by some ignorant Papist, so that nothing is now 
to be made out but his Mitre and the Motto, which, 
being sunk into the Stone, could not so easily be 
erased. The Motto is ' Pasce Oves.' After the 
death of Archbishop Hamilton, this See continued 
almost a year vacant, and in that time was offered 
by the King to James Spottiswood, Bishop of 
Clogher, but he refused^ the translation." 

On 26 Nov., 1626, Hamilton, together with 
the Archbishop of Armagh and ten bishops, 
signed a protest entitled " The Judgment of 
divers of the Archbishops and Bishops of 
Ireland concerning Toleration of Religion" 
(Cox, ' Hist, of Ireland, Reign of Charles I.,' 
p. 44, published 1690). The second signature, 
Mai. Casellen., is Hamilton's. 

Hugo or Hugh Hamilton, first baron of 
Glenawley, co. Fermanagh, was, according 
to Swedish authorities, second son of Abp. 

"* Pat. 23d May, 21 Jac." 

"t Cox, 2 vol. p. 39." 

" t Ussh. Letters, No. 148." 

9 th S. II. JULY 23, '98.] 



Mai. Hamilton by his first wife Mary, daugh- 
ter of Robert Wilkie of Sachtonhill, and was 
sent by his father to join the Swedish army in 
1624, and died in 1679. He was joined in Swe- 
den in 1654 by his nephew, Malcolm Hamilton. 
This later Malcolm became a Swedish general, 
was ennobled in 1693 as Baron Hamilton de 
Hageby, and was buried at Gothenburg ; he 
was elder son of Capt. John Hamilton of 
Ballygawley, co. Tyrone, who was a younger 
son of the archbishop. John's grandfather 
was Archibald Hamilton of Dalserf, Lanark- 
shire, who is said to have been grandson of 
James Hamilton, second Earl of Arran, but 
this relationship is not clearly proved (' Dic- 
tionary of National Biography/ q.v.). 


"DOWN TO THE GROUND" (9 th S. i. 145, 291). 
" It suits me down to the ground " is an 
expression often used. It means something 
which is entirely or completely satisfactory 
from " head to foot," " from the crown of my 
head to the sole of my foot," " from top to 
toe," and so on. A lady's new dress and a 
man's new suit, if they look well and are appro- 
priate to the wearer, suit them " down to the 
ground." A bargain, or an arrangement, or 
an amusing incident or story, suits some one 
or other " down to the ground." 



PATCHES (9 th S. i. 347). This custom appears 
to have been introduced into England during 
the reign of Elizabeth, and to have prevailed 
through succeeding reigns down to the early 
days of the present century. According to 
'Bygone England,' the first to practise the 
custom were the fops of the Elizabethan era, 
" who embellished their faces with patches 
shaped in the form of stars, crescents, and 
lozenges." In the same work we are told 
that the earliest mention of English women 
adopting the fashion occurs in Bulwer's 
'Artificial Changeling,' 1653. He says : 

" Our ladies have lately entertained a vain cus- 
tom of spotting their faces, out of an affectation of 
a mole, to set off their beauty, such as Venus had ; 
and it is well if one black patch will serve to make 
their faces remarkable, for some fill their visages 
full of them, varied into all manner of shapes and 

In an article entitled ' Patching and Paint- 
ing,' in Chambers's 'Book of Days,' we read : 

" They [patches] seem to have fallen from their 
high estate towards the beginning of the present 
century, for the books of fashion of that period 
make no allusion to them whatever, but they did 
not become utterly extinct even then. A writer in 
1826, describing the toilet table of a Roman lady, 
says : ' It looks nearly like that of our modern 
belles, all loaded with jewels, bodkins, false hair, 

fillets, ribbands, washes, and patchboxes ' ; and the 
present generation may possibly witness a revival 
of the fashion." 

For further information on the subject see 
'Bygone England' (London, 1892), art. 'A 
Foolish Fashion'; Chambers's 'Book of Days,' 
vol. ii. pp. 593-5 ; Nares's ' Glossary,' s.v. 
' Patches ' ; Pepys's ' Diary.' 


Another instance of reference to patches 
worn by men occurs in the Spectator ; No. 

"If withal she observes a pair of Red-Heels, a 
Patch, or any other particularity in his dress, she 
cannot take too much care." 

For its existence in 1754, the article in. 
Chambers's ' Book of Days,' vol. ii. p. 594, 
refers to a writer in ' The World ' for its pre- 
valence. Anstey enumerates "velvet patches 
a la Grecque" among the necessities of a fine 
lady in 1766 (ibid.). Also, without express 
reference, there is in a writer of 1826 a com- 
parison of the toilet table of a Roman lady 
with that of " our modern belles," in which 
there is the mention of patches (patchboxes). 


In France mouches, as they are called, came 
into fashion about the end of the sixteenth 
century, and they were probably not long in 
finding their way across the Channel. M. 
Franklin, who has some pleasant pages on 
them (' Les Soins de Toilette '), prides himself 
on having discovered the origin of these little 
artifices. He finds from Louis Guyon's 
' Diverses Le9ons ' (1625), t. ii. p. 138, liv. i. 
ch. xx.. that it was customary to comfort 
toothache by putting on the temples little 
plasters spread on tafiety or velvet. 

" II ne fallut pas longtemps a une coquette poiir 
remarquer que ces taches noires faisaient ressortir 
la blancheur de sa peau, et que si le remede 4tait 
inefficace centre 1'odpntalgie, il jouissait d'une vertu 
bien autrement pre"cieuse, celle de donner de 1'^clat 
au visage le plus fane"." P. 92. 

M. Franklin cites (p. 96) from ' La Mouche 
et la Fourmi ' of La Fontaine : 

Je rehausse d'un teint la blancheur naturelle, 
Et la derniere main que met a sa beaute" 

Une femme allant en conquete, 
C'est un ajustement des mouches emprunte, 

[Other replies are acknowledged.] 

SAN LANFRANCO (9 th S. i. 364, 435, 478). 
Assuredly both Dean Hook and Murray have 
blundered, as ST. SWITHIN and MR. PEACOCK 
have shown, concerning the two Lanfrancs, 
having in fact confused two totally distinct 
centuries and personages. 

The interesting thirteenth-century church 
visited by ST. SWITHIN took the place of 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [9< s. n. JULY 23, 

an earlier one called San Sepolcro, and it is 
dedicated to San Lanfranco de' Beccaria di 
Grupello, a member of one of the foremost 
mediaeval families of Pavia, and bishop of 
that city 1178-94. Within it may be seen 
an elaborate memorial erected in his honour 
by the Marchese P. di Scipione, containing 
bas-reliefs illustrative of the life and miracles 
of the deceased saint. 

The bishop, it would seem, was brought into 
acute conflict with the municipal authorities, 
or consoli, then in the pride of powers recently 
conferred upon them by Frederick Barbarossa, 
by the latter demanding that the clergy should 
contribute to the reparation of their town 
defences, which had been ruined by the 
Milanese in 1175. The bishop refused to 
accede to their demand. Thereupon the said 
consoli ordered the tradesfolk to boycott 
their spiritual pastor, even denying him the 
necessaries of life. Lanfranco then left the 
city. The Pontiff, however, commanded him 
to return. How long he remained there is 
not known. In any case he retired to the 
Vallombrosan monastery of San Sepolcro, 
there died, and was interred. He is com- 
memorated on 23 June. It may be mentioned 
that his successor caused himself to be buried 
close to him. ST. CLAIR BADDELEY. 

CHARLES III. OP SPAIN (9 th S. i. 346). The 
late Rev. F. H. Arnold in his excellent little 
' History and Antiquities of Petworth ' 
writes : 

"Charles. King of Spain, was afterwards the 
Emperor Charles VI. He came to Petworth, 
December 28, and again on his return from Ports- 
mouth, December 31, 1703." 


BEARDS (9 th S. i. 508). MR. ANDREWS -will 
find an interesting description of the shaving 
of prisoners of war previous to disposing of 
them as slaves in tne strange ' Memoirs of 
Alexander Gardner,' recently published by 
Messrs. Blackwood. Gardners experience 
was gathered among sundry nationalities in 
Central Asia, but instances of shaving as a 
token of (honourable) servitude may surely 
be found nearer home e.g., the priest's ton- 
sure (servus Dei), and the prescribed allow- 
ance of whisker for soldiers and domestic 

CHRISTIAN NAMES (9 th S. i. 461). Was 
Joseph the priest, who witnessed a charter in 
the time of King John, the same as Joseph 
of Exeter, a priest who went with Eichard I. 
to the Holy Land and described the Crusade 
iu which the king took part in his poem 

written at Antioch, and called ' Antiochesis "? 
He was a person, says Hals, excellently 
skilled in the Greek and Latin tongues, and 
writes of Dundagel (Tintagel Castle in Corn- 
wall) thus : 

From this blest place immortal Arthur sprung, 

Whose wondrous deeds shall be for ever sung, 

Sweet music to the ear, sweet honey to the tongue. 

Look back, turn o'er the great records of fame : 

Proud Alexander boasts a mighty name ; 

The Roman annals Caesar's actions load, 

And conquered monsters rais'd Alcides to a god. 

But neither shrubs above tall pines appear, 

Nor Phoebus ever fears a rival star ; 

So would our Arthur in contest o'ercome 

The mightiest heroes bred in Greece or Rome. 

The only prince that hears this just applause, 

Greatest that e'er shall be, and best that ever was. 

It is said that after his return from the 
Holy Land, Joseph of Exeter was made 
Bishop of Bordeaux. The original was, of 
course, in Latin, put into English by Hals or 
some other. CHARLOTTE G. BOGER. 

Chart Sutton. 

May I venture to guess that " Homo per- 
sone " means " the parson's man " 1 The word 
hommage illustrates the feudal use of man = 
vassal. In this connexion I should like to 
ask whether the surname Cadman is a variant 
of Csedmon, the Saxon personal name. 
Addyman (a name found at York) is, I think, 
supposed to mean Adam's man. 

With novus homo new-comer, or stranger, 
cf. surname Newcome, Newcomen, and Le 
Newecumene, found in the Hundred Rolls. 


" CHORIASMUS " (9 th S. i. 225, 305, 390). 
Chiasmus is not, as MR. F. ADAMS supposes, 
of recent date. In the Index of Technical 
Terms appended to the Latin edition of 
Bengel's 'Gnomon,' 1850, there is a long 
note on this figure of speech. 

As there treated, the term is of wider 
application. The chiasmus proper, here in 
question, is in form an inverse antithesis of 
four members ; there are, however, instances 
of the figure extending to six, eight, or even 
more members. Thus in Isaiah vi. 10 we find 
" heart, ears, eyes : see, hear, understand." 
And in the introduction to the first canto of 
' Marmion,' from which MR. BAYNE has 
appositely quoted " warlike, wise : mind, 
hand," we find a remarkably fine chiasmus 
of eight members : " watchman, trump, bea- 
con-light, column : column, beacon-light, 
trumpet, warder." 

The hymns of Charles Wesley furnish 
several instances of the use of this elegant 
figure. C. LAWRENCE FORD, B.A. 




xi. 346, 492 ; xii. 104, 290, 414, 493 ; 9 th S. i. 91). 
Letter No. 1734 (to the Rev. W. Mason, Cun- 
ningham's ed., vol. vii. p. 80), assigned by both 
Mitford and Cunningham to 10 June, 1778, is 
misplaced ; it belongs to the previous year, as 
is evident from the following considerations : 

1. Murray's letter, alluded; to in the text, was 
published in 1777, as Cunningham states in 
a note on this paragraph, and Mason notices 
it in his letter to Walpole of 26 May, 1777. 

2. Lord Howe's disappointment as to the 
Treasurership of the Navy is mentioned in a 
letter to Mann of 18 June, 1777. 3. The re- 
ception of the Gazettes Litte'raires referred to 
by Horace Walpole is acknowledged by Mason 
in his letter to Walpole dated 21 June, 1777. 
4. Robertson's 'History of America' first 
appeared in 1777, and is referred to by Horace 
Walpole in a letter to Lady Ossory of 15 June, 
1777. 5. Lord Orford was attacked by in- 
sanity in May, 1777. 6. The "Beauclerc 
Tower " here referred to as almost finished is 
fully described in a letter to Mason of 6 July, 
1777. It is apparent, therefore, that this 
letter should be dated 10 June, 1777, not 1778, 
and should be placed between Nos. 1645 and 
1646 in vol. vi. of Cunningham's edition. 

In his letter to the Rev. W. Cole, dated 
26 July, 1781 (vol. viii. p. 69, Cunningham's 
ed.), Horace Walpole writes, " I think I have 
somewhere or other mentioned the 'Robertus 
Comentarius.'" From a letter of Cole to 
Horace Walpole, quoted in Warburton's 

Horace Walpole and his Contemporaries' 
(vol. ii. pp. 437-8), it will be seen that this 
name should be " Robertus Cementarius," not 
" Comentarius." " Robertus Cementarius " 
was an architect or stonemason of the Abbey 
of St. Albans, mentioned by Matthew Paris 
in his life of Paul, Abbot of St. Albans, an 
extract from which is given by Cole in his 
above-mentioned letter. Cole, in the same 
letter, gives another extract referring to the 
same Robertus from a MS. in the library of 
Benet College, Cambridge. The mistake of 

Comentarius" for Cementarius appears 
in the original 4to. edition of Horace Wai- 
pole's correspondence with Cole, whence sub- 
sequent editors copied it. 

Dorney Wood, Burnham, Bucks. 

The bishop married secondly, at Totteridge, 
the Lady Araminta Robartes, a daughter of 
the Earl of Radnor by his second wife Isa- 
bella, daughter of Sir John Smith (Chester's 
'Marriage Licences,' ed. Foster, p. 708). M. 

"FLAM" (9 th S. ii. 28). Thirty-five years 
ago, in the 23rd Royal Welsh Fusileers, the 
expression " to flam off" was quite common. 
It signified the preliminary beats on the big 
drum as the regiment marched off. The first 
stroke on the drum was given at the last 
sound of the colonel's word " Quick march." 
The word flam would seem to have quite 
gone out. I have not heard it for many 
years. ARCH. LESLIE, Col. . 

THE MAUTHE DOOG (8 th S. ix. 125 ; 9 th S. i. 
96, 194, 493). It should not be forgotten that 
Manx is a living language, and that the 
moddey doo is still spoken of throughout the 
island, and not infrequently believed in. I 
have heard it mentioned numberless times, 
and the translation will always be given, 
without any hesitation, as " black dog." It 
is needless to try to justify Waldron's mis- 
take, and to suppose that he meant doogh ; 
he was a foreigner, and blundered with his 
Manx, as those who live on the spot know 
very well. If a foreigner, early last century, 
had visited England and had written about 
a bird as kok robbing, we should not now try 
to prove that it was so called in England at 
that time because of its thievish propensities ; 
the name still lives in English to guide us, 
and moddey doo still lives in Manx language 
and belief. ERNEST B. SAVAGE, F.S.A. 
St. Thomas's, Douglas. 

BISHOP EZEKIEL HOPKINS (8 th S. x. 176, 261 ; 
xi. 212 ; 9 th S. ii. 17). Bishop Hopkins married 
twice, as your correspondent believes : first, a 
niece of Sir R. Vyner, sometime Lord Mayor 
of London, by whom he had two sons- 
Charles, a poet and dramatist (1664-1700), 
and John, born J675, author of 'Amasia.' 

THE GREEK CHURCH IN SOHO (9 th S. ii. 2). 
It is as well to correct a possible mistake 
about the West Street chapel. Mr. Dibdin 
was an Anglican clergyman, and in his time 
the chapel was connected with the Church, 
and not with the Wesleyans. His ' History,' 
published about thirty years ago, was quizzed 
mercilessly by the Church, Times. 



MASSAGE (9 th S. i. 384 ; ii. 14). I am sorry 
to contradict ST.SWITHIN when he reports that 
massage had been practised at Aix-les- Bains 
in the time of the Romans. It probably is 
historical folk-lore, collected from the bath 
servants. I read in the Gazette des Eaux of 
last winter or last year that massage was 
introduced at Aix-les-Bains in the beginning 
of this century by a physician who had parti- 
cipated in Bonaparte's expedition to Egypt, 
and had observed the Oriental baths there, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. n. JULY 23, m 

The massage at Aix-les-Bains is, therefore, of 
Oriental origin ; it was afterwards imitated 
in other French bathing-places. 

22, Rue Servandoni, Paris. 

In the Keepsake (of 1832, as I think) was 
an engraving of ' The Bridesmaid ' with 
Haynes Bayly's verses. Whether the four 
lines given in 'N. & Q.' were on the plate 
I do not remember, nor do I recollect 
whether the plate was published separately, 
or whether there was any other engraving of 
the drawing. D. R- 

OAKAPPLE DAY (9 th S. ii. 4). I find it is not 
uncommon for people to suppose that Charles 
hid in the oak on 29 May. I happened to 
read Miss PEACOCK'S note aloud in the pre- 
sence of an Oxford graduate, incumbent of a 
vicarage in an important town, who at once 
exclaimed, " Why, I always thought it was on 
the 29th of May ! " So also said two other 
persons who were present, both of them well 
read and intelligent. So much for the atten- 
tion we give to nistory ! C. C. B. 

S. i. 401). P. 25. " Bright basket buttons." 
The question "What are they 1 ?" presents no 
difficulty to one who remembers reappear- 
ances of these adjuncts very frequently 
during the last three-score years a metal 
button, thickly gilt, engraved or cast with a 
surface pattern imitating the interlacing of 
a wicker basket. Before the " hunt" button 
was generally adopted they were often seen 
adorning the " pink swallowtails " at a hunt 
ball or supper. Old gentlemen sported them 
on their " tail coats," as they were formerly 
called "dress coats" is a modern innova- 
tory term and " spencers." In the " twen- 
ties" and "thirties" the fasteners of the 
coats of bright colours (blue predominating) 
worn by the bucks and dandies of the late 
George Cruikshank's early caricatures were 
usually "basket buttons." I remember an 
attempt being made in the middle " fifties " 
to supersede the sable compound under- 
taker's man and waiter " claw-hammer " we 
now know as a dress coat by a bifurcated 
tail garment of bright blue adorned with 
basket buttons for masculine wear at balls 
and other evening assemblies ; but the well- 
meant endeavour to substitute a brighter hue 
for the funeral colour and to supply a little 
glitter in the necessary accessories of the 
garment never " caught on." 

P. 26. " Alley-tors." In my early boyhooc 
the toys called "marbles" were of two 

lasses, known respectively as " alley-tors " 
(never taws) and " commoneys," as Mr. Pick- 
wick accurately assumed. The difference in 
value was estimated by quality, not size. 
Both kinds of spheres were identical in the 
atter character, but the alley-tors were 
turned from actual stone, real marble ob- 
:ained from the chips of the statuary's yard. 
At a later period glass, occasionally variegated 
in colour, identical with the balls now sold at 
boy-shops with a board as the game of soli- 
baire, sometimes formed the material. The 
" commoney," on the other hand, was invari- 
ably a compositon, probably the " compp " of 
" Plaster " Nash, the architect who designed 
Regent Street, the "Quadrant," and Waterloo 
Place. One " alley- tor " was exchangeable for 
so many I think usually six " commoneys." 
"Taws" does not the term unpleasantly 
suggest strips of leather penally employed 1 
had nothing to do with the spelling, which, 
take it, was derived from the Celtic 
" tor " = rock or stone. NEMO. 


As regards "alley-tors," Mr. Fitzgerald 
appears to be more nearly right than MR. 
MARSHALL. When I used to play at marbles 
(in the fifties) " taws " were only used in the 
game of " ring-taw," which was played thus : 
each player placed a certain number of mar- 
bles in the ring and then shot at them with 
his " taw," usually the best marble he had, 
and preferably a " white alley," that is to say, 
composed of white marble. Hence the 
phrase "alley-taws." As each player was 
liable to be " killed " by having his " taw " 
shot by another player, the "taws" were 
usually smaller rather than larger than the 
other marbles, which we used to call "stoneys" 
or " potteys " (in ' Pickwick ' these last are called 
" commoneys "), according to what they were 
made of. One "stoney" was worth two 
" potteys " ; " alleys " had a much higher 
value ; and a " taw " with a history, whether 
an " alley " or not, was prized above rubies. 

C. C. B. 

On p. 16 of his book Mr. Fitzgerald more 
accurately describes the behaviour of the 
evergreen Tracy than MR. G. MARSHALL 
admits. For, either in the kitchen or in the 
dark passages, on his first visit to Dingley 
Dell, he was deservedly scratched by Emma 
in return for his very marked attentions. 

STONYHURST CRICKET (9 th S. i. 361, 416). 
May I be permitted to mention in ' N. & Q.' 
that there is a very interesting account of 
the great, but not very well-known, Roman 
Catholic College of Stonyhurst, Lancashire 

9 th S. II. JULY 23, '98.] 



(which differs widely in its constitution 
from any one of the English public schools), 
in the Pall Mall Gazette of July, 1894 ? It is 
illustrated with views of many parts of the 
college, of the high altar in the church, and 
of the prayer-book of Mary, Queen of Scots, 
used by her on the scaffold. There are also 
portraits of "Stonyhurst boys" who have 
become celebrated ; for instance, Dr. Conan 
Doyle, Mr. Percy Fitzgerald, Mr. Richard 
Lalor Sheil, and Sir Roger Tichborne, Bart. 
With regard to the question of cricket, the 
following appears on pp. 442, 443 : 

"Stonyhurst cricket was the only form of the 
national game known at the college. It was a single- 
wicket game the wicket being a single stone, in 
size and shape like an ordinary milestone and with 
a very long pitch. The bats were in length like 
rounder bats, but were stronger in every way, and 
heavier and broader in the blade. The balls were 
not quite round, and were bowled disc- wise in swift 
sneaks. The batsman's innings was limited to 
twenty-one balls that is to say, if he were not 
bowled or caught out before he had received so 
many. The only stroke allowed was a slogging 
drive, so the chief requisites in the batsman were 
accuracy of eye, quickness, and strength." 

Clapham, S.W. 

" BURIED FOR TRUTH " (9 th S. i. 487). Can 
this be " to ascertain the right of burial " or 
"to verify the claim"? In 1764, in Christ 
Church, Newgate Street, London, 
" the bodies of Robert Munden and Anne Horsley 
were buried in the passage on the north side of 
Christ Church to ascertain the right of burying in 
that ground to the parishioners." 

This was in pursuance of an order from the 
Court of King's Bench (Burn's 'Hist, of 
Parish Registers,' Lond., 1862). 


I think the above intimates that the two 
men mentioned in the query suffered perse- 
cution on account of religious opinions. The 
following will explain : 

" 1624, buryed ye weedow of James Joiles whitch 
lay beethred seven yeeres, which in Queen Marie's 
dayes fled with her father and mother beyond sea, 
for fear of the persecution that was then for the 
truth." Burn's ' Parish Registers,' 1862, p. 134. 


SHORT A v. ITALIAN A (9 th S. i. 127, 214, 
258, 430). I venture to suggest that none of 
your correspondents on this subject has 
taken into consideration local causes and 
consequent uses. The pronunciation of the 
a in the south, east, centre, and west of 
England is as a rule ah; but as soon as 
you get into Lincolnshire, Yorkshire, Lanca- 
shire, and further north, the pronunciation 
of the vowel is as a rule short (as in the 

word as). Every one of the words quoted 
from Mr. Richard Grant White, p. 430, 
would be pronounced in the south with a long 
a, and every one of them would be pro- 
nounced in the north with a short a. North- 
Countrymen in London can generally be re- 
cognized by this peculiarity, though some- 
times they lose it. As you get further north, 
well above the lowlands of Scotland, the a 
becomes long again. It seems to me that it 
is not a question of right or wrong, or even 
of elegance or inelegance, but one merely of 
surrounding influence. The lower portions 
of England were more largely influenced by 
the Norman-French pronunciation than the 
higher portions. In the north the Saxon and 
Scandinavian flat sound of the a remained 
unaffected by the continental use. Further 
north there was a strong French influence 
for a lengthened period, the effect of which 
is seen in the lengthened a, and in the im- 
migration and pronunciation of such words 
as caraffe. I think this is the only secret of 
the double pronunciation Rafe and Raffe ; as 
soon as the I sound was rejected under the 
popular law of taking the least possible 
trouble in speaking, the pronunciation be- 
came one or the other according to locality. 
In some of the earliest church registers I 
have examined the name has no I ; the name 
is spelt Raff and Raffe. 

FRANK PENNY, LL.M., Senior Chaplain. 
Fort St. George. 

" CAMPUS " (9 th S. i. 384). Probably Agas's 
map of Oxford (1578) is unknown to your 
correspondent who claims America as the 
birthplace of campus, "meaning college 
grounds." The recreation ground of this 
University in Agas's time is distinctly specified 
on his map as Campus Feldes. 


STOLEN RELICS RESTORED (8 th S. vii. 165, 
296; yiii. 17, 77). An instance of the re- 
storation of a stolen relic was recorded 
in the Evening News, 8 June. I append the 
cutting : 

"An extraordinary incident has, says Truth, 
occurred at Durham in connexion with the Chapter 
Library. More than fifty years ago a splendid and 
very valuable copy of the Sarum Missal of 1514, 
which had been printed in Paris, was mysteriously 
stolen from a locked case in Bishop Cosin's library. 
Great efforts were made by the Dean and Chapter 
to trace the volume, but they proved fruitless. The 
other day a parcel arrived by post at the Chapter 
Library, which, on being opened, was found to con- 
tain the long-lost treasure, including the book-plate. 
The volume was returned in perfect condition, but 
by whom or whence it was sent back remains a 
mystery, which is not at all likely to be solved." 

C. P. HALE. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. or* s. n. JULY 23, m 

MILES STANDISH'S WIFE (9 th S. i. 509). To 
a former inquiry respecting the Standish 
family, the late EDWARD WALFORD replied 
that a full account of the house of Standish 
of Duxbury would be found in Sir B. Burke's 
' Landed Gentry,' 1886, vol. ii. ; and an anony- 
mous correspondent gave a list of twelve 
works in which reference was made to families 
of above name. See '1ST. & Q.,' 8 th S. iii. 458. 


Moore's ' Surnames and Place-names of the 
Isle of Man ' has the following : " Standish 
(1511), a Lancashire place-name. It was never 
common in the Isle of Man. William Standish 
was proprietor of Pulrose, in Braddan, in 
1511." The name is not found here now. 

F. G. 

Douglas, Isle of Man. 

REFERENCE WANTED (9 th S. i. 507). 'Faerie 
Queene,' III. ii. 51 (p. 168 of the "Globe" 
edition). The passage is remarkable for the 
double accentuation of "contrary ": 

Thrise she her turnd contrary, and returnd 
All contrary, 


JAMES Cox's MUSEUM (9 th S. ii. 7). This is 
mentioned among the poems in Hugh Kelly's 
'Works,' 4to., 1778. The Rev. John Newton 
visited it in 1772. See his ' Cardiphonia.' 
Edin., 1824, pp. 26, 477. W. C. B. 

"TIGER" A BOY GROOM (9 th S. i. 326, 493). 
Your correspondent Q. V. will find reference 
to this and the Barrymore livery in a work 
published a few years ago, entitled ' The Last 
Earls of Barrymore ' (Sampson Low <fe Co.). 

A farce called ' The Irish Tiger,' by John 
Maddison Morton, was first acted at the 
Hay market Theatre in April, 1846. 

J. S. M. T. 

" Jackal " certainly would have been 
more appropriate in the case cited, the 
more especially as the " masher " or " heavy 
swell " of those days was at least in France 
called a "lion." I thought the groom's 
striped waistcoat gave the name. 


ARMS OF SLANE (9 th S. i. 429). The town 
of Slane and the county of Meath have no 
armorial bearings. JOHN RADCLIFFE. 

PORT ARTHUR (9 th S. i. 367, 398, 437). 
Would it not be of interest to ascertain 
whether Arthur was indeed the Christian 
name or surname of the captain of the Iron 
Duke who is stated to have christened the 
port, or whether the Iron Duke, Arthur of 
Wellington, was really the godfather in- 

tended ? The affair being matter of compara- 
tively recent history, authoritative evidence 
may perhaps still be hoped for. H. E. M. 

St. Petersburg. 

BRANDING PRISONERS (9 th S. i. 328, 413). Is 
it not true that some of the slaves in our West 
India possessions were branded 1 I was told 
many years ago by a clergyman, who was the 
son of a London solicitor, that his father had 
made many conveyances of slaves, and that 
they were described therein as " marked and 
branded on the buttock " with the initials or 
other device of the owner. K. P. D. E. 

THE "SCOURING" OF LAND (9 th S. i. 286, 
411). Scouring is the word used in leases 
and in common language in Scotland for 
clearing out ditches. A. G. REID. 


i. 329). 

When in retreat Fox lays his thunder by. 
Is not this from Scott's ' Marmion ' ? E. E. T. 

(9 th S. i. 509.) 

Hush ! Hush ! I am listening for the voices 
are the words of a charming old song with a harp- 
like accompaniment which I have in a MS. music- 
book of my grandmother, belonging probably to 
between 1827 and 1833. E. E. T. 

Has matter innate motion? Then each atom, 
Asserting its indisputable right 
To dance, would form an universe of dust. 
The above passage is from "i oung's ' Night Thoughts. 5 


The lovely young Lavinia once had friends ; 
And fortune smiTd, deceitful, on her birth. 

Thomson's 'Seasons: Autumn.' 
M. E. Foss. 

A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. 

Edited by Dr. James A. H. Murray. (Oxford, 

Clarendon Press.) 

THE section of Vol. V. of the ' H.E.D.' now issued 
to the public continues the letter H from Haversine 
te Heel. It contains 1,856 words in all, illustrated 
by 7,904 quotations, and maintains, necessarily, the 
same measure of superiority over all competitors 
on which we have previously commented. The 
rate of progress kept up is eminently creditable, 
and the feeling at one time inspired that the con- 
clusion of the work would concern our children 
perhaps even our grandchildren rather than our- 
selves is fading from the mind. The letter H, 
which will shortly be completed, represents a third 
of the alphabet. We learn, moreover, with satis- 
faction that the remainder of the work to the end 
of the alphabet "is in an advanced state of pre- 
paration words which experience has shown us 
have, in the case of the ' Dictionary,' a very precise 

9 th S. II. JULY 23, '98.] 



and definite signification. From statistics with 
which we are supplied we learn that the 'Dic- 
tionary ' up to the end of F has supplied a grand 
total of 103,198 words, which, when the limits of 
any individual vocabulary are taken into account, 
strike one with something approaching to bewilder- 
ment, seeing that though many of the words are 
subordinate, or consist of special combinations 
there are no fewer than 75,593, or seventy-five per 
cent, of main words. In the section now supplied 
the words are almost all native English, mostly, 
as is said, " well-known words of old standing 
and of high importance in the language." There 
are a few words from hebdomad onward from the 
Greek, but from haiv to the end of hea barely two 
from the Latin. Head and heart are specially 
worthy of notice. The former, which, with its 
compounds, occupies 35 columns, has 74 subdivisions 
of sense, against 40 applications and a space of 26 
columns in the case of the latter. Heat and heaven 
are also words of highest importance, special atten- 
tion being called to the chronological illustrations 
of radiant, latent, specific, and atomic heat. Under 
haviour we should like to have seen one or two of 
the instances of use in Shakspeare from 'Romeo 
and Juliet,' ' Hamlet,' or other plays. Haivker is 
as old as 1510, a curiously polyglot quotation being 
given under that date: "Pro correctione habenda 
de les Hawkers." When first used in Parliament 
the expression " Hear, hear !" or " Hear him !" had 
an uncomplimentary and discomforting significance. 
The question constantly debated of the origin of 
"Heart of grace" is left unsettled, and we shall 
still, we expect, find fresh inquiries whether it is 
"Heart of grace" or "Hart of grease." Luckily, 
we shall now be able to refer inquirers to the ' Dic- 
tionary.' Hecate is said to be used as a dissyllable 
except in one passage in Shakspeare and one in 

Index to Collinson's History of Somerset. By the 
Rev. F. W. Weaver, M.A., and the Rev. E. H. 
Bates, M.A. (Taunton, Barnicott & Pearse.) 
To Somersetshire antiquaries, and to all interested 
in local antiquities, this index to ' The History and 
Antiquities of the County of Somerset ' by the Rev. 
John Collinson will come as a boon. Tne original 
work, compiled by Collinson from collections made 
by Edmund Rack, and published in three volumes 
by subscription in 1791, when the author was still 
very young, has had to stand the ordeal of un- 
favourable criticism. It is still, however, in demand, 
and copies not too much spoilt as are frequently 
the first and second volumes are sold by auction 
for from six to seven pounds. Its utility will be 
greatly augmented by the appearance of this admir- 
able index, executed under the supervision of Mr. 
Weaver at one time, but, alas ! not recently, a 
frequent contributor to our columns and Mr. 
Bates. How thorough is the workmanship may 
be seen by any one who will turn to entries 
such as 'Bath, 'Wells,' ' Bridgwater,' 'Gorges 
Family,' &c. A mere index to the plates and their 
position in the volumes is in itself an advantage, 
since these are sometimes wanting, and not 
seldom incomplete. A special feature in the volume 
consists of the ' Index of Armorial Bearings,' supplied 
by Col. Bramble, F.S.A. This very valuable 
appendix is in two parts, the former consisting of 
an alphabet of arms, and the latter of an ordinary 
of arms. The compilation of this has been a task 
of much difficulty. Heraldry was not Collinson's 

strongest point, and the accuracy of his observa- 
tions is not always to be guaranteed. Other diffi- 
culties that have beset Col. Bramble are indicated 
by him. Tinctures are not always giv,en, or have 
faded and been restored in the wrong colours. In 
stained glass, even, discoloration is readily respon- 
sible for confusion. Locality, meanwhile, is not a 
safe guide, particularly in the impaled coats. 
" The enormous number of wealthy strangers in 
Bath necessarily introduced many coats other- 
wise foreign to the district." How much an index 
will do for the history of Somerset all know 
who, educated in the faith by 'N. & Q.,' hold 
that the absence of an index is in many cases a 
crime as well as a blunder. The work, the edition 
of which is limited, is M r ell printed at the Athena3um 
Press, Taunton, for Messrs. Barnicott & Pearse, to 
whom are owing many interesting and valuable 
works on Somersetshire antiquities. 

An Account of the Church and Parish of Cawston, 
in the County of Norfolk. By Walter Rye. Part I. 
(Norwich, Goose.) 

NORFOLK has had many eminent antiquaries, but it 
is pretty certain that there has never been any 
one in former days who has acquired so intimate a 
knowledge of the county in times past as that 
possessed by Mr. Rye. Now that the science of 
archaeology has become so much specialized it is 
very uncommon to find any one who is much more 
than a departmental man. We have known those 
learned in mediaeval architecture who were as 
ignorant of heraldry as babies, and have encountered 
students of the art of blazon whose devotion to 
" the queen of the sciences" as they fondly called 
it was so exclusive as to render them not only 
ignorant, but absolutely contemptuous, when any 
one tried to extract from them information as to 
dialect, land tenures, or manorial customs. This 
cutting up knowledge into small pieces, like the 
parts of a dissected map, may have its uses, but it 
has serious drawbacks also, for it should never be 
forgotten that there is a point of view from which 
everything relating to man becomes a unity. Sec- 
tional work has, we concede, its advantages ; but, 
for our own part, we confess that we prefer those 
whose vision of the past extends all round, and 
this, to us, important qualification we find dis- 
played, almost to perfection, in the book before us. 
1 he church of Cawston is not among the noblest 
in the county, but it is highly interesting and, in 
its simple way, beautiful. The screen is, so far as 
we can judge from the engraving, very fine, and 
has been but little injured, though, as a matter of 
course, its crowning ornament, the rood, with its 
attendant figures, and the gallery which contained 
them, have been swept away. The hammer-beam 
roof of the nave also must be a striking specimen of 
carpenter's work, ornamented as it is at intervals 
with large figures of angels with outstretched wings. 
The roof of the north transept chapel is stencilled 
in banded diaper work, which must be very effective. 
We trust that a time will never come when some 
meddling person with a passion for restoration will 
try to make it look new. Its general character 
might well be reproduced in modern work. A great 
treasure preserved in the church is a leathern 
chalice-box, if that, indeed, be its proper name, 
for there is some doubt as to what, it may have 
originally been intended to contain. On the lid is 
a griffin, and around it the inscription "Jhesus 
Nazarenus rex Judeorum." The body of this inter- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. n. JULY 23, i 

esting object is ornamented with heraldic shields, 
several of which can only be conjecturally identified. 
It may probably have not been originally intended 
for Cawston or any other Norfolk church. Among 
the paintings 011 the lower part of the screen is one 
of Sir John Schorne, who, the legends say, conjured 
the devil into a boot. The figure is here repro- 
duced. He holds a boot in his left hand, out of 
which is protruding the upper part of a very evil- 
looking creature, with a horned human head and 
batlike wings. There is not much known regarding 
this pseudo-saint. This, however, is not the only 
representation of him that has survived (see ' N. & Q. ,' 
8 th S. vi. 341, 389). In pre-Reformation times the 
churchwardens were bound to pay a yearly sum for 
making a crown for the image of St. Agnes which 
stood on the north side of the high altar. This is 
curious. What can the crown have been made of ? 
Not of metal, or it would not have required yearly 
renewal. Can it have been composed of gilded wax 
or parchment ? 

lona: its History, Antiquities, &c. By the Rev. 
Archibald Macmillan. Its Carved Stones. By 
Robert Brydall, F.S.A.Scot. (Houlston.) 
BY a divided labour Messrs. Macmillan and Brydall 
have supplied visitors to lona with a concise and 
trustworthy history of the island, and an account 
of its ruins, together with drawings and descrip- 
tions of a selection of the carved stones. Both parts 
are well executed, and the complete work will add 
greatly to the delight of the cultivated visitor to 

Journal of the Ex-Libris Society. (Black. ) 
PART VII. of the Journal of this prosperous society 
is chiefly occupied with a report of the proceedings 
at the annual meeting and the exhibition of ex- 
libris with which it was associated. The presi- 
dential address is supplied in full. A number of 
plates are ? however, given, including several for 
identification an interesting branch 01 the society's 

THE Reliquary, which is now in the first rank of 
antiquarian publications, has a very good number 
for July. It contains an interesting and instructive 
article by the editor, J. Rpmilly Allen, F.S.A., 
upon ' Pot Cranes and their Adjustments.' Mr. 
Allen has got together a vast mass of information 
upon his subject, and he has brought home his 
remarks to the reader by means of a great quantity 
of very well-executed illustrations. It is worthy 
of notice that all the English examples given are 
from the western or southern part of the country ; 
the east and north of England never produced 
ornamental ironwork to any extent. The only 
illustration supplied which is taken from the latter 
regions is a reproduction of one of the Boston 
misereres. Miss Florence Peacock gives an account 
of a collection of samplers gathered for the most 
part in Lincolnshire. Some one ought to write a 
book upon this subject ; Mr. Tuer, of ' Hornbook ' 
fame, has, we believe, the finest private collection 
in England, and would be able to do justice to the 

THE REV. C. MOOR, M.A., has reprinted in 
pamphlet form his valuable Historical Notes con- 
cerning the Deanery of Corringham, first read as a 
Japer before the Quarterly Chapter of the Deanery, 
t is full of antiquarian information, and may be 
obtained from Mr. C. Caldicott, Gainsborough. 

THE Field Columbian Museum has favoured us 
with a series of its deeply interesting and important 
publications. The value of these cannot easily be 
over-estimated. Their subjects are, however, 
chiefly scientific, and we hesitate to devote to them 
the space requisite to do them justice. 

MR. HENRY BRIERLEY (West Royd, Bury, Lane.) 
writes a letter which may interest some of our 
readers : 

' I have transcribed the Rochdale parish church 
registers down to the end of 1801 from the point 
where Col. Fishwick ended his printed copy. Some 
day I hope all these may be printed. Meanwhile 1 
have prepared a most careful index of the whole 
registers, 1582-1801 inclusive. The christenings I 
have indexed under the separate heads of the child's 
name, the father's name, the mother's name ; the 
weddings, of course, under both husband's and 
wife's name; and the burials under the separate 
heads of the person buried and the parent or hus- 
band of the deceased. To explain what I mean. 
Supposing you find the entry ' Smith, John,' in an 
index. This conveys no idea whether John Smith 
was himself baptized, or whether John Smith was 
father of some baptized child, or whether John 
Smith was married or was buried, or whether a 
child or wife of John Smith was buried. My index, 
however, separates each class of entry. Conse- 
quently, if any of your readers desire any genea- 
logical information, I am in a position to give it 
without the slightest trouble, and shall be delighted 
to do so. When I tell you that more than 300,000 
entries have been indexed, and that to do the work 
accurately took nearly seven years, you will be able 
to estimate that it has been a real labour of love." 


We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rule. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. Correspond- 
ents who repeat queries are requested to head the 
second communication " Duplicate." 

W. H. P. ("Grammar of Sentence "). The sen- 
tence quoted by you is flagrantly incorrect. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to 
"The Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Advertise- 
ments and Business Letters to "The Publisher" 
at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print ; and to this rule we can make no exception. 


For this Year, Fifty-three Numbers. 

i. d. 
For Twelve Months 1 11 

For Six Months 10 6 

9 th S. II. JULY 30, '98.] 




CONTENTS.-No. 31. 

NOTES : From Holborn to the Strand, 81 Ancient Zodiacs, 
82 Inverury Leigh, 84 Regent Square' Love's Labour 'a 
Lost' "Piggin,"85 Field-NamesGood Friday Custom 
Tobacco in England" Brazen-soft" Salad Oil, 86. 

QUERIES : Farquhar's 'Beaux' Stratagem 'Scottish Body- 
guards Cowslip Gladstone and Anonymous Letters 
Capt. Gibbs Johnson's Two Books Bridget Cheynell 
The Book of Tropenell, 87 Grindleford Bridge "Tata" 
Allium 'Three Jovial Huntsmen' Mather: Clatt- 
worthy Dr. Stukeley's House Raphael Cooke Family- 
Rev. G. Huntley " The key of the street" Local Saying, 
88 Soleby Labrusca Sir Thomas Munro John Hitch- 
cock Cann Office Chintz Gowns Marriage Customs, 89. 

REPLIES : Houses without Staircases, 89 Mrs. Gibbs 
Historic Perspective Cheltenham, 90 Portrait of Queen 
Charlotte " Modestest," 91 Popular Fables Ennius 
" Hokeday "Bogie Domestic Implement, 92 Orders of 
Friars Scott on Grimm's 'Popular Stories ' "Dewsiers" 
Slavonic Names Episcopal Families, 93 Wart-curing 
Martin Luther Brummell " Horse-chestnut" Marginal 
References in the Bible, 94 Bally Pattens Latin 
Epitaph, 95 Ravensworth Sir N. Stukeley " Heron " 
African Names, 96 Muggerhanger Burns and Coleridge 
Wada De Burghs Cordwainer George Old, 97 
Washington Family" There is a garden in ner face " 
Paejama Cope and Mitre Benjamin Thorpe, 98 Prime 
Minister" Anigosanthus " Lily of Wales, 99. 

NOTES on BOOKS : O'Connor's ' Facts about Bookworms ' 
Cunningham's 'Essay on Western Civilization 'Lang's 
Scott's ' Bride of Lammermoor.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


THE scheme which has been proposed by 
the London County Council for uniting Hol- 
born with the Strand by driving a new street 
through central London seems to have met 
with general approval, and it has at least the 
merit of interfering in the smallest possible 
degree with those associations of the past 
whrch give a charm to the metropolis in the 
eyes of the poet and the antiquary. No scene 
of historic interest will be swept away ; no 
monument of architecture will be absorbed 
into nineteenth-century commonplace. The 

greater part of the route will intersect a 
istrict which less than three hundred years 
ago was a dependency of one of those fine 
old Jacobean mansions of which Holland 
House is perhaps the sole surviving example, 
but which in the days of the Civil War were 
common objects in London and the suburbs, 
while the Strand extremity will have the 
effect of transforming almost the last remain- 
ing vestiges of Elizabethan London into a 
magnificent crescent on which it is probable 
that the best resources of modern architecture 
will be employed. In a minor degree, there- 
fore, the locality is not without interest, and 
before the inevitable change arrives it may 
be well to recall the memories it invokes. 
Little Queen Street, of which the eastern 

side will be destroyed, was the scene of the 
tragedy which cast a shadow over Charles 
Lamb's life. The house in which the lament- 
able incident occurred no longec, exists, I 
believe, and after the lapse of a century the 
memory of the deed may well be swept away. 
South of Great Queen Street the district in 
former times was generally co-extensive with 
the area of what was perhaps the oldest 
suburb of London, the village of Ealdwic or 
Aldwic, known later as Aldewych, and of 
which, so late as the days of the Stuarts, some 
vestiges remained in Oldwich Close, an open 
space which lay to the south of Lincoln's Inn 
1 ields. This village in the tenth century was 
largely colonized by the Danes, after whom 
the neighbouring church of St. Clement was 
named. The high road of the village, which 
connected it with the Hospital of St. Giles, 
was known as the Via de Aldewych, and is 
represented by the modern Drury Lane, with 
the exception of the south-eastern extremity, 
which led to the Holy Well of St. Clement, 
and the name of which still survives in 
Wych Street. 

At the beginning of the seventeenth cen- 
tury a large part of this district was in 
the possession of Sir John Holies, who, de- 
sirous of a peerage, is said to have paid what 
in those days was the enormous sum of 10,000/. 
to the favourite, George Villiers, Duke of 
Buckingham, and to have received in return 
the dignity of a barony, being created in 1616 
Baron Houghton of Houghton, co. Notting- 
ham, and in 1624 Earl of Clare. The residence 
of this nobleman is said to have been at 
the extremity of Clare Court, an unsavoury 
passage which lies on the eastern side of 
Drury Lane, between Kemble and Blackmoor 
Streets. Whether any remains of this house 
are still in existence I am unable to say, as 
the character of the court and its inhabitants 
does not invite close investigation ; but as it, 
with other slums in its vicinity, is, I believe, 
marked out by the County Council for 
clearance as an " insanitary area," though off 
the direct route of the new street, it is pos- 
sible some discoveries may be made. The first 
Earl of Clare was the concessionnaire of Clare 
Market, which for many years was known as 
the New Market, and is so called in Fai thorn e's 
map of 1658, and was the probable builder of 
Houghton Street, Clare Street, and Stanhope 
Street, which received its name from his wife 
Anne Stanhope, who died in 1651 in "the 
corner house of the Middle Piazza in Coverit 
Garden." The Earl of Clare was succeeded 
in his dignities by his son John Holies, after 
whom Holies Street was named, it having been 
built, according to an inscribed stone which 



is let into the wall of one of the houses, in 
1647. About the same time Vere Street was 
probably built, as it received its name from 
Elizabeth, daughter of Horatio, Lord Vere of 
Tilbury, and wife of the second earl. As this 
lady did not die till 1683, she had probably 
the pleasure of witnessing the dramatic per- 
formances which took place in Gibbons's 
Tennis Court in Vere Street, which was con- 
verted into a theatre by Thomas Killigrew in 
1660, and in which his company performed 
till April, 1663, when the new theatre in 
Drury Lane was ready to receive them. The 
second earl was succeeded in 1665 by his son 
Gilbert, who, according to an inscribed stone, 
was responsible for the naming of Denzil 
Street, which received its designation from 
his uncle, the well-known Denzil, Lord Holies, 
who died on 17 Feb., 1679/80, after having 
earned a name in history as one of the Five 
Members. After the third Earl of Clare was 
named another disreputable court known as 
Gilbert Passage, which was demolished several 
years ago, and of which an admirable sketch 
by Mr. J. P. Emslie, taken while the houses 
were in process of destruction, will be found 
in the 'Illustrated Topographical Record' 
lately issued by the London Topographical 
Society. Newcastle Street, which will also 
be swept away to the advantage of the 
morals of the community is a much older 
thoroughfare, which received its latest de- 
signation from the fourth earl, who succeeded 
to the title on the death of his father, 16 Jan., 
1688/9, and was subsequently created Duke 
of Newcastle. At his death in 1711 the 
family of Holies became extinct in the male 
line, and the dukedom passed to the family 
of Pelham. It was this nobleman who pur- 
chased from Lord Powis the commanding 
mansion at the north-west angle of Lincoln's 
Inn Fields, which is still known as Newcastle 
House, and which was for a time the residence 
of the great Whig Chancellor, Lord Somers. 

The neighbouring Wych Street still retains 
some vestiges of early days in the tavern at 
the eastern end, the "Rising Sun," and in the 
dilapidated timber house which is associated 
in popular tradition with that predatory 
hero Jack Sheppard. From Wych Street 
there is a gateway into New Inn, which, 
despite its name, is said to be the oldest of 
the Inns of Chancery, and to have nurtured 
the early years of Thomas More. Although 
the existing houses in this Inn do not seem to 
date beyond the respectable days of the brick 
order of architecture favoured by the builders 
of William and Anne, it is impossible not to 
regret the approaching decease, for the re- 
freshing piece of greensward in the midst, 

with its cooing pigeons, makes it a pleasant 
aackwater in which one may escape for an 
nstant from the flood of London traffic. In 
meeting the fate of the neighbouring Lyon's 
[nn- the erstwhile abode of Mr. William 
Weare we may hope that it will serve as an 
object lesson to those who are responsible for 
carrying out the new scheme, and that in 
bheir haste to secure "betterment" and other 
financial advantages they will not forget the 
store that Londoners place upon trees and 
herbage. The theatres we shall lose the 
Gaiety, the Globe, and the Olympic will 
doubtless find homes elsewhere, out an open 
space in London, once built over, is lost for 
ver, and advantage should be taken of the 
present opportunity to provide another play- 
round for the thousands who will still 
epend upon the Strand and its vicinity for 
their means of livelihood. It may also be 
hoped that in the nomenclature of the new 
thoroughfare and its tributaries the ancient 
associations of the district may not be entirely 
forgotten. W. F. PKIDEAUX. 

45, Pall Mall, S.W. 


(Continued from p. 63. ) 

96. In the Villa Borghesi "a low marble 
cylinder, having the signs of the zodiac 
carved round its convex trunk, and the Dii 
Consentes round a hole in the top, is called 

an altar of the Sun To me it appeared 

rather the plinth or base of a temple can- 
delabrum." Forsyth, 'Italy,' 1835, p. 224. 

97. On a globe, in a painting from Pompeii. 
Archceologia, xxxvi. 198 ; in 'Le Pitture 
Antiche d'Ercolano,' 1760, vii. 11. 

98. "Muratori mentions the epitaph of a 
Roman, styled Gauncarius, holding in his 
left hand a book, charged with the signs of 
the zodiac. Query if it means a geographer?" 
Magas, 'Encycl. des Antiq.'; Fosbroke, i. 

99. On a fragment of white marble, " Tabula 
Iliaca. Capitoline Museum, Rome." " Thetis 
appears bearing the shield of Achilles 
(bk. xviii.), which differs from Homer in 
having a border with the signs of the zodiac 
engraved on it." Seven signs are visible, 
from Capricornus to Gemini. In Anderson, 
' Atlas to Homer,' 1892, p. 3, pi. i. fig. 4. 

100. On a round gem, enclosing Jupiter 
seated, above his eagle, Neptune below with 
trident, Mars with spear and shield, Mer- 
cury with caduceus, and Cupid. In Beger, 
' Thesaurus Palatine,' Heidelbergae, 1685, p. 3. 

101. Planisphere of Bianchini. Isaic hiero- 
glyphic table No. 232. White marble tablet 

9 th S. II. JULY 30, '98.] 



with the signs of the Greek zodiac and the 
Egyptian decans. Post A.D. Found on Mount 
Aventine, Rome, 1705. In the Louvre, Paris. 
' Histoire de 1'Academie Royale des Sciences,' 
anno 1708, Paris, 1830 ; Clarac, ' Catalogue,' 
271 ; ' Musee,' pi. 248, 410 ; Frohner, 'Notice 
de la Sculpture Antique du Louvre,' No. 4 ; 
Lafaye, ' Histoire du Culte des Divinites 
d'Alexandria, Serapis, Isis, Harpocrate, et 
Anubis,' Paris, 1884 ; ' Diet. Arch.' 

102. Astronomical globe supported by Atlas, 
bearing the constellations. Two of the signs 
are united by Scorpio holding up Libra in 
its claws. Farnese coll. Sandby, " Tabularum 
Explicatio, tab. ix. F. 2 "; Spence, ' Polymetis '; 
Archoeologm, xxvi. 150. 

103. In a MS. translation by Cicero of the 
'Phenomena' of Aratus, perhaps the fifth 
century. In B.M. Harleian MS. No. 2506; 
Arckceologia, xxvi. 146. 

104. Terminal figure of Serapis or Pluto. 
Modius on head, rayed, with the signs between 
the folds of a serpent around it. In 'His- 
toire du Ciel,' Paris, 1759, i. 66 ; Hewson, 
'Christianity, Judaism, and Heathenism.' 

105. On a medallion around Jupiter, 
Mercury, and Venus. In ' Histoire du Ciel,' 
p. 161. 

106. Zoroastrian Mithraic tablet in marble, 
containing Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Spica, 
Scorpio, Sol, Luna, Hydra, Perseus, Argo 
(bull), Ursa Major (hog), Turdus solitaries, 
Corvus, Sirius, mountain (? Ararat). In 
Taylor's Calmet, v. Persia, fig. 11. 

107. Zoroastrian Mithraic tablet in marble, 
containing Perseus in a cave (as Bacchus, 
with grapes and dagger), Gemini, with 
torches of life and death, Sagittarius (bow, 
arrow, and quiver). In Calmet, v. Persia, 
fig. 12. 

108. Statue of Atlas, bearing a zodiac and 
its signs on his shoulders, with Jupiter in 
the centre. In the gallery, Villa Albani, 
Rome. Murray, ' Rome,' 1858, p. 294. 

109. Zoroastrian Mithraic tablet, containing 
Taurus, Perseus, Scorpio, Sirius, &c. In 
Museo Chiaramonti, No. 464, Vatican. 
Murray, p. 180. 

110. Zoroastrian Mithraic tablet, containing 
Taurus, Perseus, Sirius, Aquila. In Hall of 
the Animals, No. 124, Vatican. Murray, 
p. 189 ; Hewson.' 

111. On a gem around Jove and the Dioscuri, 
Egyptian emerald. Praun coll. In King, i. 

112. On an oval gem, round Phoebus with 
whip, in quadriga. La Chausse coll. In Mont- 
faucon, i. 120, pi. Ixiv. 

113. On the oorder of an oval bronze basin 

? sacrificial), round Mars. In Montfaucon, 
II. i. 143, pi. Ix. fig. 1. 

114. Round the busts of a Roma.ii senator 
and his wife, on their marble monument, found 
in Rome. Barberini coll. In Montfaucon, 
Supp., i. 23, pi. iii. 

115. On a gem in sardonyx round an eagle. 
Constable coll. Sulphur cast in Tassie coll. 
In Raspe, i. 219, No. 3126. 

116. On a gem in cornelian, round Jupiter 
sitting, between Mars and Mercury, Neptune 
below. French royal coll. Cast in Tassie coll. 
Raspe, i. 219, No. 3127; in Mariette, 'Pierres 
Gravees,' 1750, No. 1. 

117. On an agate gem, round Jupiter, Venus, 
and Mercury with his foot on Leo. Bourda- 
loue coll. Cast in Tassie coll. In Cheron, 
' Pierres Gravees,' No. 15 ; in Raspe, i. 219, 
No. 3128. 

118. On a gem in chalcedony, Atlas sup- 
porting zodiac around Jupiter, Minerva, and 
Ceres. Bourdaloue coll. Cast in Tassie coll. 
Raspe, i. 219, No. 3129 ; in Mariette, No. 1. 

119. On an or.yx gem, round Phoebus in 
quadriga. Florence coll. Cast in Tassie coll. 
In Gori, 'Museum Florentinum,' 1731, i. 88, i.; 
Raspe, i. 219, No. 3130. 

120. On a chalcedony gem, above Phoebus 
in quadriga, are Leo, Sagittarius, Capricornus, 
Aquarius on an arc. Florence coll. Cast in 
Tassie coll. In Lippert, i. 194 ; Raspe, i. 
220, No. 3132. 

121. On a gem in onyx, around the sun. 
Cast in Tassie coll. In Gori, ii. 88, ii.; Raspe, 
i. 220, No. 3134. 

122. On a gem is engraved the sun beneath 
two arcs bearing signs. Cast in Tassie coll. 
Raspe, i. 220, No. 3136. 

123. On a gem, an onyx of three colours, 
round a sitting faun playing the double flute. 
Florence coll. Cast in Tassie coll. In Lippert, 
ii. 234 ; Raspe, i. 220, No. 3137. 

124. On a gem, agate sardonyx, round a 
faun playing a double flute, near an altar 
beneath a star. Cast in Tassie coll. In Gori, 
ii. 88, 3 Raspe, i. 220, 3138. 

125. On a gem, sardonyx, same design as 
No. 124, reversed. Cast in Tassie coll. In 
Mariette, No. 45 ; Raspe, i. 220, No. 3139. 

126. Gem, containing a winter segment of 
the zodiac, below the deities, above a plough- 
man. Cast in Tassie coll. Raspe, i. 220, 
No. 3140. 

127. Gem in sardonyx, having the zodiac 
round Victory in a biga. Cast in Tassie coll. 
Raspe, i. No. 3133. 

128. Zoroastrian Mithraic sculpture in 
white marble, in the third Greco-Roman 
Room, B.M., No, 16,3, From Rome, Standish. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. n. JULY ao, i*. 

Containing Perseus, Taurus, Draco, Scorpio, 

129. Zoroastrian Mithraic tablet, a white 
marble bas-relief, found in the Mithraic temple 
cave (Grotto di Metromania) in the Val di 
Metromania, Capri, now in Naples Museum. 
It is 4 ft. by 3 ft., and contains Taurus, Cancer, 
Perseus, Draco, Sirius, Procyon, Gemini. In 
Romanelli, ' Isola di Capri,' 1816 ; A. B. G., 
' Notes from Italy,' No. 10, High Peak News, 
No. 1443, 3 May, 1879, p. 7. 

130. Zoroastrian Mithraic tablet, bearing 
Perseus, Taurus, Scorpio, &c. In Smith, ' Dic- 
tionary of Antiquities,' p. iii. ; and in Smith, 
' Concise Bible Dictionary,' p. 66. 

131. Zoroastrian Mithraic tablet, similar 
to the Capri tablet, but Draco, instead of 
Sirius, is attacking Taurus. Of white marble, 
in Hall VII., Naples Museum. A. B. G. 

INVERURY. It is surely a pity that In- 
verury, the royal burgh in Aberdeenshire, 
should have recently degenerated into In- 
verurie. The new spelling implies change of 
name not only for the town itself, but for the 
river at the mouth of which it stands. It is 
always undesirable that old geographical 
designations should be altered, and in this 
particular case no advantage whatever arises 
from the change. The new form of the name 
neither improves the form nor facilitates the 
pronunciation, and its raison d'etre, therefore, 
is not readily apparent. When the course of 
the story in the ' Lord of the Isles ' necessi- 
tates a direct reference Scott writes of the 
Ury. Further, the place is inseparably asso- 
ciated with the meteoric career of the lyrist 
William Thorn, whose headquarters it was 
when he was at the zenith of his reputation. 
He never calls the town anything but In- 
verury, and in his ' Blind Boy's Pranks ' he 
describes Cupid daintily thus : 
He launched a leaf o' jessamine, 
On whilk he daured to swim, 
An' pillowed his head on a wee rosebud, 
Syne laithfu', lanely Love 'gan scud 
Down Ury's waefu' stream. 

The closing stanza of his impassioned and 
effective ' Jeanie's Grave ' is as follows : 
Move noiseless, gentle Ury ! around my Jeanie's bed, 
And I '11 love thee, gentle Ury ! where'er my foot- 
steps tread ; 
For sooner shall thy fairy wave return from yonder 


Than I forget yon lowly grave, and all it hides from 

That of itself if only it were known as 
well as it deserves to be should be sufficient 
to preserve intact the original form of the 
names for both river and tov. r n. Thorn's note 
on the subject merits quotation : 

"These mountain streamlets brawl separately 
down their break-neck journey, and tumble in peace 
together at the woods at Newton, near Old Rayne. 
This quiet confluence is the Ury. Like worn-out 
racers, these boisterous burns take breath, gliding 
along in harmonious languor some three or four 
miles, when the peaceful Ury is, as it were, cut 
through by the Sadie, a desperately crabbed-look- 
ing rivulet, raging and rumbling from Benachie. 
From this last annoyance Ury moves onward in 
noiseless sweetness, winding and winding, as if 
aware of its own brief course, and all unwilling to 
leave the braes that hap the heroes of Harlaw. By 
and by it creeps mournfully past the sequestered 
graveyard of Inverury, kisses the ' Bass,' and is 
swallowed up in the blue waters of the Don, its 
whole extent being only ten miles." 

William Thorn's biographer, Mr. W. Skin- 
ner, in a memoir prefixed to 'Rhymes and 
Recollections,' states why the old spelling of 
the place-name is retained in his narrative 
and in the letters of the poet, and offers an 
explanation of the later form. He says : 

" The modern spelling of the name is Inverurie, 
adapted [tic] to avoid the possibility of mistake 
with Inverary, but we have thought it proper both 
here and in the letters to retain tlie old spelling." 

Thorn will live as " the bard of Ury " his 
keen perception and lyric rapture will sustain 
him and there is reason to regret that, 
because the royal burgh in which he lived 
may possibly be confounded in the post-office 
with the capital of Argyllshire, its name 
should be perverted. The people of Inverury 
should assert themselves, like the people of 
Duns, and have their awn name or nothing, 
leaving Inverary or Inveraray to shift for 
itself. THOMAS BAYNE. 

LEIGH : LEA. There are two topographic 
terms, Leigh and Lea, which are often con- 
fused, since they are homophones, that is, they 
are identical in sound, although they differ in 
spelling and are wholly diverse in origin and 
meaning. They descend from the two A.-S. 
words leak (m.) and leak (f.). If names arose 
from nominatives the derivatives of these 
words would be now quite undistinguishable, 
becoming Lee or Lea ; but as names are. 
usually from the dative singular, the pro- 
blem is simplified. The A.-S. ledh(m.) makes 
the genitive ledges or leas, and the dative 
singular led, whereas ledh (f.) makes the 
genitive and dative ledge. The first denotes 
a fallow, untilled land or pasturage, a lea ; 
while the second means a thicket or rough 
woodland pasture. Leigh, Leighton, and 
-leigh descend normally from ledge, while Lee 
and Lea are generally from led. Unfortu- 
nately, leigh having often lapsed into ley, a 
final -lea has usually, owing to assimilation, 
taken the same form, so that they cannot be 
distinguished without reference to earlier 

9 th S. II. JULY 30, '98.] 



forms. In Domesday ledge becomes lege or 
lage, and even lac, while led is represented by 
lei, lie, leie, or lai. When we find leigh in the 
modern name it is always from ledge. Thus 
Leigh-upon-Mendip, Somerset, is Leage in a 
charter, and Farleigh, Hants, is Fearnleage ; 
Bickleigh, Devon, is A.-S. Bicanleage ; But- 
leigh, Somerset, is A.-S. Buddecleighe ; and 
Leigh, Dorset, is Lege in Domesday. 

On the other hand, from led we have -ley. 
Berkeley, Gloucestershire, is the A.-S. Beorc- 
lea ; Wembley, Middlesex, is from Wembalea ; 
Beckley, Sussex, is A.-S. Beccanlea ; Bradley, 
Hants, is Bradanlea ; and Oakley, Stafford- 
shire, is Aclea. In the North ledge may 
become laugh, as at Healaugh, which is 
Domesday Hailaga, or even lac. Thus in 
Domesday, Pockley is Pochelac, Helmsley is 
Elmeslac, Osmotherley is Asmundrelac, Filey 
is Fivelac, and Beverley was once Beverlac 
forms which have caused these names to be 
wrongly referred to the A.-S. lacu, a "pool," or 
to lagu, a "stream." It may be noted that 
Waterloo is from the Flemish word loo, the 
phonetic equivalent of the A.-S. ledh and of 
the O.H.G. I6h, a " woodland pasture," which 
is seen in Venloo, Be verloo, Hengloo, Westerloo, 
Tongerloo, and many other names. 


P.S. This explains Hamlake= Helmsley 
(ante, p. 67). 

NEIGHBOURHOOD. The following accountmay 
be interesting as showing the manner in 
which it was once possible for a landowner to 
erect barriers across streets, and to create an 
imperium in imperio in the midst of London. 
It is to be hoped that a similar course of 
action would not be tolerated at the present 
time, it having been held by high judicial 
authority that a landlord in laying out 
streets must have regard to the interests of 
the public, and must not merely consult his 
own interests and advantage. 

In 1810 a local and personal Act of Parlia- 
ment (50 Geo. III. chap. 170) was obtained 
for laying out Regent Square and enclosure 
and the adjacent streets. The Act is entitled 
" An Act for paving and otherwise improving 

certain streets on ground belonging to 

Thomas Harrison, Esq., in the parish of St. 
Pancras, in the County of Middlesex (9 June, 

The Act recites that Thomas Harrison, of 
Kentish Town (whose name is commemorated 
in Harrison Street, Gray's Inn Road), is the 
owner of thirteen acres of land on the west 
side of Gray's Inn Road, near St. George the 
Martyr Burial-Ground; that a square and 

several streets have been formed, and it is 
desired to enclose the square and provide for 
its maintenance, &c. To carry out this inten- 
tion commissioners are appointed,-forty-eight 
in number, including the Rev. Welden 
Champness, Michael Heathcote (after whom 
Heathcote Street appears to have been 
named), Woodbine Parish (afterwards Sir 
Woodbine Parish), and Thomas Poynder. In 
the case of the decease of any of the commis- 
sioners the survivors have power to fill the 
vacancy, provided the persons so appointed 
have an annual income from rental of 501. or 
2,0001. personal estate. The commissioners 
are empowered to enclose and embellish the 
enclosure (afterwards called Regent Square), 
to pave and repair the streets on the estate, 
to erect gates and lodges, and prevent the 
passage of carts, waggons, drays, or cattle 
through the streets. 

Lamps are to be set up and the streets 
named and numbered. Occupiers of houses 
on the estate are required to scrape the foot- 
way in front of their houses every day before 
10 o'clock in the morning under a penalty of 
5s. for each offence. The commissioners have 
power to water streets. Ashes may not be 
removed from houses except by the commis- 
sioners' contractors. The commissioners were 
empowered to appoint watchmen, and to levy 
a rate not exceeding two shillings in the 
pound for paving, sixpence in the pound for 
watering the roads, and one shilling in the 
pound for the maintenance of the square, 
empty houses being charged half rates. There 
is a curious provision that in the event of any 
house being let to a foreign ambassador the 
rates are to be paid by the landlord. The 
commissioners were further authorized to 
raise a sum not exceeding 20,000/. by way of 
loan or mortgage. Although introduced as 
a local and personal Act, it is enacted that it 
shall be deemed to be a public Act. 


Canonburv Mansions, N. 

' LOVE'S LABOUR 's LOST.' In the report of 
the books at the Kean sale the Athenaeum 
states that a copy of ' Love's Labour Lost' (it 
should be ' Love's Labour 's Lost '), which sold 
for 17/. 10s., was imperfect. This statement 
is not correct. It was not what is termed a fine 
copy, but on collating it carefully page for 
page I found it quite perfect. This copy is 
now in my possession amongst other Snake- 
sperian treasures. MAURICE JONAS. 

"PiGGiN." This word has caused some 
difficulty ; but it is now well known that the 
various Gaelic, Irish, and Welsh forms that 
resemble it are all alike borrowed from Eng 



S. II. JULY 30, '98. 

lish, as the original initial Celtic p disap- 
peared, and the forms do not appear to be old. 
Whether piggin exactly represents an older 
pigkin or not, I cannot say ; but it is quite 
clear that it is simply adiminutiveof/M#, which 
is used in Lowland Scotch (even by Gawain 
Douglas) in the sense of earthen vessel or 
pitcher (see Jamieson's ' Dictionary ') The 
resemblance of pig to pitcher is, I believe, 
accidental. Such a form as pitcher would 
only have suggested a shorter form pitch, or 
(conceivably) pidge, not pig with a hard g. 
I think it probable that the reference is 
rather to pig in its ordinary sense of "porker." 
Whoever desires further information may 
consult Chaucer, ' Cant. Tales,' H. 44, and my 
note thereon. There were four degrees of 
drunkenness, the worst being to be pig-drunk. 
And there were four kinds of wines, the 
strongest being pig-urine (F. vin de porceau). 
And these wines were preserved in particular 
vessels to distinguish them. I therefore ven- 
ture the guess that a pig could be used for 
pig-wine. Comments are invited. 


FIELD-NAMES. The following field-names 
occur in various advertisements relating to 
the sale of lands in Lincolnshire and Notting- 
hamshire. Will any reader explain them ? 

Lincolnshire. Guilvat, Finsmoor, Wheat- 
ber, Tills, Lings, Slade, Urn End, Crooking 
Dyke, Flinton, Nordal Field, Bull Hassocks, 
Kice Furlong, Ling Wong Close, Crow's Nest, 
Kabi Close, Pingle Calf. 

Nottinghamshire. Leashes, Moises, Kettle 
Muse, Slaines, Spavin Wood, Perchill, Fint- 
holme, Bull Dole, JBinge Close, In tacks, Shovel 
Boards, Callumacre Close, Hough Close, 
Debdhill, Honey Hole, Sandy Furze, Cocked 
Hat, The Mantles, The Shoulder of Mutton, 
Candle Bush Car. H. ANDREWS. 

GOOD FEIDAY CUSTOM. The following 
cutting is worth preserving in ' N. & Q.' : 

" On Good Friday the re-enacting of the custom 
of the flogging of an effigy of Judas Iscariot the 
false Apostle was carried out with more than usual 
circumstance aboard a vessel moored in the ' Pool.' 
For a long number of years the Mediterranean 
sailors attached to those trading vessels in the 
different London docks had been in the habit of 
celebrating their national custom of flogging, hang- 
ing, and afterwards burning the emblem of the 
' betrayer ' ; but owing to the disorder caused by 
the assemblage of roughs and loafers, and conse- 
quent scenes of riot, and, further, the contravention 
(and its attendant danger) of the fire regulations, the 
authorities put a stop to the proceedings. Until 
Friday this order had obtained, but owing to the 
fact that the officers and men of a vessel moored in 
the 'Pool' had signified their sympathy with the 
custoin, Advantage was taken to celebrate the cere- 
mony, a.nd without offending the law. Accordingly, 

shortly after 11.30, a considerable number of Maltese 
and Portuguese sailors boarded the boat, and taking 
a log of wood, invested it with a sailor's ' jumper 
and a red knitted hat as nautical costume ; they 
then proceeded to revile, kick, and spit on the 
figure, and after a time a rope was placed around it, 
when it was hoisted to the masthead, and then im- 
mediately lowered on to the deck, where it was 
again subjected to every indignity possible, in which 
all heartily co-operated. Re-hoisted to the mast- 
head, it was dropped thrice overboard, and, being 
drawn on deck, was summarily cut up and burned. 
This Good Friday custom obtains amongst all 
Mediterranean seamen, and its revival in the Pool 
of London, after a lapse of twenty years, seemed to 
afford all concerned intense satisfaction." Weekly 
Register, 16 April, 1898, p. 483. 

K. P. D. E. 

TOBACCO IN ENGLAND. In regard to the 
suggestion which is sometimes made that one 
way to relieve agricultural depression in this 
country would be for the Government to 
allow and even to encourage the growth of 
tobacco, it may be interesting to note how long 
the prohibition has lasted and how sternly it 
has been enforced. This may be gathered 
from the following extract : 

" Cornet Wakefield with a party of horse march- 
ing out of Glocester upon the last of July to 
Winchcome and Cheltnam to destroy the Q'obacco 
planted in these parts, the Country did rise against 
them in a great body, to the number of 5 or 600, 
giving them very revileing and threatning speeches, 
eyen to kill them horse and man, if that he and 
his Soldiers did come on, insomuch that the tumult 
being so great, he was cou itrained to draw off and 
nothing more done." Mercurius Politicus, 29 July- 
5 Aug., 1658. 


"BRAZEN-SOFT." People who are constantly 
acting and speaking foolishly are in the Mid- 
lands called "brazen-soft." "Brazen" does 
not in this connexion mean impudence or 
looseness of morals. "Brazen-soft, an' no 
cure for it ! " THOS. BATCLIFFE. 


SALAD OIL. It is well that we should be 
reminded from time to time that salad oil is 
oil suitable for rubbing up helmets. Says a 
hungry cadet before Arras : 

Oh ! manger quelque chose i 1'huile. 
Answers Cyrano, " le decoiffant et lui mettant 
son casque dans la main," 

Ta salade. 

And laughter rippled at the Lyceum as at the 
Porte St. Martin. Nevertheless, having lately 
remarked to my partner for dinner, with 
whom I had somehow got on the subject of 
cookery, that it was sometimes difficult to 
find good olive oil, I received the astounding 
reply, " Olive oil ! I shouldn't think of using 
such a thing. J always, us,e the best salad 

9* s. ii. JULY so, 



oil." Prudence counselled to refrain from 
pursuing the subject further, and I unwill- 
ingly took to thebetter-trodden conversational 
paths that lead to the treatment of oil by 
other artists in the galleries of the Royal 
Academy. KILLIGREW. 

WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be addressed to 
them direct. 

the ' Beaux' Stratagem,' by G. Farquhar, been 
acted anywhere during the past fifty years 1 
It was very popular during the last century, 
as were some of Farquhar's other plays. 
Have any of them been "adapted" for modern 
audiences ? I have an idea that Charles 
Dickens revived the play in question at one 
of his amateur performances, but cannot find 
any particulars. Can any of your readers 
give any information on these points ? 

K. K. 

refer me to proofs that the monarchs of Scot- 
land possessed bodyguards prior to the time 
of James VI. 1 Also had Charles I., Charles 
II., and James VII. at any time a Scots body- 
guard 1 CLYNE-MONK. 
[See 8 th S. xii. 348, 494.] 

desirous of making a complete list of the 
local names of the cowslip. Can any reader 
add to the following 1 Cowslap, paggle, pagle, 
paigle, cow-peggles, in Herefordshire ; beagles 
in Cambridgeshire ; palsy-wort, paly-wort, 
palsy- weed, crewells, fairy -cups, horse-buckles, 
and gallygaskins, all in Dorsetshire ; peter or 
herb peter, lady's keys, cow-stipling, in York- 
shire. Cowslip-balls are called variously 
tisty-tosties, sweet -tosses, and tosty- balls. 
In Shropshire cowslips are sometimes called 
oxlips. Is this general 1 Of what plant is 
hose-in-hose the local name? I should be 
glad to know how the cowslip came to be 
known as paralysis. CHARLES HIATT. 

I request permission to inquire in ' N. & Q.' 
for information respecting the date of the 
occasion on which Mr. Gladstone remarked 
that numerous anonymous letters had 
reached him from England, a great many 
from Scotland, but very few indeed from 
Ireland. It must be admitted in connexion 
with the subject in question that when 

reading the speech of the much lamented 
statesman I omitted to remember the motto 

Clapham, S.W. 

CAPT. GIBBS. Mr. Walter Rye in his 
'History of Norfolk,' p. 133, says : "In Attle- 
borough Church lies ' the famous Capt. 
Gibbs,' who was a great gamester and horse- 
racer in Charles II. 's time." He also refers 
to Gibbs's exploit in driving a chaise and 
four up and down the Devil's Dyke on New- 
market Heath for a wager of 500. What is 
known about this famous captain beyond 
what Mr. Rye states? He is unnoticed in 
the ' D.N.B.' SIGMA TAU. 

DR. JOHNSON'S Two BOOKS. Dr. Johnson 
is reported to have said of the ' Anatomy of 
Melancholy ' that " it was the only book that 
ever took him out of bed two hours sooner 
than he wished to rise " (Bos well, 1867, p. 157) ; 
and of ' Robinson Crusoe ' that " nobody ever- 
laid it down without wishing it to be longer" 
(Lowndes, 'B. M.'). Are there instances of 
two equally terse expressions by an equally 
great man in reference to two equally popu- 
lar books in which he took an interest ? 


Whose daughter was this lady ? When and 
where was she born ? When did she die, and 
where was she buried ? She was a person of 
some importance, and was thrice married : 1, 
to John Cheynell, M.D., of Oxford, by whom 
she became the mother of the well-known 
divine Francis Cheynell (1608-65); 2, to 
Robert Abbot, Bishop of Salisbury (1615-17), 
probably before December, 1615, as his second 
wife ; 3, to John Warner, Bishop of Roches- 
ter (1638-66). She was living in 1648. Cas- 
san's ' Lives of the Bishops of Salisbury ' and 
the articles upon Abbot and the Cheynells in 
the ' D.N.B.' throw no light upon her parent- 
age. The article on Francis Cheynell, 'D.N.B. 
x. 222, states that she married "Allen," 
Bishop of Salisbury, a slip, of course, for 
" Abbot." Both Abbot and Cheynell seem to 
have come from Guildford ; is it possible that 
Bridget may have come from there too ? 

C. W. H. 

any light upon what has become of the Book 
of Tropenell, commenced Allhallows Day, 4 
Edward IV., 1464, relating the pedigree and 
estates of Sir Thomas Tropenell, and reciting 
many charters and grants, before his 
time concerning other lordships, towns, and 
estates ? It is described as a curious docu- 
ment on vellum, and was in the custody of 

-NOTES AND QUERIES. to* s. IL JULY so, '98. 

a Mr. Dickenson, of Monks Corsham parish, 
1744. The progenitor of the family was Sir 
Osbert Tropenell, Knt., and Lord of Sop- 
worth and Lawday before the Norman 
Conquest. Where could the proof of this be 
obtained 1 If knight, this would come by a 
Saxon king. Are there in existence any 
lists of knights at this early day or any 
accounts of the making of them, and if so, 
how is access to them to be obtained ? In 
the Tropenell Chapel of Neston Church, 
Corsham, is the noble altar - tomb of Sir 
Thomas Tropenell and Agnes Ludlowe his 
wife. It also contains the arms of the King 
of Wessex and of King Athelstan, the last of 
the Saxon kings. Neston Church has arms 
of King Edward the Confessor. As Corsham 
was one of the seats of the Saxon kings, 
might it not be possible that Sir Osbert 
Tropenell was knighted by one of the later 
of them 1 Is there any way of ascertain- 
ing the names of the knights who took part 
in the battle of Evesham, 4 August, 12651 
Upon three several places at Great Chalfield 
Manor House and the altar-tomb at Neston 
Church, Corsham, 1460 and 1490 respectively, 
appears the Tropenell shield, which is much 
older than Sir Thomas Tropenell's time, fot 
he adopted the motto, badge or crest, and the 
supporters. The shield with its arms his 
ancestors had bore Gu., a fess engr. erm 
between three griffins' heads erased arg. 

Point of Rocks, Maryland, U.S. 

GRINDLEFORD BRIDGE. Situated on the 
Dove and Chinley branch of the Midlanc 
Railway, nestling amongst the hills of Derby 
shire, lies the village of Grindleford Bridge 
As an old and regular subscriber to ' N. & Q. 
I should be obliged for information as to 
origin of name. Perhaps MR. ADDY will 

"TATA." In the church of St. Michael, 
Great Tew, Oxon, on a brass to John Wil- 
cotes (ob. 1422) and Alice his wife (1410), occur 
the words "Alicia tata." Three explanations 
of the second word have been offered, viz. : 
(1) that "tata" should be read Fata; (2) that 
" tata " is the name of Alice Wilcotes's first 
husband ; (3) that " tata " is Martial's word 
equivalent to "mamma." Is there another 
instance on a monumental inscription of this 
or of an equally undignified expression ? 
Alice was by birth a Wilcotes, and akin to 
her second husband. A. R. BAYLEY. 

ALLIUM. In Syme's ' English Botany ' we 
are told that the name of this genus (so hate- 
ful to Horace, who suggested that a parricide 

hould be made to eat of it) " comes from the 
3reek word aAeco, to avoid." The word in ques- 
tion is certainly Homeric, but isonly to be found 
n the middle voice. Paxton, in his ' Botanical 
dictionary,' says that allium is " derived 

J--' L\J VL\SL1CHL V , oc *,y '^ UllCItU U/f/ls blAJlIU IS V*^J. J. ^>VA 

'rom the Celtic all, signifying hot or burn- 
ng." Is there such a Celtic word ? 

W. T. LYNN. 

Caldecott's spirited illustrations to this song. 
Did he also write the words ? I have an im- 
pression that he founded his song on some 
popular ballad already existing. Q. V. 

MATHER : CLATTWORTHY. Can any of your 
readers give me information regarding the 
family of Jos. M. Mather or J. Clattworthy, of 
Manchester? Louis G. HESTER. 

DR. STUKELEY'S HOUSE. Can any one 
tell me where was the Kentish Town house 
(containing a mausoleum and private chapel) 
of the celebrated Rev. Dr. Stukeley, rector 
of St. George's, Queen Square, in which he 
was living a snort time (a week, I believe) 
before his death, early in 1765 ? 

B. A. LUNN. 

Lindley Lodge, Nune?.*n. 
[He died 3 March, 1765, in Queen's Square.] 

RAPHAEL. Is there a list of the works 
done by Raphael for Leo X. ? G. E. 

COOKE FAMILY. Who was the wife of Sir 
Thomas Cooke, Knt., Chairman of East India 
Company, six times M.P. for Colchester, 
High Sheriff for Essex, 1693, who died at 
Elsham (?), co. Surrey, 6 Sept., 1709 1 Where 
was he buried? 

(Mrs.) P. A. F. STEPHENSON. 

Warley Barracks, Brentwood. 

REV. GEORGE HUNTLEY. He was rector 
of Stourmouth in Kent, 1610-29. Deprived 
25 June, 1629, being fined 5001. and im- 
prisoned for several years by the High Com- 
mission Court for not preaching a visitation 
sermon before Archdeacon Kingsley. Does 
not seem to have resided in the parish. 
Further information required. 


Wingham, Kent. 

" THE KEY OP THE STREET." Can you tell 
me the originator of the phrase "The key 
of the street"? I believe it was the title 
that G. A. Sala gave to some articles in the 
Welcome Guest. E. R. 

LOCAL SAYING. "Fools and foumards 
can't see by dayleet." I heard this near here 

9 th S. II. JULY 30, '98.] 



the other day. Is it common ? It certainly 
is not true^of the second animal named, at 
any rate. C. C. B. 


SOLEBY, co. LEICESTER. Robert May dedi 
cates the fifth edition of his 'Accomplisht 
Cook ' (London, 1685, 8vo.) from here. I can 
find no such place in that county. S. 

Diaz Labrusca ? What and when did he 
, write ; and did he leave an autobiography ? 


SIR THOMAS MUNRO, 1761-1827. Was this 
famous Governor of Madras descended from 
any branch of "the Munro of Fowlis ' 
family ? Gleig, in the ' Life,' says : 

" He was second son of Mr. Alexander Munro, a 
respectable merchant, trading chiefly with Virginia, 
by Margaret Stark, the sister of Dr. William Stark, 
an anatomist of no meaif reputation in his day." 


St. Margaret's, Malvern. 

JOHN HITCHCOCK. John Hitchcock, of 
Preshott, co. Wilts, had a younger brother, 
William Hitchcock, Merchant Tailor, of Lon- 
don, whose will is dated 1654 and was proved 
1661. He married Hester, daughter of 
Anthony Luther, of Myles, co. Essex, and 
had, inter alios, William and Edward. 

Can any reader of ' N". <fc Q.' kindly say if 
these sons left issue, or if either of them 
became connected in marriage with any 
member of the same family as Sir Robert 
Booth, Lord Chief Justice of the Common 
Pleas in Ireland, who died in 1679-80? 


Dundrum, co. Down. 

CANN OFFICE-. (See 6 th S. vi. 168, 293.) 
What is the derivation of this name, which, 
as the references show, was formerly in use 
at Bath and Shrewsbury, and is still borne 
by the well-known inn on the road between 
Welshpool and Machynlleth ? Cancellaria 
and cantred were suggested in 1882. Perhaps 
more is known now. C. S. WARD. 

Wootton St. Lawrence, Basingstoke. 

CHINTZ GOWNS. Why was it illegal for 
ladies to wear chintz gowns last century, if 
they liked to wear them ? How long did the 
embargo last ? (See 'N. & Q.,' 1 st S. ix. 397.) 

MARRIAGE CUSTOMS. Will some reader of 
'N. & Q.' kindly refer me to a correspondence 
in an evening paper some few years since 
upon marriage customs, particularly upon 
those relating to the county of Norfolk ? 



(9 th S. i. 166, 210, 356, 418.) 
THE following is a description of Balzac's 
celebrated house Jardies at Ville d'Avray, 
near Paris, by Balzac's friend Leon Gozlan : 
" The two residences where he has left the keenest 
memories of his habits are the cottage at Passy, in 
the Rue Basse, and the Jardies, a small insigni- 
ficant property which lie had purchased, I hardly 
know when, and which cost him more in the end 
than he paid for it originally. 

" There is no Indian or Chinese poem containing 
so many verses as this estate of Jardies occasioned 
annoyances to Balzac. And it may be said of it 
that although he lived, thought, and worked there 
for many years, he never really inhabited it. He 
camped out, rather than resided there. 

"Could this villa, with its green shutters, where 
not a ghost of furniture ever entered and where 
nothing like a curtain was ever hung up, be con- 
sidered a real residence ? The actual mansion of 
Jardies was one which already existed in the same 
locality, some twenty or thirty paces from his own, 
a house in which he might have lived, where for 
some prudential reasons he had deposited some of 
his magnificent furniture from the Rue des Batailles 
and his extensive library. The Countess de V 
and her family occupied this pavilion, which was 
entirely valueless from an architectural point of 
view. Balzac's famous pavilion at Jardies was 
erected just in front of this insignificant building. 
Although the locality is at this point sufficiently 
rural, it is beset with so many drawbacks, it is 
surprising Balzac should have selected it. It does 
not lean towards, but falls over on to the high road 
between Sevres and Ville d'Avray. 

"It would, 1 think, be difficult for a tree of any 
size to take root on such a shelving soil. Scene- 
painters may, if they think fit, consider it ex- 
tremely original ; but it is furiously opposed to the 
pleasure of walking. Landscape gardeners, under 
the fanciful supervision of Balzac, occupied several 
months in endeavouring to keep up, by means of art 
and little stones, these successive terraces, ever 
ready to slip down one upon another upon the least 
storm of rain. I have seen them almost always at 
work keeping up these hanging gardens, which were 
renewed like those of Semiramis. They were their 


"A few lines in the 'Memoires de Saint-Simon ' 
decided Balzac, when in search of a rural retreat, 
n favour of Jardies. When Louis XIV. lived at 
Versailles the courtiers pitched their tents as they 
iked round about Saint-Cloud, Meudon, Luciennes, 
Sevres, Ville d'Avray, and other villages near to or 
adjacent to Versailles. Les Jardies rose put of its 
yellow vertical mud. Then came the evil day for 
,he monarchy, and Les Jardies disappeared. Balzac 
,vas desirous of restoring a portion of this past, 
which was perhaps imaginary imaginary at least as 
regards topography. For did Les Jardies ever 
really exist? I have heard considerable doubt 
expressed on this point. Sevres and Ville d'Avray 
lave always declined to recognize Balzac's Jardies ; 
,hey called it M. de Balzac's vineyard. However 
hat may be, Balzac had scarcely finished the en- 
losing walls and fixed the principal entrance, with 



its double green doors, when he had engraved in gilt 
letters on a slab of black marble placed under the 
bell: 'Les Jardies.' 

" The door was hung and turned on its hinges 
long before the house to which it formed an entrance 
had been built. The building of this house exer- 
cised for a long time the caustic wit of the Parisians, 
who are always on the look out for a weakness in a 
man of mark. Balzac's weakness was great with 
regard to bricks and mortar. It must not be for- 
gotten not that it requires excuse, for a taste for 
building is an extremely respectable one that this 
was at that time his only relaxation, his only means 
of reposing from the heavy intellectual tasks he im- 
posed upon himself. It has been reported that 
while directing himself the building of the pavilion 
at Jardies, with a despotism which never relaxed, 
he forgot the staircase. That he would not permit 
any suggestion, observation, or criticism from his 
architect or his builders' men is one fact to which 
we can bear witness ; but that he should have 
neglected to provide a staircase in planning the 
house, and that one fine day builders and architects 
should have rushed up to him, saying, ' Monsieur 
de Balzac, the house is finished ; when shall we build 
the staircase ?' is a second fact which demands an 
explanation in proportion to its importance. Balzac 
contemplated for his Jardies spacious rectangular 
rooms, lighted from the four sides of the building. 
Now in the architect's design the minotaur-like 
staircase swallowed up here the third part of one 
room, there the half of another ; it disfigured the 
design created by the author's poetic pencil. An 
attempt was made to reduce its size, to turn it 
round, to relegate it to the angles of the building, 
the building Ibeing unhappily too contracted to 
afford any spare room ; the confounded staircase 
spoiled everything. The bricklayers threw their 
mortar into the air, the architect broke the legs of 
his dividers. It must have been during one of the 
struggles with the difficulties of this problem that 
Balzac said, ' Since the staircase means to master 
me, I will get rid of it.' This was done. The rooms 
then rose without obstacle, without any other 
limits than the four walls, and the enclosure of the 
staircase was built as an afterthought in front of 
the house as a punishment for its tiresome pre- 
tensions. Balzac might have excused himself, 
seeing that in Holland and Belgium whole cities are 
built on this simple plan, the houses carrying their 
staircases on their backs, like a basket ; he always 
declined to explain himself on this point." 'Balzac 
en Pantoufles, par Leon Uozlan, pp. 24-31. 


2, Canonbury Mansions, N. 

MRS. GIBBS (9 th S. ii. 47). The fact of Mrs. 
Gibbs's marriage with George Colman the 
Younger has never been clearly established ; 
and the date and place of her death have yet 
to be ascertained. John Payne Collier, in 
'An Old Man's Diary,' privately printed, 
writing in 1832, four years previous to George 
Colman's death, distinctly speaks of Colman 
as then "living with Mrs. Gibbs." That the 
public of her day generally accepted the 
marriage of this good-hearted and affectionate 
woman with Colman there is little doubt 

As much is assumed by Peake in his 'Memoirs 
of the Colman Family ' ; and Mrs. Baron Wilson 
assures us that shortly after the death of his 
wife, a daughter of Morris, proprietor of the 
Haymarket Theatre, Colmam married Mrs. 
Gibbs. As George Colman, who died in 1836, 
was buried in the churchyard of St. Mary 
Abbotts, Kensington, the register of that 
parish may possibly solve the puzzle. All 
attempts to establish the identity of Mr. 
Gibbs have baffled the ingenuity of this lady's 
many biographers. KOBERT WALTERS. 

Ware Priory. 

HISTORIC PERSPECTIVE (9 th S. i. 421 ; ii. 9). 
That portion of MR. FIJCHARD EDGCUMBE'S 
communication to you under this head which 
touches upon the attributes of Byron and 
Keats invites me to deplore again the fact 
that, promises notwithstanding, the tablet 
which marked the site of the house where the 
first-named poet was born namely, No. 24, 
Holies Street, Cavendish Square has never 
been reinstated. Headers of ' N. & Q.' need 
not be reminded that a good deal of corre- 
spondence has taken place with a view to 
bringing about this desirable end. Alas ! the 
agitation has so far proved abortive, the 
owner, who is also the occupier of the pro- 
perty, remaining uirnoved by entreaties. The 
delay in accomplishing so easy a fulfilment 
of what one would have considered a labour 
of love is inexplicable. It is certainly 
not a courteous act thus to flout the many 
admirers of the illustrious poet who desire a 
notable event to continue recorded as pre- 
viously. In respect of Lawn Bank, Hamp- 
stead, the actual spot where Keats resided 
for a space, the medallion still remains. It 
was affixed by the Society of Arts, on the 
initiative of Mr. E. E. Newton, a well-known 
local enthusiast. But some of us are appre- 
hensive lest this interesting landmark may 
go the way of others in the district, as its 
neighbour, Wentworth House, is placarded 
for sale. Let us hope the Fates will deal 
more kindly with the Lawn Bank memorial 
tablet than with that which adorned 24, 
Holies Street. CECIL CLARKE. 

Authors' Club, S.W. 

CHELTENHAM : CHISWICK (9 th S. i. 200, 245, 
396, 509). There is no such word as ekes. 
Your correspondents have asked me, one of 
them, where to find "the word" ches; another 
says he is " ignorant that ches means gravel 
in A.-S. or in any other language " ; and a 
third inquires, "In what language, for instance, 
does ches mean gravel?" If your correspond- 
ents will do me the favour to refer again to 
my article, they will find that I have not 

9 th S. II. JULY 30, '98.] 



spoken of ches as a word, or as belonging to 
any language. 

Ches is a part of the word chesel or chisel, 
and is found in names of places in different 
parts of the country, indicating the presence 
of gravel, shingle, sand (or a conglomerate 
of these), at or near the place. 

In the year 1881 1 contributed to ' N. & Q.' a 
reply headed ' Chiswick, Cheshunt, Chishall, 
and other similar Place-names ' (6 th S. iv. 430), 
and beginning as follows : 

" The origin of chis or ches, in these and other 
place-names, is unquestionably the archaic word 
chisel or chesel. Stratmann ( ' Diet. O. Eng. Lang.,' 
third edition, Krefeld, 1878) gives, ' Chisel, A.-S. 
cisel, ceosel ; O. Dutch kesel ; O. H. Germ, chisili 
(calculus), sabulum.' Comparing this with what is 
given by other authorities, such as Halliwell and 
Prof. Skeat, we have chisel, chesel, chizzell, Iciesell, 
ceosel, signifying gravel, sand, shingle, and some- 
times coarse bran or the husks of grain." 

Perhaps I may be allowed to give one or 
two further extracts from my note on the 
name Chiswick, published nearly twenty 
years ago. In this note I compare with 
Chiswick, Chislet in Kent, where the river 
Stour in former times spread jtself out more 
widely than at present ; the Chesil Bank, a 
range of shingle joining the Isle of Portland 
to the mainland ; Great and Little Chishall, 
Cheshunt, Chisselborough, and other names of 
places. The following remarks are made on 
these four last-named and other places : 

"On the borders of Cambridgeshire, Essex, and 
Herts there is an important earthwork, where once 
the boundaries of tribes or early kingdoms met in 
that part of the country. A friend of mine visited 
the place this autumn by my request. There is a 
fosse and vallum, along which he walked for a mile. 
This is where Great and Little Chishall occupy the 
border country at the north-western corner of Essex. 
An earthwork line, I believe, proceeded hence 
southwards, and it was this which, when Clutter- 
buck wrote ('Hertf.,' xvi.), was to be seen 'for a 
hundred yards in a field called Kilsmore' ac Ches- 
hunt. Now I do not entertain any doubt that these 
places are so called from the chisel of which the 
works were composed ; and Cheshunt or Cheselhunt 
compares with Chiswick or Chiselwick. A strong 
confirmation of this view is found in Collinson's 
' History of Somerset ' under ' Chisselborough ' 
(Hundr. Houndsb., vol. ii. p. 330, Chisselborough): 
'This manor is called in Domesday Book Ceplse- 
berge : Alured holds Ceolseberge ' ; whence it is 
clear that our word chisel or chesel enters into that 

"Again it is stated by Prof. Skeat that Chisel- 
hurst is the gravel-hurst. Moreover, Chiselbury 
Camp is found on the ancient trackway over the 
hills between Salisbury and Shaftesbury ; such, at 
least, was the case in Hoare's time. Hoare's ' Wilt- 
shire ' gives us also Chisenbury in the hundred of 
Elstub and Everley, and describes very important 
earthworks there as carried across the valley in 
which the Grove family mansion was situated. Of 
Chiselhampton, in the county of Oxford, I find it 

stated, 'The river Thame runs through' it. Addi- 
tional examples to the same effect might easily be 
brought forward." 

With regard to the above instances, the 
derivation is tested in many cases by what 
amounts to local inquiry. 

Since writing the aoove I have visited 
Chesham in order to ascertain by local in- 
quiry whether gravel is to be found there or 
not. I have forwarded the result, show- 
ing that it is, for publication (with the 
permission of the Editor) in 'N. & Q.' 
I will ask your readers to observe that the 
wording of my article (9 th S. i. 396) was neces- 
sarily brief and condensed in that part of it 
which relates to ches in Cheswick or Chis- 
wick. S. ARNOTT. 


The distinction between ham (i. e., ham) 
and ham is interesting and new to me. Ham 
is doubtless Mod. Eng. home and Germ. heim. 
Has ham no connexion with it 1 What con- 
nexions has it 1 ? I thought -tun, now -ton, 
meant an enclosure, as a store of corn 
defended by a hedge. Had our forbears two 
words for an enclosure ? Both local inquiries 
and historical inquiries are needed to advance 
our real knowledge of place-names ; but I 
venture to submit that there is a third 
method, more available to many, viz., a classi- 
fication of existing names. An index to our 
Ordnance map is much wanted, and ought, I 
think, to be made by the Government ; fail- 
ing them, a public subscription to get it done 
would afford routine work, requiring little but 
diligence and accuracy, that might also fur- 
nish needed food to a considerable number of 
poor litterateurs. T. WILSON. 

407). Perhaps it may be worth noting that 
there is a full-length portrait of Queen Char- 
lotte in oils in the dining-hall of Queen's 
College, Oxford, but whether this has been 
engraved, or whether it is that of which your 
correspondent is in quest, I cannot say. Queen 
Charlotte is commemorated to this day in a 
"Thanksgiving for the, Founder and Bene- 
factors of this College," i.e., Queen's. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

There are two fine portraits of the king 
and queen in the Council Chamber at Abing- 
don. E. E. THOYTS. 

"MODESTEST" (9 fch S. i. 488). In the com- 
parison of adjectives, those of one syllable 
are usually compared by adding to the 
positive er and est, and those of more than 
one syllable by prefixing more and most. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 s. n. JULY 30, m 

Dissyllables ending in y preceded by a con- 
sonant are an exception, the y being changed 
into i before er and est. Dissyllables ending 
in e are also often compared by adding r and 
st, as ample, ampler, amplest. No man with 
an ear would think of writing modestest. 

Manse of Arbuthnott, N.B. 

Mark Twain has an admirable precedent 
for using this word : " The next pair con- 
sisted of an Irish fortune-hunter, and one of 
the prettiest, modestest ladies that ever my 
eyes beheld " (Goldsmith, ' Essays,' xxiii.). 


(9 th S. i. 405). There is a curious similarity 
between the extract from 'Dialoges of 
Creatures Moralysed ' and the thirty-second 
Arabian Night, 'The Barber's Tale of his 
Fifth Brother ' (Burton, ed. of 1894, i. 309). 

H. W. L. HIME. 

The version of the fable as given by R. R. 
is to be found in Prof. Max Miiller's excellent 
essay on ' The Migration of Fables ' (' Chips 
from a German Workshop,' iv. 170). 



ENNIUS (8 th S. xii. 309, 435). The best 
edition is that by L. Miiller (St. Petersburg, 
1885). ALEX. LEEPER. 

Trinity College, Melbourne University. 

" HOKEDAY " (9 th S. i. 287). The following 
extract from the records of the City of Lon- 
don should find a place in your columns. It 
occurs in Letter-Book I., folio xlix verso, and 
belongs to the year 1406 : 

" Ista proclamatio facta fuit die Veneris proximo 
ante quindenam Paschai anno regni regis Henrici 
quarti post conquestura septimo. Soit proclamation 
faite qe null persone de ceste citee ne dedeins lea 
suburbes dicelle de quele estate ou condition qyl 
soyt homme ou feme par rewe ou venelle dicelle 
preigne, teygne, ou const reyne ascun persone de quele 
estate ou condicion qil soyt deinz measonou de hors 
pur hokkyng lundy ne.marsdy proscheins appeles 
Hokkedayes sur peyne denprisonement et de faire 
fyn al discretion des mair et Audermans. Et qe 
chescune conestable serieaunt, Bedell et autre 
ministre de la dicte Citee eyt poair darrestier tiel 
persone qi qe soit fesaunt ou usaunt tiell hokkyng 
et le rnesner al prisone pur y attendre solonc la 
gard des ditz Mair et Audermans." 

70, Banbury Road, Oxford. 

BOGIE (9 th S. i. 509). The query of Hie ET 
UBIQUE is not, to me at least, quite plain. 
Does it mean the derivation of the term itself, 
or of its application to the newly invented 

form of railway carriage, circa 1869? If it is to 
the former, references in 'N. & Q.' are too 
many to enumerate ; if it is to the latter, there 
are long notes by CUTHBERT BEDE and JAMES 
HUNTER at 5 th S. v. 389. It seems ob- 
viously due to the adaptation of the existing 
familiar bogie to the new form of carriage, 
which turns round a curve with facility and 
comes upon one unexpectedly, without any 
warning, like a spectre. This peculiar form 
of carriage, turning upon a pivot, is said to 
have been first used near Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne. The Times of 19, 20, 21 October of 
that year has articles upon it, in which the 
meaning, as above, is accepted, with such 
allusions as these : 

" Bogie is most of all a good and clever bogie if 
it will lighten our load, and make it easy, like the 
lubber-fiend of the fairy tales." 

"If bogie is a name of terror in legendary lore, 
it ought to be a name of good cheer in railway 

The first engines on this plan were for use 
in the streets of New York. 


This term, applied to long engines and 
carriages, refers more particularly to their 
capability of bending round curves, and is 
consequently most probably derived from the 
German bogen, a bow or arch. Bailey derives 
bog from the Dutch boogen, to bend, and says 
a quagmire is called a bog because it bends, 
or gives way, when trodden upon. He also 
refers the verb to boggle, i. e., to waver, to the 
same source. G. YARROW BALDOCK. 

A DOMESTIC IMPLEMENT (9 th S. i. 367, 489). 
An instrument for making gauffres, consisting 
simply of a pair of tongs, the ends of which 
are flat plates (probably with a depression 
fashioned between them), is figured in the 
' Recueil de plusieurs Machines Militaires ' 
of Franc. Thybourel et Appier dit Hanzelet, 
Pont-a-Mousson, 1620, 4to., livre iii. p. 23. It 
is the accompaniment of a portable corn- 
grinding mill, consisting of two pairs of 
stones driven by the rotation of the wheels 
of the truck on which they are mounted. 
The instrument of which I speak is shown 
emitting flames to indicate its use when hot, 
and the following sentence explains its 
object : 

" Cette charette peut aussi servir pour porter du 
bagage, en un temps de necessite soit dedans ou 
dehors une place : 1'on se peut servir des gaufres au 
deffaut de pain, ce que nous a faict icy mettre la 
figure du fer pour les faire." 


When I was a boy, some sixty years ago, I 
used to stay at a country house and see such 

9 th S. II. JULY 30, '98.] 



an implement at work. The bright engraved 
plates were put into the fire, heated as experi- 
ence guided ; then a small piece of biscuit 
paste i.e., paste for making biscuits was 
put inside, quickly closed by the long handles, 
and dropped out baked, and so thin that it 
immediately curled up into a roll, like rolled 
bread and butter. Sometimes the paste was 
coloured, and so dishes of thin, sweet, crisp, 
variously flavoured biscuits were produced. 
If I remember rightly, the plates were in the 
first place made red hot. C. G. A. 

ORDERS OF FRIARS (9 th S. i. 168, 338, 472). 
The site of the Bonhommes at Ashridge has 
no connexion with a hamlet so named in 
Chesham parish, being partly in the parishes 
of Pitstone, Bucks, and Little Gaddesden, 
Herts. It is said that the county boundary 
passes through Lord Brownlow's seat, built 
on the site of the original priory. 


13, Paternoster Row, E.G. 

STORIES ' (9 th S. i. 262 ; ii. 33). MR. H. RAY- 
MENT refers to ' Gammer Grethel ' as contain- 
ing Sir Walter Scott's letter ; but the note 
which appeared at the first referencedealt only 
with Grimm's 'Kinder- und Hausmarchen,' 
a distinct and earlier book. 'Gammer Grethel,' 
translated from Grimm and others by Edgar 
Taylor, was his last published work, and 
appeared in 1839 with illustrations by George 
Cruikshank, engraved on wood. The illus- 
trations to the German ' Popular Stories,' of 
which Mr. Ruskin said that " they are un- 
rivalled in masterfulness of touch since 
Rembrandt," were etched. 

My justification for the note in question is 
this sentence from Dr. O. Hart wig's article 
in Centralblattfiir Bibliothekswesen (Leipzig), 
January-February, 1898, p. 6 : 

" Dass ich in diesem Zusammenhange den Brief 
Walter Scotts an Edgar Taylor, von dem bisher 
mo- einige Sdtze veroffentlicht worden, und die 
Briefe G. Benecke's an denselben mitveroffentliche, 
wird man hoffentlich nicht iiberflussig finden." 

And he adds the following foot-note : 

" Einige. Zetten von ihm [the letter] hat Edgar 
Taylor in seinem 1839 in London erschienenen : 
Gammer Grethel, from Grimm and others, trans- 
lated by Taylor, abdrucken lassen. In den 1893 
erschienenen Familiar Letters von Walter Scott 
befindet sich der Brief nicht. Beides nach freund- 
lichen Mitteilungen von Herrn Arthur Hunt." 

The title of Messrs. Bell's edition of Grimm's 
'Popular Stories,' as given by them, runs: 
"Grimm's Tales, with the Notes of the 
Original. Translated by Mrs. A. Hunt. With 
Introduction by Andrew Lang, M.A.," 2 vols., 

1884, and is therefore not Edgar Taylor's 
translation, the subject of Sir Walter's inter- 
esting letter. J. LORAINE* HEELIS. 
9, Morral Terrace, Penzance. 

" DEWSIERS " (9 th S. i. 387, 493). This is not 
a Westmoreland word, as we are told it is by 
MR. GOLEM AN at the latter reference. Halli- 
well marks it as used in the " West " (mean- 
ing the western counties), which your corre- 
spondent misreads as " Westmoreland." 


The " deaf -ears " are not the valves of the 
heart, but the auricles. See ' H.E.D.' 

J. T. F. 
Bishop Hatfield's Hall, Durham. 

SLAVONIC NAMES (8 th S. xi. 488 ; xii. 31). 
Probably by an oversight, MR. PL ATT has left 
unanswered at the second reference the 
second query put at the first reference, viz., 
the meaning of the terminations -evo, -ovo. 
The following abbreviated extracts from 
Reiff's 'Russian Grammar' pp. 49, 50, may 
throw some light on the subject: 

"Possessive adjectives which mark the relation of 
an object to an animate or personified beingare formed 
by changing the hard mute and o (of the substantive) 
into o;', or after the lingual or hissing consonants 
into ev' ; f and the soft mute into ev'; a, ya, and the 
soft mute into in', &c. To the possessive adjectives 
belong also several names of towns and villages." 

It is evident, therefore, that the termina- 
tions -ovo and -evo have a possessive or 
genitive signification, town, village, place, <fec., 
being understood, as with us in " Hobart " for 
Hobart Town, and "King's" for King's College. 
With regard to the stress : in Bohemian it is 
on the first syllable ; in Polish on the pen- 
ultimate ; while in Russian, Servian, &c., its 
position varies. In Polish the v is repre- 
sented by w, as in " Warsawa " (Warsaw). The 
Russian form of " Moscow " is " Moskva," the 
o having been elided between the k and v, 
owing to the stress falling on the final 
syllable. These two instances show how 
widespread the terminations in v are. The 
final a or o merely denotes the gender. 


Sidcup, Kent. 

EPISCOPAL FAMILIES (8 th S. xii. 185, 316; 9 th 
S. i. 76). On Bishop Carleton's monument 
in the north transept of Chichester Cathedral 
appears the following inscription in Latin 
(translation from ' Daily's Guide,' 1831) : 

" Guy Carle ton, S.T.P., descended from the cele- 
brated Earl of that name, was born in Cumberland, 
and was Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford, as also 
proctor of that University. He was faithful to 
Charles II. in his exile, and was his domestic chaplain 
after his restoration. He was Dean of Carlisle, and 


NOTES AND QUERIES. n* s. it JW.T so, '98. 

Prebendary of Durham, then Bishop of Bristol and 
afterwards of this See. He conquered the violence 
of the fanatical parties, he repaired the cloisters 
and restored its privileges. Celebrated for his 
learning, magnanimity, and piety, noted for his 
charities toward the destitute, and for hospitality 
to all, and an unconquered champion for the English 
Church, and now triumphing as its most excellent 
ornament, he departed this life the 6th of July in 
the year of salvation 1685, aged 89." 

Arms, Ermine, on a bend sable three pheons 

Dallaway, ' History of South- West Sussex,' 
states : " Born in Cumberland at Bramston- 
foot in Gillesland." SACRISTAN. 

S. xi. 165, 278 ; xii. 77). The experience of 
Francis Bacon in this matter may not be 
known to all readers of ' N. & Q.,' although 
doubtless familiar to nmny. A copy of his 
' Naturall Historie ' (with which is bound 
the ' New Atlantis ') in my possession has 
suffered the loss of a leaf, long ago replaced 
in MS. by some former owner ; on this, cen- 
tury X., p. 256, occurs the following : 

" The Sympathye of Individualls y* have beene 
entire, or have Touched, is of all others, y e most 
Incredible : yet accordinge to our faithfull examina- 
tion of Nature, we will make some little mention of 
it. The takinge away of Warts, by Rubbinge them 
w th some what y* afterwards is put to wast, and 
consume, is a com'on exp'iment : And 1 doe appre- 
hende it the rather because of mine owne exp'ience. 
I had from my Childhood a wart uppon one of my 
Fingers : Af terwardes when I was about 16 years old, 
being at Paris, there grew upon both my handes a 
number of Warts (at y least 100) in a Moneths space. 
The English Embassadours Lady, who was a woman 
free from sup'stition, told me, one day ; she would 
helpe me away w th them. Whereupon shee got a 
peiceof Larde, w th y e Skin on, and rubbed y e Warts 
all over, w th y e fat side ; and amongst y c rest y* Wart 
w ch I had had from my Childhood ; Then she nayled 
the Peice of Lard w th y e fat towards y e Sunne upon 
a Poast of her Chamber window w ch was to y e south. 
The Successe was, that w th in 5 weekes space, all the 
Warts went quite away : And y e Wart w ch I had soe 
Ipnge endured for Company. But at y e rest 1 did 
little marvaile, because they came in a shorte time, 
and might goe away in a short time againe. But y 
goinge away of y* w ch had staid soe longe doth 
sticke w th me yet. They say y like is done by 
rubbinge of Warts w th a greene Elder sticke, and then 
buryinge the sticke to rot in mucke." 

I assume this kindly believer in the efficacy 
of charms was the wife of Sir Amias Paulet, 
upon whom Bacon was in attendance at the 
age he names. CHAS. GILLMAN. 


ESSEX (8 th S. xii. 127, 250). In the registers 
of Stapleford Tawney, co. Essex, the name 
Luther frequently occurs. The registers of 
this church from 1558 to 1752 have been pub- 

lished by Mr. F. Arthur Crisp. Your corre- 
spondent will also find entries of the Luther 
family in ' Sepulchral Memorials of Bobbing- 
vvorth,' printed by Mr. Crisp in 1884. 

C. H. C. 
South Hackney. 

BRUMMELL (9 th S. i. 248). Perhaps the 
following may help Miss THOYTS. It is taken 
from Catalogue XX. issued from Jaggard's 
Bookshop, 39, Renshaw Street, Liverpool : 

" Brummell. Jesse (Capt.), Life of Beau Brum- 
mell. Revised and annotated edition, from the 
author's own interleaved copy, 1886, with 40 coloured 
portraits of Brummell and his contemporaries, 
2 vols., roy. 8vo., gilt tops." 

There is another memoir of Brummell by 

Ainslie, published 1897. 


"HORSE-CHESTNUT" (9 th S. ii. 46). I believe 
I have seen the statement referred to in 
Evelyn's 'Sylva,'but it did not originate with 
Evelyn. Gerard says, s.v. 'Chestnut': 

"The Horse Chestnut is called in Latine, Equlna 
Catanea : in English, Horse Chestnut, for that the 
people of the East countries do with the fruit thereof 
cure their horses of the cough, shortnesse of breath, 
and such like diseases." 

C. C. B. 

S. i. 446 ; ii. 54). On reviewing the notes of 
W. E. B. and MR. E. L. GARBETT, I perceive 
that my explanation will not meet the whole 
case ; at least, not further on than from 1769 to 
1840. I have an Oxford Bible of this year 
which contains the Apocrypha references. It 
is later than the Oxford and Cambridge 
agreement in 1834, so that, unless it is post- 
dated, it will not explain itself. I have also 
another in 1850, which has not got them. 
Previously to this there was, in 1846, an 
edition for the S.P.C.K. which also is with- 
out them. The Bible of 1850 is for the 
common press sale. It seems, therefore, that 
the return to the smaller number of refer- 
ences, without those from the Apocrypha/ 
took place at the Oxford University Press 
between 1840 and 1850. What is the explana- 
tion? Is it an actual return to the A.V. of 1611 1 

Two Queen's Printers' Bibles which I have 
are without the Apocrypha references. But 
possibly the London printers have always 
kept to the 1611 references. An interesting 
question is raised. ED. MARSHALL, F.S.A. 

I was misled by Franklin's letter on im- 
proving the English language to think the 
fashion of giving every substantive a capital 
had been applied to the Bible in Queen 
Anne's time. But it seems that though many 
books were so printed (the Philosophical 

9 th S. II. JULY 30, '98.] 



Transactions among others), yet no edition o 
the English Bible has yet been so treated 
Franklin's idea of making our language 
easier to foreigners must some day be 
attempted (the sooner the better) ; and I stil 
hold with him that the revival of this rule (a: 
in German and Norse) will be the first poin 
in such an attempt. E. L. GARBETT. 

BALLY (9 th S. ii. 26). This word is merely 
an evasion of the grosser term to which it 
bears an obvious resemblance. It was sug 
gested, I believe, by the name of an Irisn 
village which was once much celebrated in 
song. I am speaking now of some fifteen 
years ago ; but this very day I read the allu- 
sive head-line, 'The Bally Hooley Truth.' 

I was present when a well-known comedian 
made use of the word in one of his startling 
stage impromptus. I had never heard it 
before, nor, seemingly, had the audience. It 
" took on " at once. The gods understood the 
allusion to the song, and laughed at the eva- 
sion of their favourite adjective. I do not 
suggest that the actor in question invented 
the word, but I feel certain that he made it 
popular. GUALTERULUS. 

This word was first brought into use by 
the Sportiny T lines, perhaps ten or twelve 
years ago. There was once an inquiry as to 
its origin ; and the reply was given that it was 
brought by Blobbs from Ireland, where every- 
thing is Bally. "Blobbs" (Shirley Brooks) 
was an exceedingly gifted member of the staff 
of that paper; Ke died young. The slang 
expressions " common or garden " and " oof 
were probably his invention. " Bally " is, of 
course, a euphemism for a coarser word. 


This word is given in Funk & Wagnalls's 
'Standard Dictionary of the English Lan- 
guage': "[Slang English] a euphemistic form 
of bloody ; usea for emphasis or intensity : 
as, the bally idiot." GUSTOS. 

[' Ballyhooly ' is, we fancy, due to Mr. Martin of 
the Sporting Times.] 

PATTENS (9 th S. i. 44, 336, 413, 471). 
Pattens for women's feet, as I knew them in 
Derbyshire, were not quite the same as those 
so far described. The clogs ST. SWITHIN 
writes about are not clogs at all, but shoes 
with wooden soles, with iron plates fastened 
underneath round the edges of the heels and 
soles. The use of these is not by any means so 
common as formerly, when there were many 
doggers = makers of clogs. They were called 
" clogs " because the sole was a solid clog of 
wood. Over-clogs were a sort of shoe made 
as ST. SWITHIN describes the make of clogs, 

These were used on wet days, the foot with 
ordinary gear being slipped into the toe- 
cap, the hinder part being secured across the 
instep by straps attached to the back portion, 
which rose behind from the heel. 

Pattens are quite another article of foot- 
gear for women, and intended to enable them 
to go about in wet weather with dry feet, 
and to " slosh," " slush," and " swill " indoors 
and out when engaged in the weekly thorough 
cleaning-up, mostly done on Saturday morn- 
ings. These may still be bought in some 
country places. They consist simply of a 
wooden sole with a piece of leather nailed on 
each side so as to form a bow, into which the 
woman pushes her shod foot as far as the in- 
step, the bow holding the patten in position. 
Underneath, in the centre of the sole, is an 
iron ring on two short columns passed 
through the sole, and clinched on the upper 
side. This raises the sole about two inches 
from the ground. In these all women in my 
youngdays patted about their household work. 
On wet days they went to the shop and to the 
well for water dry-foot. If Sunday was wet 
they patted off to church in their pattens, 
most of them having a "Sunday pair" of 
these useful, but now nearly out -of -use 
articles. THOS. RATCLIFFE. 

(9 th S. i. 228). MR. FERGUSON will find the 
reference he desires in Palmer's ' Index to the 
Times' for 1894, 1 Oct.-31 Dec., 22 d. 7 f., 
under my name, on 'Elephantine Memory 
and Manners.' If it is only the epitaph he 
requires, I herewith have pleasure in enclosing 

VIonte sub hoc Elephas ingenti contegor ingens, 
iuem Rex Emanuel, devicto Oriente, Leoni 
^aptivum misit decimo ; quod Romula pubes 
Vlirata est animal, non longe tempore visum, 
^idit, et humanos in bruto pectore sensus. 
"nvidit Latii sedem mihi Parca bead, 
fee passa est ternos Domino famularier annos ; 
At quae sors rapuit naturae debita nostrse 
Fempora, voa, Superi, magno accumulate Leoni. 

Vixit annos vii. 

obiit anginae morbo 

altitude erat palmorum xii. 

Jo. Baptista Braconius Aquilanus a cubiculo 

et Elephantis curae praefectus 


MDXVI. 8 Junii 

Leonis X. Pont, anno quarto, 

Raphael Urbinas quod natura abstulerat 

arte restituit. 


Brasenose College, Oxford. 

There are these lines on the death of an 
.lephant in 'Epigrammata Selecta Catulli, 
Slartialis, et Aliorum,' Rom., 1670, pp. 159, 
60, but I cannot tell whether they are the 



[9 th S. II. JULY 30, ! 

same with those to which MR. FERGUSON 
refers : 

De Elephante. 
Monstrorum princeps elephas proboscidis armis 

Horret mole nigra, dente micat niveo. 
Sed vario fugienda malo cum bellua gliscat, 

Est tamen ex certis mors pretiosa ferae. 
Nam quae conspicimus montani roboris ossa 

Humanis veniunt usibus apta suis. 
Consulibus sceptrum, mensis decus, arma tablistris: 

Discolor, et tabulae calculus inde datur. 
Haec est human* semper mutatio mortis ; 

Fit inoriens ludus, qui fuit ante pavor. 


RAVENSWORTH (9 th S. ii. 47). The place 
from which Lord Ravensworth takes his title 
is in Durham. I do not know any ancient 
form of the name, but ostensibly it presents 
no difficulty. The last syllable seems to be 
the A.-S. weorth, a " homestead," " enclosure," 
or " small estate," preceded by the name of 
an early owner, Hrafn, a common Scandi- 
navian personal appellation which we have 
in many names, such as Ravensthorpe, or 
Ravenspur, where Edward IV. landed when 
he invaded England before the battle of 
Barnet. There is another Ravensworth in 
the North Riding, which was originally Ravens- 
wath, corrupted in the thirteenth century to 
Ravensworth. Here wath (A.-S. wat) means a 
" ford " or " place that can be waded," while 
the first element, as is sometimes the case, 
may denote the bird and not an eponymous 
person. ISAAC TAYLOR. 

SIR NICHOLAS STUKELEY (9 th S. ii. 7). In 
the church of Little Stukeley, in Hunting- 
donshire, is the brass of a man in civilian 
attire, c. 1610, turned three quarter to the 
dexter. Temple Bar for March, 1894, p. 395, 
says that William Stukeley (1687 to 1765^ 
restored the brass of his ancestor Sir Nicholas 
to Little Stukeley Church. There is no other 
brass in the church which would suit Sir 
Nicholas Stukeley, and it is possible thai 
this may be the brass which was in private 
possession. I glean these facts from the 
Transactions of the Monumental Brass 
Society, vol. ii. p. 186. I do not think the 
assertion in Temple Bar can be correct, bui 
it is quite likely that the brass was restorec 
at a later date than that mentioned. 


Devonshire Club. 

Walking up Parson's Green Lane, Fulham 
recently, I espied a board on which wa? 
painted " Stukeley Park Estate." It is close 
by the entrance to the Parson's Green Station 
on the District Railway, and it occurred to me 
that the brass in question may be in Fulham 
parish church or thereabouts. At the nortl 

end of Parson's Green Lane used to be a 
;ateway leading to a house called Percy 
Jross House, but this morning I could not 
ind it. Further on I found at the corner of 

a road a newly built house, and over the door 
s Persicross House, and on the other side of 

the road, a road called Purser's Cross Road. 

Are they not getting a bit confused out 

"HERON" (9 th S. ii. 4). PROF. SKEAT'S 
remarks on the derivation of this word remind 
me that I have long purposed to make a note 
of the fact that the bird -name heron or 
tierne does not occur in Shakspere's plays, or 
it may be safer, perhaps, to say that I have 
failed to find either of them in Mrs. Cowden 
Clarke's 'Concordance' thereto. Of course 
the well-known passage (' Hamlet,' II. ii. 399), 

I know a hawk from a handsaw, 
has not been forgotten by me, but I am by no 
means satisfied that the poet did not mean 
what the printers have given us. If Shak- 
spere does not allude to the heron the fact is 
curious, as he cannot but have been well 
acquainted with the bird. In fact, herons 
must have been common in Warwickshire 
when he lived there. Art there not heronries 
there even now ? Herons, as I understand, 
may even now be occasionally seen in the 
neighbourhood of London, so their majestic 
bearing and graceful flight cannot but have 
been familiar to him. ASTARTE. 

(9 th S. i. 466 ; ii. 52). I should like to thank 
COL. PRIDEAUX for his comments on my note, 
and particularly for his addition to my list of 
Magdala and Kassala, two examples in every 
way to the point. As to Kumassi, he seems 
to be right in saying there is doubt. I gave 
my authority for the antepenultimate accent ; 
for the penultimate accent I have just come 
across a reliable witness in the author of 
'Ashantee and Jaman' (Dr. Freeman), who 
also writes Odumassi for a parallel name 
(Kumassi means "Under the Kum tree," 
Odumassi " under the Odum tree "). He also 
gives Bagida (p. 156) arid S6koto (p. 477). 
Koelle, in that useful book ' Polyglotta 
Africana,' also speaks for Kumassi, but agrees 
with me as to Kanuri and Sokoto. The 
African accent is not always easy to catch, as 
I know from personal investigation among 
speakers of the Accra, Fantee, Haussa, Nupe, 
and Yoruba tongues. I still incline to think 
the double consonant may have attracted it 
in Kumassi, as- it has done in Bambarra. 
Ashantee and Fantee should undoubtedly be 
preferred to the forms stressed on the final, 

9 th S. II. JULY 30, '98.] 



which I regard as imitations of Chinee, 
Mai tee, Portugee. JAMES PL ATT, Jun. 

I suppose Magdala even if wrong, as COL. 
PRIDE A ux shows us is the soldier's way of 
calling it. I had my boots cleaned in the 
street here not long since, and the man who 
" shined " them told me he had been present 
at the siege of Magdala. I accepted the pro- 
nunciation, on the exjyerto crede principle, but 
with a tinge of regret that the veteran had 
come to such base uses at last. 



MUGGERHANGER (9 th S. ii. 47). The last 
part of this name, which appears in Titten- 
hanger, Birchanger, Clayhanger, Panshanger, 
and many more, is plainly from the A.-S. 
hangra, a "meadow'* or "green," but the 
first part cannot be explained from any 
known language. Unfortunately the name 
does not appear in Domesday. Mr. Monk- 
house, in his 'Etymologies of Bedfordshire,' 
gives the oldest form he has been able to 
discover as Morhanger, which afterwards 
became Moderhanger, then Maugerhanger, 
and at last in 1612 Mogerhanger. The older 
form Morhanger, which would mean the 
" moor pasture," from A.-S. m6r, a " moor," 
survived till 1676. This is a good example of 
the uselessness of trying to interpret modern 
names without reference to their earlier forms, 
which usually explain them. 


BURNS AND COLERIDGE (9 th S. i. 405; ii. 
35). I am asked why I omit "the words with 
which Burns concludes the letter to Mrs. 
Dunlop." My reply is the very simple one 
that, acting on the principle that the half is 
more than the whole, I gave what was to the 
immediate purpose. THOMAS BAYNE. 

Helensburghj N.B. 

WADA (9 th S. i. 468). The following is from 
Dr. Brewer's 'Dictionary of Phrase and 

"Wade's Boat named Guin'gelot. Wade was a 
hero of mediaeval romance, whose adventures were 
a favourite theme in the sixteenth century. M. 
F. Michel has brought together all he could find 
about this story, but nevertheless the tale is very 
imperfectly known. 

They can so moche craft of Wades boot, 
So moche broken harm whan that hem list, 
That with hem schuld I never lyv in rest 

Chaucer, ' Canterbury Tales,' 9298." 


It appears that Wada is the Scandinavian 
St. Christopher, because he crossed a stream 

with Weyland in his arms : hence his name, 
meaning "the wader"; Latin vadum, "a 
ford." The boat, it appears, really belonged 
to Weyland the smith or artificer, who con- 
structed a pair of artificial wings for him- 
self : so Gutngelot or Wingelot. Way land or 
Wieland is also known as Volundr. 

13, Paternoster Row. 

10). In Burke's 'Peerage' for 1898, under 
' Clanricarde,' it is stated that " Richard de 
Burgh, died 1243, married Hod ierna, daughter 
of Robert de Gernon, and granddaughter, 
maternally, of Cahill Crovderg, King of Con- 
naught, and had two sons. Walter and 

Allow me to ask, Is there any contemporary, 
or other sufficient, authority for the above- 
mentioned marriage and issue ? If so, where 
is it to be found 1 G. 

" CORDWAINER " (9 th S. ii. 5). That a cord- 
wainer is a shoemaker must be known to 
almost every one, though the original mean- 
ing, "a maker of or dealer in Cordovan 
leather" ('H.E.D.'), may not be equally well 
known ; and a mistake such as GENERAL 
MAXWELL has pointed out can scarcely ever 
have appeared in print, for if even a few 
examples had been sent in, no doubt Dr. 
Murray would have noted the error. 



This word assuredly means a shoemaker, 
and, so far as I can make out, nothing else. 
There is an excellent article thereon, with 
numerous illustrative quotations, in the 
'H.E.D.' The word is nearly obsolete, but 
I think not quite. I have heard it used by 
more than one old person during the last few 
years, and I know that it occurs in title- 
deeds and parish registers written in the early 
part of the present reign. It is strange that 
a writer of such wide and accurate knowledge 
as the author of the Quarterly paper on ' Pre- 
historic Arts and Crafts ' has proved himself 
to be should have made such a curious slip. 
We have here one more example of the fact 
that mere sound will often mislead all but the 
most wary. EDWARD PEACOCK. 


For "cordwainer" as meaning shoe- 
maker, see ' N. & Q.,' 8 th S. x. 253, 343 ; xi. 
52. The word has usually been associated 
with the French cordonnier. R. BOBBINS. 

GEORGE OLD (9 th S. ii. 6). A remarkable 
instance of change of name in the present 



day has come under my personal notice. 
There is living at Northampton a working 
shoemaker, a real "cordwainer" {ante, p. 5), 
which in the shoe industry is a synonym for 
" hand-stitchman," who for the last twenty 
years has gone by the name of Enoch Owen. 
He came to Northampton when he was a 

Smng man, and when his name was Enoch 
oron. Afflicted with a slight impediment 
in his speech, he failed to make the North- 
ampton shoemakers understand that his 
name was not Owen Northampton people 
have dreadful ears for the aspirates. Owen 
was as near as they could get without trouble, 
and the man accepted the change. I have 
before me some documents relating to the 
Bradlaugh controversies in the town during 
the seventies. He signs his name on them 
Enoch Owen. He joined a Northampton 
Church as Enoch Owen, and so wrote his 
signature in the members' book. A few years 
ago he was baptized, and then it was he 
mentioned, what had been practically a secret 
for thirty years, that he was born Horon, 
but was always called Owen by his friends, 
his married daughter, and himself. A note 
to that effect appears in the register of 
baptisms of the church. K. 

INGTON FAMILY (9 th S. i. 467). Dr. Moncure 
D. Conway, who speaks with authority on 
the subject, considers that the resemblance 
between the Washington arms and the United 
States flag is merely a coincidence, and that, 
moreover, George Washington was not the 
originator of the stars and stripes. Dr. 
Conway dealt with the question very fully in 
the Graphic^ of 6 May, 1893, p. 506, and also 
mentioned it in a foot-note to an article of 
his on 'The English Ancestry of Washington,' 
which appeared in Harper's Monthly Magazine 
for May, 1891. An article based on Dr. 
Con way's conclusions, and entitled ' The Arms 
of Washington and the Stars and Stripes,' 
appeared in the Daily Graphic on Friday, 
14 September, 1894. 

May I say that I should be very glad if MR. 
C. E. CLARK would kindly give particulars of 
the Washington inscriptions at Ad wick -le- 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

i. 488). -I do not understand why Palgrave 
gives this song as anonymous, since it occurs 
in Campion's Fourth Book of 'Airs,' and 
Palgrave himself says that Campion " appears 
to have been author of the words which he 
set to music." Campion says, in the note "To 
the Reader " prefixed to the Fourth Book : 

" Some words are in these Books, which have been 
clothed in music by others, and I am content they 
then served their turn ; yet give me leave to make 
use of mine own ! " 

And again : 

" To be brief. All these Songs are mine, if you 
express them well ! Otherwise, they are your own ! " 

There are a few verbal differences between 
the version of this song given by Mr. Arber 
in the ' English Garner ' (vol. iii.) and the one 
in 'Lyra Elegantiarum ' and Palgrave's 
' Golden Treasury.' Mr. Arber, I understand, 
follows the original edition word for word. 

C. C. B. 

" PAEJAMA " (9 th S. i. 486). It is perhaps a 
little ungracious to criticize the value of a 
note from so interesting a contributor as 
KILLIGREW ; but is it not a little pedantic to 
complain of a hosier including the complete 
garment in the term "pyjamas," when such 
has been the universally accepted custom for 
years ] And how many columns of ' N. & Q.,' 
may I ask, could be filled with instances of 
words whose original meaning has been either 
obscured or destroyed ? 


Branksome Chine. 

COPE AND MITRE (8 th S. xii. 106, 175, 350, 
493 ; 9 th S. i. 14, 212, 351 ; ii. 34). Certain 
bishops now wear copes and mitres. Quite 
so : I have never denied it. What I ask is, 
as Dean Burgon asked, Can any instance be 
given of Church of England bishops, or clergy, 
wearing not copes, but chasubles, during 
divine service, from the time of Elizabeth 
until the Anglo-Catholic revival ? 

Dean Burgon distinguished (as did the 
Reformers, who knew what they were about) 
between cope and chasuble, and expressed 
his willingness to use the former, while 
pointing out (as I point out) the entire disuse 
of the latter from the Reformation until, 
say, sixty years ago. In the quotation given 
by MR. F. T. HIBGAME I am at a loss f o 
understand the "three sub-deacons." The 
date is 1641, and surely the order of sub- 
deacon was abolished by the Church of 
England at the Reformation ! 


St. Andrews, N.B. 

BENJAMIN THORPE (1782?-! 870), ANGLO- 
SAXON SCHOLAR (9 th S. i. 507). This dis- 
tinguished scholar died at Chiswick on 19 July, 
1870. In addition to the brief notice of 
his death in the Athenaeum of 23 July, I may 
refer your correspondent to an equally short 
account in ' N. & Q.,' 4 th S. vi. 86. For a list 
of his nineteen works see p. 146. Most of 

ii. JULY so, 



these will be found in the Corporation Library, 

71, Brecknock Road. 

PRIME MINISTER (8 th S. x. 357, 438 ; xi. 
69, 151, 510 ; xii. 55, 431). I have already 
noted that in an attack upon Walpole in 
1733 an author was quoted who referred to 
Mazarin as one who had occupied in France 
" the highest Post of first Minister." I now 
find that "Chief Minister" was Mazarin's 
accepted style in this country, as is shown 
by the following official announcement, issued 
soon after the succession of Richard Crom- 
well to the Protectorate : 

" Whitehall, Octob. 18. This Afternoon his High- 
ness, standing under a Cloth of Estate in the Pre- 
sence Chamber, gave audience to his Excellencie the 

Lord Ambassador of France, who presented his 

Highness two letters, one from his Majestic of 
France, the other from his Eminencie Cardinal 
Mazarin, as cheif Minister of State." Mtrcuriuv 
Politico, 14-21 Oct., 1658, p. 925. 


"ANIGOSANTHUS" (9 th S. ii. 7) is a genus 
of plants of the natural order Hajmodoracese, 
and chiefly to be found in Western Australia, 
where the natives near the Swan River eat 
the roots. The first part of the word is taken 
from the Greek <ii'io-^w=avexa>, which signifies 
to hold up or lift up. ' W. T. LYNN. 


LILY OF WALES (9* S. i. 504). On St. 
David's Day, early this century, Welshmen 
dined together somewhere in London, and 
each wore a model of a leek made in seed 
pearls. My grandfather, Sir Richard Puleston, 
second baronet, was, I know, one of the 
conformers to the practice. E. E. THOYTS. 

F. X. 

Foci* about. Bookworm*. By the Rev. J. 

O'Connor, S.J. (Suckling & Co.) 
THE only fault we have to find with a little work 
that commends itself to the bibliophile is the title, 
which is not sufficiently comprehensive. Dealing 
nominally with bookworms, the booklet is occupied 
with all sorts of insects or "bugs" destructive of 
books. ' The Enemies of Books ' as a title has been 
appropriated by the late Mr. Blades, whose work 
has been necessarily of much service to the latest 
writer. Bookworms we take to be the species of 
maggot the traces of devastation of which wring 
the heart of the collector, while in the flesh it is 
rarely seen. The only one we have ever looked 
upon was obligingly sent us in a box by a contribu- 
tor. We did not experiment on the wretched crea- 
ture, but slew him forthwith. Mr. Blades had seen 
but three specimens of what he took to be book- 
worms. Father O'Connor, on the other hand, has 
studied under the microscope no fewer than seventy- 

two specimens of insects destructive of books, and 
has given designs of many as well as much curious 
information concerning them. These are, however, 
of various kinds, no fewer than eight injects injuri- 
ous to libraries being described in an appendix con- 
sisting of entomological notes. Father O'Connor 
maintains, against the expressed opinion of Blades, 
that modern paper is subject to the attacks of the 
worm. He is right, though, so far as our personal 
experience sad enough goes, it is only the superior 
classes of paper that are injured. We found the 
worm in the Hunterian Society's publications. As 
to remedies. These are many, and as a rule of little 
value. The one thing indispensable seems to us to be 
constant disturbance. Old books, rarely touched, 
are almost safe to harbour worms. The light appli- 
cation of a cloth, a delicate brush, a mere opening 
and shutting of the pages, are all of use. In the 
case of a large library with heavy folios this is a 
troublesome operation to undertake, and it is not 
certain that the binding of old books will not be 
imputed. The necessity of keeping bindings unin- 
jured is almost as serious a responsibility as that of 
protecting the inside from the worm, which in this 
climate is not often very destructive. It is other- 
wise in India. Books scarred across with holes 
have come into our possession, the responsibility for 
the destruction being attributed we know not on 
what authority to white ants. We recommend 
the study of this little book to bibliophiles. It will 
supply them with much curious information of a 
kind for which they will be thankful, and it is in 
itself a pretty little volume. 

An Etsay on Western Civilization in its Economic 
Axpect* (Ancient Timtx). By W. Cunningham, 
D.D. (Cambridge, University Press.) 
THIS is one of the volumes of the "Cambridge Uni- 
versity Series." For its size it is a work of much 
merit ; but we cannot help repining that one who is 
evidently so well qualified for giving us an extended 
treatise on this vast subject should have been willing 
to confine himself within such very narrow bounds. 
Two hundred and twenty small octavo pages are 
obviously insufficient for dealing, even in a skeleton 
manner, with the commerce of the ancient world. 

Dr. Cunningham's knowledge of the trade routes 
of old times is great. Regarding the sea journeys 
of the states of antiquity much has been written 
some of it to good purpose but we know very little 
as yet of the trade pathways of old times which 
formed a network on the land. This is to be 
regretted, for land traders probably exercised a 
more permanent effect on civilization than those 
who used the high ways which the sea provided, for, 
as the author points out, trade routes are among the 
oldest and most enduring things in history. In 
most instances they owed their origin to physical 
causes which remain the same now as they were 
ere man emerged from savagery, and they were no 
doubt used by men passing to and fro at a time far 
antecedent to the earliest relics of history found in 
Egypt or the Euphrates valley. Not only did these 
pathways bring distant races into touch with each 
other, but they must have had no little effect on 
the spread of language. At every place where the 
traders stopped for rest and refreshment they must 
necessarily have held some communication with 
those who dwelt on the spot, and it is hard to 
believe that they did not leave some words, as well 
as articles of barter, behind them ; neither is it im- 
probable that in exchange they would pick up, now 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9> s. n. JULY so, 

and then, a useful term, such as they had neve 
heard before, which would seem more fitted for 
their purpose than anything the mother tongue sup 
plied. Not only did these travellers bring distan 
peoples into touch with each other, but in some 
cases, probably in all, they would leave behinc 
them permanent remains, which, when time anc 
opportunity arrive, will throw no little light on 
the life of the far-off past. 

The chapter devoted to Judaea is very valuable, 
for little exists in English relating to the Jews as 
traders while dwelling in their own land. It was 
only for a short time that foreign trade flourished 
among them. Solomon may have originated it by 
his own imperial genius, knowing that it was a 
necessity for binding his subject states into a 
coherent whole, and also that it would marvellously 
enrich those of his own race. However this may 
have been, it is evident that when the kingdom was 
split into two by the revolt of the ten tribes mainly, 
as it seems, on a question of taxation trade declined, 
and never reasserted itself in its old proportions. 
Dr. Cunningham thinks that the spirit of trade so 
strongly manifesting itself among the Jews of every 
age, from the time of the dispersion to the present 
day, is the result of the lessons the race learned 
under the rule of Solomon. That this has been a 
great factor influencing their subsequent career 
cannot be doubted, but surely the long contact with 
the Phrenicians had some influence also on the racial 
character. The chapter devoted to "City Life" is 
highly important, especially those parts relating to 
capital and labour. The volume contains five care- 
fully compiled maps. 

The Bride of Lammermoor. By Sir Walter Scott. 

Edited by A. Lang. (Nimmo.) 
THE cheap reissue of Mr. Nimmo's large-type 
"Border Edition" of the " Waverley Novels " has 
been enriched by the addition of 'The Bride of 
Lammermoor,' which is not only the best of Scott's 
romantic tales, but the sombrest and perhaps the 
most melting tragedy of modern times. It is 
issued with the eight original designs of the 
earlier edition, including Millais's 'Lucy and the 
Master,' which serves as an admirable frontis- 
piece. We can but repeat what we have said con- 
cerning previous volumes of the collection that 
it is an ideal shape in which to read and to possess 
the work. 

A Descriptive Catalogue of Ancient Deeds in the 
Public Record Office. Vol. II. (Stationery 

THIS volume will be of great use to the topographer 
and genealogist, but not to them alone. Those who 
are interested in names of persons, whether those 
conferred in baptism or such as had become 
hereditary, will find much to allure them. Curious 
local names of fields abound therein, which must be 
tabulated, and, where possible, interpreted. The 
study of local place-names is quite as important as 
that of dialect is, in fact, a part of the same far- 
reaching subject. The materials are not collected 
yet; we do not even know that a beginning has been 
made, except in a most perfunctory manner. When 
in some future generation an index of the local 
names of England is in the hands of the reader, he 
will have before him the means of deciding many 
things as to the race characteristics of the early 
settlers which no one yet possesses. It is not 
easy at present to make anything beyond vague 

guesses at the meaning of such names as Spondene, 
in Hertfordshire ; Kyllynga Lane, Dorsetshire ; 
Swirkeswat, Lincolnshire ; and Haylokestve, 

Maldon and the River Blackwater. Bv E A 

Fitch, F.L.S. (Maldon, Gower.) 
THIS is a trustworthy and well-illustrated guide to 
the antiquities of Maldon. In the copy before us 
however, the opening chapter is reprinted nearly a 
dozen times. 

Illustrated Guide to Leamington Spa, Warwick 
Kenihvorth, and Coventry. By Bernard C P' 
Walters. (Dawbarn & Ward.) 
WITH its numerous pictures and its antiquarian 
information this pretty and trustworthy little guide 
will- be an acceptable companion to all visitors 
to the eminently picturesque portion of Central 
England with which it is concerned. 

WE have received the Catalogue of the Reference 
Library of the Warrington Municipal Museum, care- 
fully compiled by Mr. Charles Madeley, curator 
and librarian. 

WE have further received The Tourist Guide to 
the Continent, edited by Percy Liudley, with some 
additions, and also Mountain, Castle, and Craft bu 
an Ocean Route. 

We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
a,nd address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rule. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. Correspond- 
ents who repeat queries are requested to head the 
second communication "Duplicate." 

CHARLES WELSH ("Peter Parley"). William 
Martin was the founder of ' Peter Parley's Annual ' 
which was first issued in 1840. He was an English- 
man, born at Woodbridge, Suffolk. See ' Dictionary 
of National Biography.' 

CORRIGENDA. 9 th S. i. 513, col. 2, 1. 20 from 
bottom, for "shikar" read shikari. Ante, p. 59, 
col. 2, 1. 27 from bottom, for " Vigorian Monologue* " 
read Vigornian. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to 
' The Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' "Advertise- 
ments and Business Letters to "The Publisher" ^ 
it the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print ; and to this rule we can make no exception. 

For this Year, Fifty-three Numbers. 

For Twelve Months ,. ... i o li 

For Six Months 10 6 

9 th S. II. AUG. 6, '98.] 




CONTENTS. -No. 32. 

NOTES s-The Church (?) at Silchester, 101 -Smith's ' Cyclo- 
paedia of Names,' 102 Wild Horses, 103 St. Fursey 
Temperate Latitudes, 104 Morning Syntax of a Preface 
Cousin Reinterment of Sir N. Crispe, 105 Epitaph 
X Bays Bertolini's Hotel, 106. 

QUERIES: Odin Laws concerning Names Habakkuk 
Sweating-pits Chief Justice Kelly' The Pilgrim's Pro- 
gress,' 107 Birch Mrs. Norton's ' The Dream ' The 
Ploughing of the Emperor of China Wild Forest Bulls- 
Signature as Mark of Ownership Use of Low Latin 
British Colonial Registers, 108 A Noble Card-sharper, 109. 

HBPLIES : " Sumer is y-cumen in," 109 -Tobacco in Eng- 
land' Three Jovial Huntsmen 'Coins, 110-Port Arthur 
Sir Thomas Lynch, 111 Cardinal Wolsey's Leaden 
Water-pipes ' The Causidicade ' " Horse-Marine." 112 
Shakspeare and the Sea, 113 Wild Geese, 114 Rhymes 
for Book - Borrowers Lochwinnoch " Hop-picker " 
"-halgh" St. Werner, 115 Frobisher John Loudoun 
Rev. Mr. Marriot "Dewy-feathered," 118 Dictionary 
of English Proverbs " Harrow," 117 "Whose curtain 
never outward swings "Emerson Quotation" Drangut " 
Hamlake- Crucifixion in Yorkshire Stonyhurst Cricket 
" Tit-tat-to "Sheridan and Dundas, 118 Book-Borrow- 
ing Andre, 119. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Gross's 'Bibliography of British 
Municipal History ' Furneaux's ' Agricola of Tacitus ' 
Harrison's 'Place -Names of the Liverpool District' 
Holmes's ' Sir Benjamin Brodie.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


IT was welcome news to me to be given 
some time ago to understand that the inter- 
esting and most estimable work being carried 
on so ably at Silchester had laid bare a 
building, or rather the ground plan of a build- 
ing, which presented evidences so strong 
as to convince certain of its accomplished 
excavators that it represents a British Chris- 
tian church of the fourth century. This, if 
satisfactorily verified, is a most extraordinary 
and illuminative discovery. When we reflect 
that our up-to-date information concerning 
the major Christian basilicas of Rome herself 
brings us only to somewhat vague concep- 
tions of their original designs in the fourth 
and fifth centuries, it is easily to be under- 
stood that to find such a design of the 
same date in a provincial town 01 England, 
a remote and second-rate colony of the 
Empire, is a piece of historical good for- 
tune deserving unstinted felicitation. It 
is, if true, of the profoundest importance 
with regard to the advent of Christianity 
and its settled establishment in this island. 
For, recollect, if this is proved to be what 
its eloquent advocates (of which I am not 
one) declare it to be, it is a Christian 

church, say of the time of Julian the Apos- 
tate, or, at latest, Theodosius, and therefore 
two centuries before the coming of the 
Benedictine Christianize!' of Kent. * 

With your permission I shall, however, 
venture to record some, of my reasons for 
at least gravely doubting the conclusions 
arrived at by my superiors. 

The position occupied by this building 
was in the most important central insula 
of the city, even adjoining the Forum, only 
a few paces dividing them one from the other. 
That area perforce must have been always 
a position of especial significance in civic life, 
and must have held a building closely con- 
nected therewith. Such a building in such a 
town would be municipal or else sacerdotal. 
The form of it, however, happens to have 
been that of a basilica with aisles, apse, 
and vestibule - portico. The most natural 
conclusion, therefore, is that it was simply 
the Court of Justice. But the director of 
excavations, who was in charge when I 
saw the model at the Reading Museum 
and visited Silchester, observed to me : 
" But it has a narthex. Where can you 
find a basilica with a narthex?" My first 
inclination was to answer with another ques- 
tion, such as, " Do you, sir, venture to believe 
that the narthex was a Christian invention ? 
For if so, you might as well try to make me 
believe that the use of incense, sprinklers, 
wax tapers, vestments, and music in churches, 
is attributable to Christian originality." 
But I did no such thing. I merely asked, 
"Has there been discovered any carven or 
incised ' monogram,' or a dove, an anchor, a 
fish, or any other well-known and unmis- 
takable token of Christian worship about 
the building or its neighbourhood 1 Does 
the fragment of its mosaic pavement, which 
contains distinct designs, present anything 
which can so be construed* Above all, have 
any remains been found resembling those 
of a baptistery?" To these queries I re- 
ceived but a single negation. I therefore 
felt myself to be in a position of a very 
definite kind. There is, as yet, no evidence 
whatever that the basilica at Silchester has 
any right to be called a church, though 
those who choose to do so may entertain 
great hope that such evidence will one day 
be forthcoming. 

If such evidence does come to light my 
natural inclination will be to pronounce that 
the building was not erected in the fourth 
century for a church, but that at some period, 
probably later, it might have been converted 
into a church from a basilica. Those of us 
who have spent time in Rome, Ravenna, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [&* s. it A, e, is. 

Treves, and Nimes, examining the abundant 
traces of Christianity in its parasitical stage 
which have been and are being unearthed 
there, are pretty familiar with early Chris- 
tian architectural methods. The thing indeed 
is to find a noble building of the early Empire 
that has not been deformed by one or more 
churches settling among its columns and 
arches, in the hollows and armpits of basilica 
and forum, on the top of gates and triumphal 
arches, in the baths, in the prisons, &c., but 
nowhere, so far as I am aware, fashioning 
its own columns and architraves, but every- 
where deliberately and unstintingly appro- 
priating, in a truly commercial spirit, the 
materials and decorations of other edifices. 
Of course, I am writing of the fourth and 
fifth centuries, not of times mediaeval. 

The explanations of this are close at hand. 
Art of every kind had grossly degenerated, 
even down to the handwriting and the 
coinage. The blood of Rome was corrupted 
beyond recovery corrupt as the Tiber water 
she soon had to consume owing to the dis- 
repair and destruction of the aqueducts. 
Even the brick-stamps are badly lettered. 
Communism was hard at work. But I will 
not enlarge upon these matters here. The 
more distant colonial possessions we can 
scarcely suppose to have retained artistic 
superiority to the maternal cities of the 
Empire. And what was the significance of 
Silchester in the remote and precarious 
colony of Britain ? 

Moreover, we cannot but seriously call to 
mind the rapid and violent imperial fluctua- 
tions to and fro in that fourth century 
between Christianity and its antecedent 
paganism, and the survival of paganism in 
second and third rate provincial centres long 

To conclude this note, the so-called narthex 
or vestibule-portico, so necessary a feature in 
the climatic conditions of Britain, was not 
otherwise than a familiar feature in Rome. 
If we turn to the basilica of Constantino in 
the latter city in its first condition, what do 
we find 1 It had a nave and two aisles ; at 
its N.W. end an apse ; and at its S.E. end, or 
entrance, a vestibule-portico. But some will 
perhaps say that was built by Constantine, the 
first Christian emperor. Unfortunately, even 
were that the case, which it is not, its con- 
struction would not belong to the period of 
Constantine's extremely shady Christianity. 
As matter of fact, it was built by his pagan 
predecessor Maxentius, and appropriated and 
altered by his conqueror, the man who deco- 
rated his own trvv-nphal arch with the bas- 
reliefs and marbles stolen wholesale, within 

and without, from the splendid arch of 
Trajan and the monuments of the Fabii. 

I HAVE already pointed out in these 
columns (8 th S. x. 85) some of the errors 
which detract from the usefulness of this 
very modern and scientific work, but there 
are still others, the correction of which, I 
think, may both interest and instruct. Let 
us take first the Russian language, one of the 
half dozen chief languages of the world. It 
is perhaps too much to hope that some day 
it will be taught in all our schools ; but at 
any rate it would be of very great use if 
the editors of our gazetteers and bio- 
graphical dictionaries could acquire suffi- 
cient knowledge of this noble tongue to 
enable them to figure the correct pronun- 
ciation of its proper names. The book 
I am criticizing very rarely shows such 
knowledge. Potemkiri is, indeed, the only 
name which it treats with minute appre- 
ciation of the niceties of Russian ; in an 
astonishing number of instances it shows 
carelessness of them. I do not pretend to 
have searched out all the Russian names in 
this comprehensive volume ; but looking out 
at random some of the governments or 
larger territorial divisions, I find many, if 
not most of them, given incorrectly. It is 
difficult to say what excuse could be found 
for this. It is just as easy for an English- 
man to say Mohileff, Olonetz, Pultava, Sara- 
toff, Taurida, Tchernigoff, Vologda, Voronezh, 
as it is for him to accent the wrong syllables 
marked by Smith. Among other names I 
have come across which are wrong I may 
quote the following : 

1. Lake Onega. 2. The compound Tsar- 
skoye Selo. 3. Smith gives Jaroslaw as the 
name of a town in Galicia, and Yaroslav and 
Yaroslavl as alternative forms for a town in 
Russia, whereas in correct usage Jaroslaw 
and Yaroslav are alternatives for the Galician 
town, and Yaroslavl alone is Russian. 
4. Borodino, Tarutino, are treated as if 
Italian, which might pass, were only some 
notice given that Russians pronounce them 
Borodin6, Tarutino. 5. Barnaul, according 
to Smith, is like " Barn-owl," two syllables, 
but according to a Siberian I know, a native 
of the town, is three syllables. 6. Riazan, 
on the other hand, Smith makes three syl- 
lables instead of two. 7. Vladikavkaz should 
have its last syllable pronounced as in 
English, and not like "cats." 8. Conversely 
in Akhalzikh Smith reduces tz to z. 9. In 

9 th S. II. AUG. 6, '98.] 



Vereschagin Smith again has the consonant 
wrong. 10. Smith accents Tolst6i on the first 
syllable, which is absurd to any one knowing 
that adjectives only take the termination oi 
when that termination is accented ; when an- 
other syllable is accented the termination is 
shortened to y, so that if Smith were right 
the name would be Tolsty ; compare Polev6i, 
Smirn6i, Trubetzk6i. 11. Turgenieff is 
credited by Smith with two pronunciations : 
the first is right, the second is a coinage of 
his own. It is also noteworthy that while he 
preserves the original trisyllabic pronuncia- 
tion of this name, he turns Muravieff into 
four syllables ; he also ignores the fact that, 
being accented on the final, the latter name, 
like the parallel Solovieff, must be pro- 
nounced with final -off, not -eff. 12. I have 
frequently been asked which is correct, 
Kropotkin or Krapotkin ; I reply that the 
former represents the Kussian spelling, the 
latter the Russian sound, the vowel o when 
unaccented becoming a (as Smith might have 
told his readers, but does not). 

This will probably be enough about Rus- 
sian ; but if we turn to other languages we 
still find mistakes in our author. Take 
Italian, for example. Many of the sdruc- 
cioli (words with antepenultimate accent) so 
common in that musical speech are handled 
by him as if regular ; tnat is, instead of 
Cagliari, M6dena, Spalatro, Tanaro, Vigevano, 
he would have us say Cagliari, Moclena, 
Spalatro, Tanaro, Vigevano. This remark 
applies also to Prevesa, the correct rhythm of 
which is preserved in ' Childe Harold ': 
Remember the moment when Prevesa fell. 

The Greek Larissa and Tripolitza are 
anglicized by Smith without a word of 
warning that throughout the Levant they 
are called Larissa and Tripolitza. Turn to 
the Scandinavian languages. When we find 
Sir W. Besant this year in the Pall Mall 
Magazine speaking of Snorro Thirlesen, we 
recognize the need of a work of reference 
which will vouchsafe exact information 
about proper names, as opposed to a farrago 
of good and bad English and foreign forms 
without discrimination. No wonder a lay- 
man gets muddled when bis authority reads 
"Snorre, Snorri, or Snorro Sturleson or 
Sturluson," without stating (what Smith 
could easily have discovered) that Snorri 
Sturluson is the original Icelandic, Snorre 
Sturleson the Dano-Norwegian, and Snorro 
Sturlonides the Latin name of the writer of 
that 'Heimskringla' from which Carlyle took 
the groundwork of his 'Early Kings of 
Norway,' and Longfellow his ' Saga of King 
Olaf/ Huimskringla, by the way, is another 

of the names Smith is unable to pronounce, 
and the surname of King Olaf he cannot 
spell. It should be Tryggvason ; Smith with 
his customary lavishness gives twospellings, 
both wrong. 

It will be perceived that none of these 
languages are very recondite. Welsh, again, 
should be fairly easy to obtain news of ; 
yet the bardic names Aneurin and Taliessin 
are incorrectly accented by Smith upon their 
first syllables. Going further afield, we find, 
on the contrary, Perak and Sarawak marked 
as accented upon the final, which is not the 
practice of our Colonial Office. I have not 
had time to check any Portuguese names, 
but I see the capital of Cambodia, Pnom 
Penh, is given with the second element as 
the English pen, whereas (since the nh, which 
the Portuguese introduced into the ortho- 
graphy of the Annamite language, represents 
the sound of ny in the English word mini/on) 
it should be pronounced as the French peigne. 
Among Spanish names I notice Fuenterrabia 
and Fontarabia side by side, with no indi- 
cation that the former is the local, and the 
latter the Miltonian spelling, as in the famous 
line in 'Paradise Lost': 

When Charlemagne with all his peerage fell 
By Fontarabia. 

The Arabian termination seems unblest 
so far as Smith is concerned, for he errs 
in another word which contains it, giving 
Mocarabian as if "Mock-Arabian," appa- 
rently not perceiving that he was dealing with 
a variant spelling of Mozarabian, which he 
classes under a different heading ; supply a 
cedilla (Mo9arabian) and their identity be- 
comes clear. Rabbinical and other modern 
Jewish proper names can be pronounced in 
four different ways : 1, anglicized, as we do 
Bible names ; 2, in the way affected by 
English students of Hebrew ; 3, as by the 
Spanish Jews ; 4, as by the Jews of Northern 
Europe. Smith follows none of these, but 
from his fatally fertile imagination evolves 
mispronunciations alike horrid to English 
ears and unrecognizable by any sect of Jews. 
As examples of his method, or want of 
method, I may quote Saadia Gaon and 
Sabbatai Zevi. In the latter he has also the 
spelling wrong, though it must be confessed 
that here at least he sins in good company : 
Mr. Zangwill in ' Dreamers of the Ghetto ' 
also writes Sabbatai ; nevertheless it should 
be Shabbethai, as in the Authorized Version, 

WILD HORSES. (See 8 th S. ii. 4G, 113 ; iii, 
172,214). At the above references there were 
some notes on wild horses (the subject was 



[9 th S. II. AUG. 6, '98. 

introduced by myself). In going through 
Mistral's beautiful and interesting poem 
' Mireio ' (' Mireille '), I have met with a fine 
description of the wild, or half-wild, horses 
of Camargue, which I venture to quote for 
the benefit of readers who have not yet 
shaken hands with Frederic Mistral. Ca- 
margue is described in a note as 

" vaste delta forme" par la bifurcation du Rhone 

L'immensit de ses horizons, le silence grandiose de 
ses plaines unies, son etrange vegetation, son mirage, 
ses etangs, ses essaims de moustiques, ses grands 
troupeaux de boaufs et de chevaux sauvages, 
etonnent le voyageur, et font penser aux pampas 
de 1'Amerique du Sud." 

As the original Provencal would probably 
be of little use to most ot your readers as, 
indeed, it is of little use to myself without 
the translation I quote from the " traduc- 
tion litterale en regard " in Charpentier's 
edition, 1896 : 

" Cent cavales blanches ! La criniere comme la 
massette des marais, ondoyante, tonffue, et franche 
du ciseau. Dans leurs ardents elans lorsqu'elles 
partaient ensuite, effrenees, comme I'echarpe d'une 
fee au-dessus de leurs cous elle flottait dans le ciel. 

" Honte a toi, race humaine ! Les cavales de 

Camargue encheyetrees par trahison, j'en ai vu 

exiler loin des prairies salines ; 

"Etunjour, d'un bond reveche et prompt Jeter 
bas quiconque les monte, d'un galop devorer vingt 
lieues de marecages, flairant le vent ! et revenues 
au Vaccares ou elles naquirent, apres dix ans d'es- 
clavage respirer 1'emanation salee et libre de la 

"Car a cette race sauvage son element, c'est la 
mer : du char de Neptune echapp^e sans doute, elle 
est encore teinte d'ecume ; et quand la mer souffle et 
s'assombrit, quand des vaisseaux rompent les cables, 
les etalons de Camargue hennissent de bonheur ; 

" Et font claquer comme la ficelle d'un fouet leur 
longue queue trainante ; et grattent le sol, et 
sentent dans leur chair entrer le trident du dieu 
terrible qui dans un horrible pele-mele meut la tem- 
pete et le deluge, et bouleverse de fond en comble 
les abimes de la mer." Chant iv. stanzas 30-34. 

As it may interest your readers, I append 
the first of the foregoing verses in the original 
Provencal : 

Cent ego bianco ! La creniero, 
Coume la sagno di sagniero, 

Oundejanto, fougouso, e franco dou ciseu. 
Dins sis ardentis abrivado 
Quand piei partien, descaussanado, 
Coume la cherpo d' uno fado 

En dessus de si cou floutavo dins lou ceu. 

A friend of mine, well known to the readers 
of ' N. & Q.,' but whose name I do not feel at 
liberty to mention, has translated the delight- 
ful song of ' Magali ' in chant iii. into verse 
worthy of the original. I am not aware that 
he knows Provencal, so I presume he has 
translated it from the French version. It is 
a real pleasure to me to read his flowing 
verses, a pleasure which I wish I could share 

with other readers of ' N. & Q.' who are fond 

Ropley, Alresford, Hants. 

ST. FURSEY. (See ante, p. 25.) Your cor- 
respondent J. B. S., who, under the head of 
' Danteiana,' contributes "notes" upon Dante 
from Lombardi, Cary, Scartazzini, &c., as if 
the writings of these commentators were 
inaccessible to readers of 'N. & Q.,' asks, 
" Who was St. Fursey ?" 

St. Furseus was an Irishman who, accord- 
ing to Bede (' Hist. Eccles.,' III. xix.), came to 
England in 633 and founded a monastery at 
" Gnaresburc," or " Cnobheresburg " (the pre- 
sent Burgh in Suffolk). His legend, a version 
of which is given by Bede, occurs in ' Le 
Miroir ' (otherwise known as ' Les Evangiles 
des Domees'), an Anglo-Norman poem by 
Robert de Gretham (thirteenth century). I 
have printed an extract from this poem con- 
taining the legend from a British Museum 
MS. (Add. 26,773) in my ' Specimens of Old 
French' (pp. 229-33), with variants from a 
Cambridge MS. printed by Paul Meyer in 
Romania (xv. 296-305). 


Dorney Wood, Burnham, Bucks. 

Our so-called temperate latitudes doubt- 
less afford us more interest through 
their excessive caprices than would latitudes 
either tropical or polar. But often their 
irregularities are so marked that the 
memories of the oldest inhabitants of this 
or that town are taxed to little or no 
purpose in order to parallel the cold, or 
the heat, or the force of the wind, or the 
rainfall. And if we take a group of years 
and examine their extraordinarily divergent 
types of character, we may be tempted to 
look upon our " temperate " climates rather 
in the light of "fell incensed points 'twixt 
mighty opposites," and the British Isles per- 
haps as the centre of intensest quarrel. For 
here, within brief memory, one has known 
the lobsters and crabs killed in the sea by 
cold ; one has experienced droughts that 
have cost millions of money ; arid one has 
known an Atlantic gale burn up with a crust 
of salt the horse-chestnut leaves over the 
entire island. Nowhere in Europe are the 
chances so great against the weather pro- 
phet ; nowhere is so much speculation about 
the weather. Judging vaguely from the past, 
maybe we have ground for expecting that 
about three times in a century the Thames 
will be frozen over at London Bridge ; but 
that consummation is synonymous with an 
intense degree of continuous frost which 

9 th S. II. AUG. 6, '98.] 



will not be confined to Britain ; for of late 
years it has become patent that these areas 
of extreme temperature are very extensive, 
and that when there is an excessively 
cold winter in England and France, even 
Italy is often included. I can recollect 
in the winter of 1881 seeing the Arno at 
Florence being skated upon, and icicles 
like a prodigious portcullis hanging from the 
Ponte Vecchio, some of which were seven 
and eight feet in length. I have known 
Cannae and Pompeii smothered in snow, and 
the entire lemon crop of Amalfi and Pa- 
lermo destroyed by frost. Nevertheless, I 
have never experienced anything approach- 
ing to the following, which is related by 
Bembo in his ' Storia Veneta,' 1. i. : 

" In 1491, through the severity of the season, the 
[salt] water of the Grand Canal was frozen, and the 
Stradiots [Greek mercenaries of the Republic] held 
their tournament on the ice, horse against horse, 
with their lances." 

Perhaps some of your learned readers could 
inform me whether the winter of that year 
was remarkable in England. 


MORNING. In the prologue to his ' Moral 
Fables ' the " Venerable Master Robert 
Henryson, Licentiate in Arts and Bachelor 
in Decrees," has given the following line, 
which seems to call for explanation : 

In ane mornyng, betuix midday and nicht. 
It expresses the opposite of what we now 
reckon the morning to be, and it will be 
interesting if any one can say what the poet 
exactly meant. Apparently afternoon or 
evening could not be the time of day indi- 
cated, because the succeeding lines read : 
I rais and put all sleuth and sleip asyde, 
And to ane vod I went alone, but gyde. 

Henryson (1420-1506), who was preceptor 
in the Benedictine convent of Dunfermline, 
was the most Chaucerian of the Scottish 
"makaris," and some of his pieces were 
given as Chaucer's. 


SYNTAX OF A PREFACE. In the introduc- 
tion to ' The Murder of Delicia' (1896) Miss 
Marie Corelli uses various forms of expres- 
sion that are not uncommon, and yet peculiar 
enough to be noticeable. As they thus occur 
within a conveniently narrow compass for 
easy reference, they may be mentioned in suc- 
cession as examples of that loose and easy 
structure which is becoming characteristic of 
modern English prose. On the first page the 
writer closes a sentence with a reference to 
the "superior sex," opening the next with the 
remark, "They will assert," &c., thus making 

a plural form refer to a collective antecedent. 
Apart, of course, from an investigation like 
the present, this is a defensible construction, 
but at the moment it invites remark. On 
p. 2 occurs the expression, "There are any 
number of women," a form in which the syn- 
tax depends on the idea and not on the 
subject. This is further illustrated on the 
next page in the sentences, " A great majo- 
rity of the men of the present day want 
women to keep them " ; " The kind of men I 
mean have neither the courage nor the intel- 
ligence to fight the world for themselves " ; 

and "These very sort of men are the first 

to run down women's work." On p. 6 occurs 
the loose construction with the alternative 
conjunctions which besets the path of many 
writers as well as that of Miss Corelli. 
"Neither the height of tragedy," we find, 
"nor comedy in the woman on the stage 
really satisfy men so much as the happy 
medium." The difficulty with " as good and 
even better than " is illustrated on p. 7. On 
that page also (to refer to orthography as 
well as syntax) appears the commercial form 
" monied," which one regrets to find creeping 
into literature. Another objectionable spell- 
ing is on p. 14, in the author's reference to 
woman's attitude to man. "It is not by 
opposing herself to man," she says, " that she 
can be nis real helpmeet." "Helpmate" is 
intelligible, but "helpmeet" is absurd. It 
is because of the great popularity of Miss 
Corelli's books that it seems necessary to 
draw attention to these flaws of her style. 


COUSIN. We are often met with perplexing 
designations of relationship ; nepos, for in- 
stance, is admitted to be quite indefinite. 
But " cousin " ; well, Dugdale writes of a 
Willoughby who left "Elizabeth, Ann, and 
Blanch," his cousins and next heirs. These 
ladies, however, were his granddaughters, 
being the children of his predeceased son 
Edward Willoughby, the eldest of whom 
married a Greville and founded an important 
family. . A. H. 

CRISPE. The enclosed cutting from the 
Standard of 20 June seems worthy of being 
preserved in ' N. & Q.' : 

"A large congregation assembled at St. Paul's 
hurch, Hammersmith, on Saturday afternoon, to 
take part in the ceremony attending the reinterment 
of the body of Sir Nicholas Crispe, which had pre- 
viously been buried in the church of St. Mildred's, 
Bread Street, in the City of London. The famous 
inight was remarkable for having been one of the 
principal movers in the restoration of the Stuart 
:a.mily, and on his death in 1665, in accordance with 



[9 th S. II. AUG. 6, '98. 

his will, he directed that his executors should 
' cause my heart to be imbalmed and to be put into 
a small vrne made of the hardest stone and Hastened 
in it placed vpon a Pillor of the best and hardest 
black marble to be sett vp in Hammersmith 
Chappell neare my Pew the place I soe dearly loved 
and I appoint my body to be put into a leaden 
coffin and laid in a vault in St. Mildred's Church 
in Bread Strete in London that I made for m 
Parentes and Posterity which Leaden Coffin 
appoint to be put into a Stone Coffin to be covered 
with a stone.' The heart of Sir Nicholas, in an urn, 
stood for many years in the old church of St. Paul's, 
near to a bust which he had caused to be erected to 
the memory of his old master Charles 1., and was 
afterwards removed to the present edifice. A short 
time ago, when Messrs. Dove Brothers, builders, 
were removing the human remains from the church 
of St. Mildred's, Bread Street, they came upon the 
coffin of Sir Nicholas Crispe, in an excellent state of 
preservation, and, on the application of Mr. Gery 
Milner - Gibson - Cullum, of Hardwick, Bury St. 
Edmunds, whose ancestor, Sir Thomas Cullum, 
married Mary Crispe, first cousin to Sir Nicholas 
Crispe, a faculty was issued for the removal of the 
coffin to Hammersmith for reinterment, so that 
both ' heart and body ' might rest in the same place. 
The body was conveyed from St. Mildred s on 
Saturday morning, and deposited in a tomb which 
had been prepared for it against the outer walls of 
the east end of the church. At the top of the tomb 
a, black marble slab, which had covered the coffin in 
St. Mildred's Church, has been inserted in the wall, 
bearing the original inscription and coat of arms of 
the deceased : ' Here lyeth ye body of Sir Nicholas 
Crisp Ktt and Baronet one of ye Farmers of His 
Magestees Cvstomes who departed this life ye 27 of 
Febrvary 1665. Aged 67 years.' The service attend- 
ing the reinterment was opened by the singing of the 
261st Hymn, followed by prayers and the fifteenth 
Psalm, after which the Rev. John H. Snowden, the 
vicar, delivered a short address, setting forth how 
Sir Nicholas Crispe was one of the original peti- 
tioners for the founding of the old church of St. 
Paul's, Hammersmith, as the church at Fulham was 
too remote ; and how he gave the bricks for the 
building and contributed to the endowment. It 
was said Fairfax watered his horses in this old 
edifice. Sir Nicholas in his lifetime was one of the 
prime movers in the restoration of the Stuart 
dynasty, and placed both his money, to the extent 
of 100, OOW., and his estate at the service of the 
King. When the body had to be renioved from St. 
Mildred's, it was thought that it might well be re- 
interred in Hammersmith, where he had resided 
and worshipped. He had lived in troublous times, 
and in all his chequered fortunes he had comported 
himself nobly and well. A procession to the grave 
was then formed, led by a surpliced choir, and 
further hymns and prayer followed by the side 
of the tomb, where the coffin lay exposed to view. 
A scarlet, heart-shaped mass of flowers rested on 
the coffin, sent from St. Mildred's Church, and a 
wreath of oak leaves and mignonette was deposited 
at the top of the tomb from Mr. Milner-Gibson- 
Cullum. Mr. Thomas Edward Crispe, barrister, of 
the Middle Temple, a descendant of the deceased 
Knight, then delivered an address, and said he was 
worthy of the honour they had done his remains. Sir 
Nicholas was born in Bread Street, and as Milton 
was born in the same street about the same period, 
they might h.av been known to each other, The 

deceased Knight was one of the pioneers of English 
colonial exploration. The service closed with the 
Benediction. The tomb was afterwards closed by 
a large slab being placed on the top of it. The 
St. Paul's Guild of Ringers, in the course of the 
proceedings, rang a peal on the bells, some of which 
were given by Sir Nicholas Crispe." 


Cuddington Vicarage, Surrey. 

A CHILD'S EPITAPH. There is a small 
brass on the north wall of Mortlake parish 
church inscribed as follows : 

In obitum Do. Abigail 
Rashleygh 5 ann 
defunct' xx die 

lulij 1616 

For yeares A childe, for 

Sparkles of Gods grace 

A lewell rich, intoomb'de 

Lies in this place. 
Her ashes (onelie) here ; all .ell's 

Is gone to rest. 

God takes them youngest, who' 
He lovetn best. 



Nugent's translation of Father Isla's 'History 
of Friar Gerund de Campazas,' published in 
1772, we are informed that there is a popular 
idea in Spain that certain persons called 
Zahoris are "born with the faculty of seeing 
clearly anything which is covered, even 
though it should be under the earth, so that 
it be not covered with a blue cloth " (vol. i. 
p. 365). K. P. D. E. 

After having undergone many vicissitudes 
this once famous hotel has succumbed to the 
hand of Time, having been condemned as a 
dangerous structure and pulled down. The 
hotel, which was situated on the east side of 
St. Martin's Street, Leicester Square, at the 
corner of Orange Street, was a noted resort 
of literary men, actors, and musicians about 
fifty years ago, and was celebrated for its 
cleanliness and cheapness. Among its 
habitues were Tennyson and Albert Smith, 
the latter of whom alludes to it in a parody 
on "She wo re a wreath of roses," beginning: 

He dined at Bertolini's 

The night that first we met, 
A single pint of port there was 

Upon the table set ; 
His dinner had the lightness, 

And his voice the humble tone, 
Of one to whom a shilling 

Was not intimately known. 

Mr. Austin Dobson, in an article in the 
Sketch for 22 June, entitled 'A House with 
a History,' confounds Bertolini's with the 

9* S. II. AUG. 6, ' 



house No. 35, St. Martin's Street, adjoining 
Orange Street Chapel, where Newton lived 
from 1710 to 1727, and which was afterwards 
the home of Madame D'Arblay, where she 
wrote her novel ' Evelina.' 

Mr. Wheatley, who is generally quick to 
mention every building of interest in a street, 
does not notice Bertolini's in his description 
Of St. Martin's Street ('London Past and 
Present,' ii. 489). JOHN HEBB. 

WH must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be addressed to 
them direct. 

ODIN. An article in the Pall Mall Gazette 
of 22 July, under the title of 'Blue Blood,' 
appears to imply that our royal family, pos- 
sessing a descent from Cedric the Saxon, 
descend from Odin. The great number of 
persons in this country and in the United 
States who are descendants of Cedric the 
Saxon will be interested to learn of what is, 
I believe, a divine origin. But will some one 
enlighten my ignorance by explaining how it 
came that Cedric himself was sprung from 
Odin? W. 

LAWS CONCERNING NAMES. 1 am at present 
engaged upon certain literary work in con- 
nexion with which I am anxious to obtain 
the fullest possible details of the law in any 
way concerning names, Christian and sur- 
name, and changes of name. As it is of some 
importance to me to obtain particulars of 
everything bearing upon the point, I should 
esteem it a very great favour if any of your 
readers would call my attention to any 
specific Act of Parliament of any date, or 
leading or contested cases, having relation to 
the matter, of which they may be aware. 

Hastings House, Norfolk Street, Strand. 

CAROLS. (See 2 nd S. x. 386.) The following 
lines are quoted as taken from Wright's 
'Collection of Old Christmas Carols' (no 
reference is given) : 

As said the prophet Abacuc, 

Betwixt too bestes shulde lye our buk, 

That mankind shuld redeme ; 
The oxe, &c The asse, &c. 

I have looked through the two different 
collections of Christmas carols published by 
that antiquary, T. Wright, F.S.A., viz., those 
published for the Warton Club and Percy 
Society, but can find no reference to Habak- 

kuk, I am aware that the non-canonical idea 
that the ox and the asa were present at the 
Nativity is derived from anante-Hieronymian 
Latin translation of the LXX. of Hab> iii. 2, 
as explained at p. 456 of the same Volume of 
' N. & Q.' What I want is the reference to 
Habakkuk in Wright's ' Collection of Christmas 
Carols,' or in any early Christmas carol. Buk 
here must mean "body." What does the 
passage mean ? P. 

that it was customary with the Irish peasants, 
even in our century (before the great famine 
and the ensuing emigration), to have sweat- 
ing-pits for medical purposes. Where is 
rename and circumstantial information on 
this subject to be found ? And was the same 
primitive way of healing used in Gaelic Scot- 
land, in Man, in Wales, or in any other part 
of the United Kingdom 1 H. GAIDOZ. 

22, Rue Servandoni, Paris. 

any one inform me as to the parentage of 
Chief Justice Kelly of Jamaica, whose 
daughter Elizabeth married in 1752 Peter, 
second Earl of Altamont ? To what branch of 
the Kelly family did the Chief Justice belong ? 
I want the name of his wife also, and her 
parentage, if possible. KATHLEEN WARD. 

Castle Ward, Downpatrick. 

That the work commonly ascribed to Bunyan 
is not an original performance in the strict 
sense of the word, out is in the nature of an 
adaptation of much earlier kindred works on 
the " Pilgrimage of the Soul," is, I think, a 
generally accepted theory ; but some years 
ago, when Bunyan's life and works were 
rather to the fore, I remember meeting with 
a communication in which the writer stated 
that he was preparing an essay proving that 
Bunyan never wrote 'The Pilgrim's Pro- 
gress,' and assigning it (I speak from memory) 
to some eminent Puritan divine. A strong 
point was made of Bunyan's illiteracy and 
also of the striking dissimilarity in style 
between the 'Progress' and its sequel 'Chris- 
tiana and her Children,' and reasons were 
given why the work should have appeared as 
Bunyan's. The writer, I recollect, went on to 
say that he had been for many years engaged 
in collecting material for this, and he hoped 
in the course of a few months to issue the 
result of his labours in book or pamphlet 
form. I kept this note for some time, but 
cannot now trace it. 

I do not find any mention of doubt as to 
the authorship of the work in question 



[9 th S. II. AUG. 6, 'i 

among the recent biographies of Bunyan, 
although perhaps this is scarcely a matter for 
surprise, as biographers are prone to take a 
very favourable view of their subject's life and 
compositions. I am anxious to learn what has 
become of the "collections" above referred 
to, assuming the proposed work never saw 
the light (and a vigilant search has failed 
to reveal its existence), and to ascertain if any 
other Bunyan student has ever dealt with 
this vexed question. In an age when so 
much is made of the Bacon-Shakespeare con- 
troversy it seems worth while to set at rest 
any doubts as to the real authorship of 
almost as widely read a work as that of 
Shakespeare. W. B. GERISH. 

Hoddesdon, Herts. 

BIRCH. Can any genealogical reader of 
'N. & Q.' kindly give me information 
respecting the ancestors or descendants of 
the late Richard Birch, alias Richard Ormond 
Birch, a solicitor, who was born in Maryle- 
bone, and practised (about fifty years ago) in 
New Bridge Street, Blackfriars, and else- 
where in London ? The deceased is described 
as Richard Birch in certificates Of baptism, 
marriage, and death, and as Richard Ormond 
Birch in certificate of burial. 


15, Eckington Road, Stamford Hill, N. 

"appreciation" of Mrs. Norton, written by 
Mrs. Alexander for 'Women Novelists of 
Queen Victoria's Reign ' it is remarked 
(p. 289) : 

" It is a curious instance of the change of fashion 
and the transient nature of popular memory that 
great difficulty is experienced in obtaining copies of 
Mrs. Norton's works, especially of her poems. 'The 
Undying One,' 'The Dream,' and one or two smaller 
pieces are found only in the British Museum 

Is this a fact ? If it be so, I ought to re- 
gard with other eyes than hitherto a highly 
respectable copy of ' The Dream, and other 
Poems,' second edition, 1841, which has its 
place among my books. ST. SWITHIN. 

CHINA. In Emerson's essay on 'Greatness 1 
in 'Letters and Social Aims' the following 
passage occurs : 

"There is so much to be done that we ought to 
begin quickly to bestir ourselves. This day-labour 
of ours, \ve confess, has hitherto a certain emble- 
matic air, like the annual ploughing and sowing of 
the Emperor of China." 

I have a print designed by C. Fisen and 
engraved by D. Nee in 1773 of the emperor, 
who is guiding a plough behind two oxen, 

surrounded by wondering worshippers and 
many members of his court, a pagoda and 
pavilion in the background. An attendant 
with an ox-goad is beating the oxen on the 
right of the emperor. I should like to know 
more about this annual festival, what signifi- 
cance it had, and whether the emperor still 
humbles himself in this manner at the present 

WILD FOREST BULLS. Were the wild bulls 
we read about in the early days of our history 
black, red, or white? I find it generally 
assumed that they were white ; was it so ? 
I shall be glad of references which distinctly 
refer to the colour of the Bos silvestris. 


SHIP. A copy of Hpussaie's 'History of the 
Government of Venice,' 1677, which recently 
came into my possession, once belonged to 
Robert Harley. In addition to his name and 
arms stamped on the outside of each cover 
and his fine book-plate within, it bears, in 
gold letters on the back of the title-page, 
what I assume to be a facsimile of his 
signature, " Ro : Harley." Was this last mark 
of ownership usual in his day ? Any early 
instances would oblige. CHAS. GILLMAN. 

Church Fields, Salisbury. 

PERIOD. Is there any treatise handling this 
topic intelligently? It is sufficiently plain 
that, even in the Augustan age, comparatively 
few persons spoke the pure Latin of Horace 
and Cicero. It would seem, for example, that 
caballus was the popular word for equus ; 
and that it proved stronger in the long run is 
demonstrated by Fr. cheval, Sp. caballo, &c. 
I am aware that caballus is used once or 
twice by Horace, as in the well-known line : 

Optat ephippia bos ; piger optat errare caballus, 
but the word was Low Latin for all that. 
Was there not a corresponding use of testa 
for captit ? Du Cange quotes Ausonius : 

Abjecta in triviis inhumati glabra jacebat 
Testa hominis, nudum jam cute calvitium. 

It would be interesting to trace this meaning 
to an earlier date. I have a suspicion that 
rostrum was applied to a man's nose as well 
as to the beak of a bird, and that it camo to 
be applied to the face as a whole. How 
otherwise did rostro in Spanish come to mean 
the countenance? See the Sp. New Test., 

Portland, Oregon. 

MARRIAGES, AND DEATHS. At the sitting of 

9 th S. II. AUG. 6, '98.] 



the Consistory Court of London on 25 March 
1897, Dr. Tristram, the Chancellor of th 
Diocese of London, in his judgment ( 
26 idem), stated that the register (1620 to 1650 
of the births, marriages, and deaths of th 
persons who, in 1620, founded the colony o 
New England, in North America, whicl 
is contained in the log of the Mayflower 
"is in its character an authentic registe 
of marriages, births, and deaths of person: 
resident in a territory which formed part o 
the possessions of Great Britain at thos 
dates, and which was by custom then within 
the diocese of London," and that "the custody 
of it belonged to that court." He further 
stated that " up to the time of the declaration 
of the Independence of the States of America 
[4 July, 1776], New England was for ecclesi 
astical purposes in the diocese of London," anc 
that "it has been the practice to transmit from 
the colonies and from foreign parts certificates 
of the births, marriages, and deaths of British 
subjects to the Bishop of London's registry 
for safe custody and reference in this country, 
the bishop's registry being the only public 
registry for the custody of such documents 
within the diocese." I presume therefrom 
that all the British colonies from the dates of 
their foundation or acquisition had similarly 
to send certificates to the Bishop of London s 
registry. If so, are there any of these certi- 
ficates now extant ; is there any printed list 
of the colonies, &c., showing the first and last 
dates of the certificates appertaining to each 
colony, kc. ; and where are the certificates 
themselves? Are they at the registry, or at 
Fulham Palace, or where ? Are they separate 
and distinct from any similar records (but of 
much later dates) now in charge of the Re- 
gistrar-General at Somerset House? Also, 
have the certificates appertaining to New 
England from 1620 to 1776 been returned to 
America, or are they still in London ? 

29, Emperor's Gate, S.W. 

Morning,' IV. vii. (p. 356 of Knebworth 
edition), Lord Lytton, describing his un- 
scrupulous aristocrat Lord Lilburne, makes 
an illustrative reference in these terms : 

" He had been in early life a successful gambler, 
and some suspicions of his fair play had been noised 
abroad ; but, as has been recently seen in the in- 
stance of a man of rank equal to Lilburne's, though 
perhaps of less acute if more cultivated intellect, 
it is long before the pigeon will turn round upon a 
falcon of breed and mettle." 

What case of half a century ago is alluded 
to in this reference ? THOMAS BAYNE. 

Helensburgh, N.B. 


(9 th S. ii. 7.) 

THIS famous old round is well worth a note 
in 'N. & Q.' It is unique in many ways, 
though few musical historians out of Eng- 
land give any first-hand particulars about it. 
There is in the Bodleian MSS. a hymn to St. 
Augustine, the last lines of which are set to 
music without notation in two parts. It 
is believed to have been written in Cornwall 
during the tenth century, and is thus an even 
more astonishing example of early polyphonic 
writing. A version will be found in the 
Musical Times for August, 1895. But our 
rota is also unique in its more extended form. 
It is a six-part canon, four in one, built on a 
or ground bass, for two parts ; and in 

th of these respects it is absolutely the 
earliest example known. Equally remark- 
able are the freedom and sweetness of its 
melody, and the thoroughly heal thy, .English 
character of the whole. Sir F. Ouseley sums 
it up thus : 

" Unquestionably the oldest piece of polyphonic 
and canonical composition known to be in existence. 

The character of the melody is sweet and 

mstoral, and well adapted to the words. It must 

>e regarded as the only piece in six real parts 

mown to exist before the fifteenth century ; it is 

airly free from errors of harmony ; it is a strict 

canon, and the earliest canon known ; it also 

offers the earliest example of a basso ostinato, 

r ground bass. On every account, then, it deserves 

o be considered as the most remarkable ancient 

musical composition in existence." 

This written apparently before the Bod- 
eian MS. hymn was brought to notice 
.ppears as a postscript, and most important 
jart, in the elaborate account of ' Early 
hristian Hymnology ' in Naumann's ' His- 
ory of Music ' (vol. i.) ; and its meaning is 
\pril and May to England. It proves, to 
luote a later critic, " that as regards music 
England was, roughly speaking, generally 
bout a century in advance of other nations." 
With all its faults," says Chappell, '"Sumer 
s icumen in ' is incomparably in advance of 
ny music of the thirteenth century that the 
ontinent of Europe had produced." That 
MS. should be unmentioned in any book 
purporting to be a history of music is scarcely 
credible. It was first described by Wanley 
in his 'Catalogue of the Harleian MSS.' 
(1709). Hawkins gave a copy of the Guida, 
and added a solution of the canon in its six 
parts, referring it to the fifteenth century. 
Burney put the date back a hundred years, 
and effected some corrections in the pes, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. or* s. n. AUG. e, t 

which was incorrectly given by Hawkins. 
In both particulars he was followed, to a fault, 
by Busby, The dates of Hawkins and Burney, 
however, are worthless. In 1862 Sir F. 
Madden noted on the fly-leaf of the MS. 
(No. 978 of the Harleian Collection in the 
British Museum) that the portion containing 
the rota was written about the year 1240. But 
it was Chappell who first assigned the MS. to 
its author, and his authority has not been 
questioned. He says that it was written not 
later than 1236, probably in 1226, by a monk, 
John of Fornsete, at the abbey of Reading. 
In his ' Popular Music ' he gives a copy in the 
original colours, of which copy Mr. Crowest 
remarks that the stave lines should be red, 
not black. It may be added that Chappell is 
apparently the author of the arrangement of 
the canon as a song in Macfarren's ' Old Eng- 
lish Ditties ' (vol. i.). The reasons which 
assign the rota to the Reading monk are built 
not on the music and notation only, but on 
some punning allusions in another portion of 
the MS. Additional remarks are adaed by Mr. 
Rockstro in the 'Dictionary' of Sir George 
Grove, by Mr. Crowest in his 'Story of 
British Music,' by Sir F. Ouseley, and others. 
Each of the three named has added a solution 
of the canon. The melody is probably of 
unknown antiquity, and the words form a 
Northumbrian round in praise of the cuckoo. 
The notation is similar to that employed by 
Walter Odington, whose remarkable work 
' De Speculatione Musicse,' written in the 
thirteenth century, and fiercely and rather 
foolishly disputed by some continental writers 
in the nineteenth, is in the Library of Corpus 
Christi, Cambridge. 

The one difficulty lies in the making of the 
canon ; for, whereas some bars would have 
been rigorously condemned as bad in the 
thirteenth century, they would have been 
fully accepted in the fifteenth. It was pro- 
bably this fact that decided the date given 
by Hawkins. Mr. Rockstro, in Grove's 'Dic- 
tionary,' bridges these apparent contradic- 
tions. The freedom of the whole composition 
makes it easy to, accept his suggestion that the 
monk of Reading was more intent on making 
his joyful canon and adding its ground bass, 
for his own pleasure and that of the "quatuor 
socii " who shared it, than on any points of 
strict accuracy as then understood. 

A Latin hymn is written beneath the Eng- 
lish words. This for use, probably, when the 
superiors were about was after the fashion 
of an early archbishop (Thomas of York), 
who liked the secular tunes, and wrote re- 
ligious versions of the words to make the 
tunes seemly for the clergy. 

An old (French?) proverb epitomized the 
singing of the leading countries of Europe : 
"Galli cantant, Angli jubilant, Hispani 
plangunt, Germani ululant, Itali caprizant." 
This is funny, and rather comforting ; in view 
of the Reading rota it is pleasant to think 
that it might also have been true. 


Sefton Park, Liverpool. 

The original MS. is in a volume from Read- 
ing Abbey, now Harleian MS. 978. It is in 
the handwriting of Johannes de Fornsete, 
who kept the cartulary, now Cotton MS. 
Vespasian e V. Whether the music of this 
famous piece is all in his writing is a point 
which has been much debated. The directions 
for singing the tune as a four-voiced canon, 
and the bass, are placed separately, and might 
have been added later ; but they seem 
all in the same handwriting. No piece of 
music has caused so much discussion as this 
has, and will probably long continue to do. 
Its date is about 1226 ; Johannes de Fornsete 
apparently died on St. Wulstan's Day, 1239. 
The composition has been more than once 
ascribed to Walter Odington (Walter of 
Evesham). This theory is impossible, as Oding- 
ton lived in the fourteenth century, and was 
at Merton College about 1330. The mistake 
arose strangely. In Naumann's ' Illustrated 
History of Music' (a very poor book and 
quite untrustworthy) there is a reference to 
the discovery of "Sumer is icumen in," which 
Naumann wrongly supposed was first brought 
to light by Hawkins. Two paragraphs pre- 
viously Naumann had spoken of Odington ; 
and this has been enough to connect Od ing- 
ton's name with the piece. Nagel, Adler, 
and Klanwell have all discussed "Sumer is 
icumen in " at great length. H. DAVEY. 

TOBACCO IN ENGLAND (9 th S. ii. 86). The 
Customs rules were altered a few years ago 
for the express purpose of allowing tobacco 
to be grown in England. D. 

' THREE JOVIAL HUNTSMEN ' (9 th S. ii. 88). 
Caldecott never wrote his words, but always 
took existing ballads. He was not always 
sufficiently careful in the selection of his 
version, as witness his ' Four-and-twenty 
Blackbirds.' T. J. H. 

COINS (9 th S. i. 268, 394). I have been care- 
fully comparing the five Irish farthings of 
Charles I. in my possession, all of which are 
in good condition. Of these three are round 
and two oval in shape, while all have been 
struck from different dies, as may be gathered 
from the following varying descriptions. I 

9 th S. II. AUG. 6, '98.] 



may add that the present value of these is 

1. Round. Obverse, inscription, between 
two circles of small dots : small fleur-de-lis, 
CAROL vs ' D : G : MAO . BRIT ' in centre, crown 
and two sceptres in saltire. Reverse, a crown, 
FRAN ET HIB REX, a fleur-de-lis, within an 
outer circle of dots, and also an inner circle, 
except where the crown is ; a harp in centre. 

2. Round. Obverse, the same. Reverse, 
the same except points in the inscription 

3. Round. Obverse, inscription, small 
fleur-de-lis, CARO : D : G : MAG : BRI within 
outer circle of dots, in centre crown and two 
sceptres. Reverse, a crown, FRA : ET HIB : REX 
within an outer circle of dots, a harp in 

4. Oval. Obverse, inscription, CARO : D . G . 
MAG : BRI (and query a T or fleur-de-lis 1) 
within an outer oval of dots, in centre crown 
and two sceptres in saltire. Reverse, a crown. 
FRA : ET ' HIB : REX ' within an outer oval of 
dots, a harp in centre. 

5. This coin differs entirely, being oval, 
while both the inscriptions begin, not at the 
top, but from the base on the left, running 
round to the right. Obverse, inscription, 
CARO : D ' G ' MAG : BRI within an outer oval of 
dots, in the centre crown and two sceptres in 
saltire, the handles of which come down and 
divide the inscription, while between them is 
the figure 5, which is necessarily upside down 
as running with the inscription. Reverse, 
FRA : ET HIB : REX * within an outer oval of 
dots, in centre crown and harp, the latter 
coming down and separating the inscription. 

Since writing the above I have found 
another of these farthings among my collec- 
tion, in better condition. It is similar to 
No. 3, but bears a rose (mint-mark) instead 
of a fleur-de-lis, and has oeen struck from a 
different die, the crown on the obverse being 
larger, while the harp on the reverse is of 
different design. WALTER CROUCH. 

Wanstead, Essex. 

PORT ARTHUR (9 th S. i. 367, 398, 437 ; ii. 78). 
Capt. Arthur was a real person. His por- 
trait has lately been inserted in one of the 
magazines in this country in connexion with 
an account of the survey of the Gulf of 
Pechili. Arthur, of course, was his surname, 
not his Christian name ; and there is no con- 
nexion between the Duke of Wellington and 
the new Russian port. D. 

SIR THOMAS LYNCH (9 th S. i. 7). In Blome's 
'History of Jamaica,' 1671, is a shield with 
the arms of " S r Thomas Lynch, Knight, pre- 
sent Governour of y e Isle" : Quarterly, 1 and 4, 

three lynxes rampant : 2 and 3, on a bend 
three covered cups. As the last-mentioned 
coat is manifestly that of Rixton of Rixton 
Hall, in Great Sankey, Lancashire,- one may 
reasonably suggest that his mother was an 
heiress of that ancient family, whose pedi- 
gree was duly recorded at' the Heralds' 

The following entry probably relates to 
him : 

"1654, Dec. 12. Thomas Lynch, eldest son of 
Theophilus L. of Great Sankey, cp. Lancaster, 
gent. Foster's ' Gray's Inn Admission Register, 
p. 269. 

MR. HUSSEY having misquoted from the 
' D.N.B.,' and, if he will pardon my saying so, 
created errors and confusion where none 
existed, I will briefly allude to Sir Thomas 
Lynch's two marriages, which are correctly 
given in that valuable publication. 

" 1670, Dec. 8. Sir Thomas Lynch, Knight, of 
Great Sankey, co. Lancaster, Bacn r , about 36, and 
Veere Herbert, Sp r , about 23, dau. of Dame [blank] 
Herbert, of Weybridge, co. Surrey, Widow, who 
consents ; at S' Botolph, Aldersgate, or S' Foster's, 
London." 'Mar. Lie. Faculty Office,' Harl. Soc. 
pub., p. 116. 

This lady, after whom was named, I believe, 
Vere parish in Jamaica, was a daughter of 
Sir Edward (George in 'D.N.B.') Herbert. 
Attorney - General temp. Car. L, who died 
1657, by Margaret his wife (her will proved 
1678, 44 Reeve), and sister of Arthur Herbert, 
created in 1689 Earl of Torrington. Her son 
Charles, born at Jamaica in October, 1671 
('Colonial Calendar, America and West 
Indies,' p. 277), died young, and Philadelphia 
was apparently her only other child. 

Lady Lynch was buried at Esher, 30 Sept., 
1682, together with her son Charles (Manning 
and Bray's 'Surrey,' ii. 754). Sir Thomas 
shortly afterwards married Mary, daughter 
and coheiress of Thomas Temple, of Frank- 
ton, co. Warwick, Esquire (Le Neve's 
'Knights,' Harl. Soc. pub., p. 243). Her 
sister Anne had married Sir Charles Lyttel- 
ton, Knt., later third Baronet, who had 
served in 1662-4 as President of the Council 
of Jamaica. 

" 1666, May 23. Sir Charles Lyttelton, K, of S' 
Martin's in Fields, Wid r , about 36, and M Anne 
Temple, of same, Sp r , about 17 ; consent of father, 
[blank] Temple, Esq. ; at S' Margaret's, Westmin- 
ster." ' Mar. Lie. Vic. -Gen. of Abp. of Cant.,' Harl. 
Soc. pub., p. 117. 

Dame Mary Lynch, after her husband's 
death at Jamaica, c. 1684-5, remarried, 12 
Feb., 1689, at St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, Col. 
Hender Molesworth, later a barOnet, who had 
been Lieutenant-Governor of Jamaica in 1684, 
and her will was proved 1721, 134 Bucking- 



9 th S. II. AUG. 6, ' 

ham (Vivian's 'Visitations of Cornwall,' i. 

"1688/9, Feb. 11. Render Molesworth, Esq., of 
Westminster, Widower, about 50, and Mary Linch, 
Widow, about 22 ; alleged by Sir Charles Lyttelton, 
K', of Richmond, Surrey ; at S' Martin in the 
Fields, or S' James, Westminster." 'Mar. Lie. 
Faculty Office,' Harl. Soc. pub., p. 192. 

Her daughter Philadelphia was married the 
same year : 

" 1689, Nov. 18. Thomas Cotton, of Combermare, 
co. Chester, Esq., Bach r , about 17, and M rs Philadel- 
phia Linch, of Westminster ; alleged by John Tench, 
of S* Giles in the Fields, Midd., Gent." [This entry 
unfinished.] ' Mar. Lie. Vic.-Gen. of Abp. of Cant.,' 
Harl. Soc. pub., p. 126. 

He succeeded later as second baronet, and 
she inherited all her father's extensive pro- 
perty in Jamaica. For many extracts from 
parish registers and wills and M.I. relating 
to this family of Lynch, see Dr. Howard's 
Misc. Gen. et Her., New Series, iv. 


Sunninghill, Berks. 

PIPES (8 th S. xii. 267). The following, headed 
'An Ancient Water Supply,' from the Surrey 
Comet (Kingston), may be of interest to 
M.B.LoND. : 

"As long ago as the sixteenth century, Coombe 
was noted for its fresh-water springs, and when the 
great Cardinal Wolsey built Hampton Court Palace 
he determined to bring his supply of drinking water 
from Coombe. An elaborate and very successful 
method was employed for collecting the water from 
the various springs on the hill. There were three 
principal conduit houses, which still exist : one on 
the estate of Sir Douglas Fox, which is called from 
this circumstance 'Coombe Springs,' and two others 
on or adjacent to the estate of Mr. Middleton 
Campbell. By means of a number of underground 
carriers or feeders, the water was conveyed from 
the springs to these conduit houses, whence it 
flowed in separate pipes to a point not far from 
Norbiton Station, where a junction was effected. 
From this point the water was taken direct to the 
Palace through a lead pipe 2J inches in diameter, 
which ran, at a depth varying from 3 feet to 6 feet, 
in front of what is now St. Peter's Vicarage, across 
the Cambridge Road, and in a straight line to the 
Fail-field, which it crossed, proceeding thence 
through Knight's Park, beneath the Hogg's Mill 
stream, and through Woodbines Park to the river. 
Here a considerable dip was necessary to take thepipe 
under the Thames, after which it was an easy matter 
to lay it through the Home Park to the Palace. 
The water from Coombe formed the sole domestic 
supply for Hampton Court Palace for nearly 350 
years, and was only discarded about 30 years ago. 
There were two circumstances which chiefly influ- 
enced the authorities in abandoning the Coombe 
supply. The increase of building on Kingston Hill 
had the effect of polluting some of the sources 
of the supply, and it was anticipated that, with a 
considerable addition to the number of houses in 
the future, there would be further pollution. 

Another difficulty was that the barges which came 
up to Kingston, when they dropped anchor in the 
Thames, used frequently to grapple and damage the 
lead pipe, which led to the occasional failure of 
the supply. Consequently a new supply of drinking 
water for the Palace was obtained from a branch of 
the river Colne, formerly known as the Cardinal's 
river, but now known as the Queen's river. The 
intake is at Hampton, where the water undergoes 
filtration, and is thence pumped to the Palace. By 
order of the Commissioners of Works, the old lead 
pipes between Coombe and Hampton Court Palace, 
which have been buried ever since the year 1520, 
have recently been taken up. It says much for the 
honest workmanship of . our ancestors that these 
pipes were found to be in perfect condition, and 
very few of them had any trace of wear and tear. 
They included some of enormous length, as much 
as 200 feet being found without a joint. These old 
pipes are of great value, because they were made at 
a time when the method of extracting the silver 
from the lead had not been discovered, and the 
substantial nature of the pipes may be gauged from 
the fact they average about 11 Ib. to the foot lineal. 
Owing to the great development of building on the 
route of the pipes, it has been of course impossible 
to recover the whole length that passes through 
Kingston, as a good deal of it is covered with 
bricks and mortar ; but the undertaking has proved 
a decidedly profitable one for the Commissioners of 
Works, who will be some hundreds of pounds in 
pocket by it. Incidentally, it may be mentioned 
that the old red-brick plug- house, which for so many 
years was an eyesore to people crossing the foot- 
bridge from Grange Road to Denmark Road, has 
now oeen demolished." Surrey Comet, May 7, p. 5, 
col. 4. 

Tower House, New Hampton. 

' THE CAUSIDICADE ' (9 th S. ii. 8). The title 
of the poem is : 

"The Causidicade. A Pane - gyri - Satiri - Serio- 
Comic-Dramatical Poem on the Strange Resignation 
and Stranger Promotion. By Porcupinus Pelagius. 
Fourth Edition. London : Printed for M. Cooper 
in Paternoster Row, 1743. (Price One Shilling.) 

Thirty-four lawyers of the last century 
were quizzed in this amusing satire. Many 
extracts from the poem, and notes thereon, 
will be found in C N. & Q.,' 2 nd S. x. 412, 453, 

71, Brecknock Road. 

"HORSE-MARINE "(9 th S. ii. 26). The quota- 
tion your correspondent gives is such a mere 
fragment that, taken by itself, it is impossible 
to suggest any interpretation that can have 
more value than a mere guess. The following 
anecdote, however, may be worthy of record, 
not as a solvent of the mystery, but as acting 
guidepost-wise by directing the inquirer 
towards the regions in which knowledge 
may possibly lie concealed. 

A legal friend of mine who knows our 
Lincolnshire dialect well, and speaks it, as 
the old grammars say, " with ease, elegance, 

9 th S. II. AUG. 6, '98.] 



and propriety," to whom I have shown MR. 
WHITWELL'S question, tells me that he once 
heard the phrase "horse-marine" used in 
grave earnest by a person who seemed to him 
quite incapable of making a joke. My friend 
was present some five-and-thirty years ago 
at the Lindsey Quarter Sessions, in those 
days held in this town, when the late Mr. 
Frederick Flowers (afterwards police magis- 
trate at Bow Street) was examining a witness 
who, on being asked what was his business, 
described himself as a horse-marine, much to 
the amusement of those who heard him. 
When asked to explain what he meant, he, 
after the manner of uninstructed people, at 
first only repeated the former statement; but 
in time Mr. Flowers made out that the wit- 
ness meant to indicate that he belonged to 
the class of men who are, I believe, described 
in " book-English " as haulers, whose occupa- 
tion it is to drag barges up and down canals 
by the aid of horses, which are sometimes 
ridden by the hauler, but more commonly 
led by the bridle along what is known as 
the " hauling trod." This particular witness 
was employed on the canal which cuts across 
the Isle of Axholme, communicating with the 
river Trent at Keadby. 

If such a word be known, might not 
inquiries among the lock-keepers on the 
canals of South Yorkshire and the Midland 
Counties produce further information ? 


Dunstan House, Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

MR. WHITWELL would find, on referring to 
the Dress Regulations at the end of the 'Navy 
List,' that though styled infantry, the above 
actually are provided with steeds. 

On p. 585 of a recent 'Navy List' I find 
"Royal Marine Light Infantry," equipped 
with saddles and saddle-cloths, bridles, and 
breastplates ; the " Royal Marine Artillery " 
are also provided with horse furniture for 
service in the field. R. B. 


From the heraldic "torse," or wreath, it 
seems a permissible guess that the meaning 
must be sought within the limits of that 
science, and that it is some " sea-horse " rest- 
ing " on " that. There is a set of the London 
Gazette in the Bodleian, so that the context 
may help to explain. It seems like a gmnt 
of a crest or other armorial bearing. But 
what sort of a "sea-horse" it may be would 
be a guess too much. Fairbairn's 'Book of 
Crests ' may perhaps have it. 


The quotation which MR. WHITWELL gives 
embracing this term reads very curiously. 

In the absence of context, the explanation 
is none too obvious. But horse - marine 
may be said to mean an awkward, lubberly 
person, one who is out of place. "I suppose 
these explanations must be regarded as the 
purely nautical significations, inasmuch as 
they are drawn from Smyth's ' Sailor's Word- 
Book.' Anciently, and to some degree, per- 
haps, even now, the "jollies," as the Royal 
Marines are called, were the butts of " Jack," 
who invariably made fun of the former's lack 
of knowledge in matters pertaining to sea- 
manship. In Farmer and Henley's 'Slang 
and its Analogues' the explanation is "a 
mythical corps very commonly cited in ^jokes, 
and quizzed on the innocent." A horse- 
marine, which is, of course, an impossibility 
(see 'Slang Dictionary'), was used to denote 
one even more awkward than an ordinary 
"jolly"; such a one in the eyes of "Jack" 
must have been awkward indeed. I did not 
know till recently that Scott had exercised 
his humour on the term, but I see from a 
quotation in ' Slang and its Analogues ' that 
he had done so. In ' St. Ronan's Well,' 
chap, xxi., we read : 

"'Come, none of your quizzing, my old buck,' 
said Sir Bingo. 'What the devil has a ship to 
do with horse's furniture? Do you think we belong 
to the horse-marines ?'" 

C. P. HALE. 

Surely here " horse - marine " = marin 
horse, the fabulous animals constituting 
Neptune's team, or more likely the hippo- 
campus, that odd little fish with a head like a 
horse's. H. J. MOULE. 


When I was a lad the men who drove the 
quadrupeds whose painful duty it was to pull 
the "fly-boats" upon the Regent's Canal 
were known as " horse-marines." 


Fair Park, Exeter. 

SHAKSPEARE AND THE SEA (9 th S. i. 504). 
Shakespeare was a landsman, and wrote for 
landsmen. He wrote, moreover, for the 
theatre, and without the aid of scenery. 
"Can this cockpit hold the vasty fields of 
France '] " Still less could he " cram within 
this wooden O" the sea that rages round 
"the still vex'd Bermoothes." These con- 
siderations explain much that seems over- 
charged and extravagant in his descriptions 
of storms at sea ; but it is impossible, if MR. 
YARDLEY'S supposition is correct, that even 
Shakespeare could have brought the very 
breath of the sea into his plays, as he often 
does. Brandes calls special attention, and 
rightly does so, to the magnificent effect of 



the storm in 'Pericles,' where we hear 
"Shakespeare's own voice in unmistakable 
and royal power," He describes the sailors' 
conversation in III. ii. as "masterly" and 
"full of the raging storm," and adds : 

" There is so mighty a breath of storm and raging 
seas, such rolling of thunder and flashing of light- 
ning in these scenes, that nothing in English poetry, 
not excepting Shakespeare's ' Tempest ' itself, nor 
Byron's and Shelley's descriptions of nature, can 
surpass it. The storm blows and howls, hisses and 
Rcreams, till the sound of the boatswain's whistle is 
lost in the raging of the elements. These scenes are 
famous and beloved among that seafaring folk for 
whom they were written, and who knew the subject- 
matter so well." 'William Shakespeare,' chap. xv. 

To this emphatic testimony may be added 
a reference to two minute descriptive touches 
evidently due to Shakespeare's personal 
observation : 

Yond tall anchoring bark 
Diminish'd to her cock, her cock a buoy 
Almost too small for sight. The murmuring surge, 
That on the unnumberd idle pebbles chafes, 
Cannot be heard so high. ' King Lear,' IV. 6. 

Horns whelk'd and waved like the enridged sea. 


Can we believe that he who wrote thus 
never saw the sea ? I say again, Impossible. 

C. C. B. 

The following passage is not so bad as 
those passages which I have quoted, but I 
think that Shakspeare may have written it 
without having seen the sea : 

Behold the threaden sails, 
Borne with the invisible and creeping wind, 
Draw the huge bottoms through the furrowed sea, 
Breasting the lofty surge : O, do but think 
You stand upon the rivage, and behold 
A city on the inconstant billows dancing : 
For so appears this fleet majestical. 

'Henry V.' 

The following, too, is natural but the 
scene may have been described without 
having been seen : 

The dreadful summit of the cliff, 
That beetles o'er his base into the sea. 

* * * * 

The very place puts toys of desperation, 
Without more motive, into every brain 
That looks so many fathoms to the sea, 
And hears it roar beneath. ' Hamlet.' 

Nor do I see in Edgar's speech in ' King 
Lear' anything which shows actual know- 
ledge of the sea. I admit that Shakspeare 
has a natural description of the sea-shore : 
Timon hath made his everlasting mansion 
Upon the beached verge of the salt flood ; 
Which once a day with his embossed froth 
The turbulent surge shall cover. 

' Timon of Athens.' 

Of course Shakspeare could not have seen 
the sea-shore if he did not see the sea. But 

he hag described one more successfully than 
the other. Very different are Homer's de- 
scriptions of the sea from those of Shak- 
speare. Hermes flew to deliver a message to 
Calypso : 

(Tfva.T iirfiT eVi KU/>ta, Xdpii) 8pviOi e 
OSTC /caret Seivovs K^ATTOV? Aos aTpv 
i\6v<i ay/owoVwv, irVKtvd. ifTfpa. Several aX.fjLjJ. 
' Odyssey,' Book V. 11. 51-53. 

Homer must have seen the gulls flying 
over the waves before he wrote these lines. 

Cowper gives Us a marine picture in some 
striking lines : 

Then forests or the savage rock may please, 
That hides the sea-mew in his hollow clefts 
Ab we the reach of men. His hoary head, 
Conspicuous many a league, the mariner, 
Bound homeward, and in hope already there, 
Greets with three cheers exulting. At his waist 
A girdle of half-withered shrubs he shows, 
And at his feet the baffled billows die. 

' The Task,' Book I. 

The last line must have been written by 
one who had seen the motion of waves at 
the base of a rock. ' E. YARDLEY. 

S. i. 365). Asiatic Journal, October, 1827, 
vol. xxiv., July-December, 1827, pp. 438-41, 
' Marriages in China ': 

" On the day of marriage, relations and friends 
send congratulations and presents, such as tablets, 
geese (the emblems of fidelity), wine, &c., to the 
bridegroom's house ; they stick flowers in his hair 
and decorate him with scarlet, in token of joy. The 
bride's relatives and friends send her pins, bracelets, 
garments, cosmetics, rouge, &c. All her young 
female friends come and \veep with her night and 
day, till she enters the ornamented chair sent by 
the bridegroom's friends. The latter form a pro- 
cession, with lanterns, music, a pavilion, the 
figure of a goose in wood or tin, &c. The young 
man and his juvenile friends accompany the pro- 
cession to the bride's house, and bring her home. 
When she arrives at the gate, the music strikes up, 
and the kea-po, or pronubce, take the bride on their 
shoulders, and carry her over 'the dish of fire,' 
which is placed inside the door, to the 'bride's 
chamber.' The bride then accompanies the kea-po, 
bearing areca-nut, to the hall ; she requests the 
guests to partake of it, and after ' worshipping the 
goose' with the bridegroom, she re tires again to her 

"The facts and authorities in this article are 
taken from various notices interspersed in the 
valuable dictionary of Dr. Morrison. 

"Wild geese have in every age been an emblem 
of conjugal fidelity in China. Thus in the ' She king,' 
one of the Chinese classics : ' The wild geese cackle 
in response ; day breaks and morning commences ; 
the bridegroom has gone to bring home his wife ere 
approaching spring shall have melted the ice.' " 
P. 440. 

Traces of the heliophallic significance of 
the goose remain to us Western folk in the 

9 th S. II. AUG. 6, '98.] 



eating him at Michaelmas and at Christmas, 
and in popular phrases. 


(9 th S. i. 366, 512). Among such skits I think 
a place is due to William Barnes's clever 
tetraglot epigram : 

Se 1' uom che deruba un tomo 

Trium literarum est homo,* 

Celui qui derobe trois tomes 

A man of letters must become. 


George Wightwick, a Plymouth architect 
and author, had a printed copy of the follow- 
ing verses inserted in each of the books 
belonging to him : 

To whomsoe'er this book I lend, 

I give one word no more : 
They who to borrow condescend 

Should graciously restore. 
And whosoe'er this book should find 

(Be't trunk-maker or critick), 
I '11 thank him if he '11 bear in mind 

That it is mine George Wightwick. 


Forty years ago the first two verses quoted 
by MR. MURRAY were in frequent use in 
Devonshire, and I have seen them written 
on the fly-leaves of many books under the 
owner's name, but I doubt if they are to be 
found now. The first two lines of the last 
verse in MR. MURRAY'S paragraph are not 
so familiar to me, but I have often seen them 
written as follows : 

Steal not this book for fear of shame, 
For in it is the author's name, &c. 

A. J. DAVY. 



26). I regret that I can throw no light on 
the origin of this name. As MR. PLATT 
observes, the z in the old spelling Loch- 
quhinzeoch represents the consonantal ?/, and, 
he might have added, quh represents wh, as 
in Quhitherne, the old spelling of Whithorn. 
There is a large lake at Lochwinnoch, which 
makes the meaning of the prefix pretty 
obvious, but the perplexing part of the 
problem is the local pronunciation, which is 
"Lochlnoch," with equal stress on the first 
and the last syllables. The presence of a 
railway station has altered the local pro- 
nunciation to correspond with the name as 
printed, and one hears it called Lochwinnoch, 
with the stress on the penultimate ; but one 

* The Romans called a 
letters/, u, r. 

thief a. man of three 

should never disregard the true local pro- 
nunciation of place-names, which is generally 
significant. Lochwinnoch lies in a district 
full of historic interest, namely, the territory 
of the Strathclyde Welshmen. Near the north 
shore of the lake is a solitary boulder known 
as Cloriddrick (cloch Ryddeirch), reputed to 
be the burial-place of the great Christian 
champion of the sixth century, Rydderch 
Hael, who, in A.D. 573, overthrew the pagan 
Gwendolew at the battle of Ardderyd (the 
bellum Armterid of Nennius), now Arthuret. 
a few miles north of Carlisle, and established 
the Christian kingdom of Strathclyde. Gwen- 
dolew's stronghold, probably the earthwork 
now called the Moat of Liddel, has given its 
name to a tributary of the Esk, near Arthuret, 
which is called Carwhinelow (caer Gwen- 

Rev. James B. Johnston, in his 'Place- Names 
of Scotland,' derives Lochwinnoch from St. 
Winnoc or Wynniri St. Vininus an Irish 
saint, who died in 579. The name of the 
same saint is said to appear in Kilwinning, in 
Ayrshire. J. E. 

I find in Crawf urd's ' History of Renfrew- 
shire,' p. 142, "The parish of Lochwinioch 
derives its name from St. Winioch, who was 
the guardian saint of the place, as also of the 



"HOP-PICKER" (9 th S. i. 487; ii. 32). In 
Hadlow Churchyard, near Tonbridge, there 
is a small pyramidal-shaped monument with 
the following inscription : 

" This monument was erected by Public Sub- 
scription in memory of the Thirty Hop-Pickers who 
were drowned at Hartlake Bridge in a flood of the 
river Medway, on the 20th of October, 1853, and 
whose bodies were buried in this churchyard." 

J. H. A. 


On turning back to 9 th S. i. 322 your corre- 
spondents will find that I have already 
mentioned the first engraving of Smith's 
' Hop-pickers,' made by F. Vivares. and pub- 
lishea 1 Aug., 1760. I have sent this to DR. 


W. C. B. 

THE TERMINATION "-HALGH" (9 th S. i. 345~; 
ii. 15). See the articles on hough and hale (2) 
in the 'H.E.D.' The original sense was 
corner, nook, angle, and the like. The 
etymology is ultimately from Teutonic *hal 
(A.-S. heel), second grade of hel-an, to hide, 
the sense of "hidden" leading to that of 
" retired nook." WALTER W. SKEAT. 

ST. WERNER (9 th S. ii. 8). The story is told 
by Mr. Baring-Gould under 19 April, the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. n. AUG. e, '98 

authority for it being " the Acts of the 
Martyrdom, written shortly after the event." 
Werner was a boy of fourteen, whom certain 
Jews of Oberwesel murdered at the Passover 
of 1 287. They concealed the body in a pit, 
but a strange light revealed the spot. Mr. 
Baring-Gould adds, in a note, that there is no 
evidence for the alleged canonization by 
Martin V. in 1430, though a "processus" was 
drawn up. C. S. W. 

In Husenbeth's 'Emblems of Saints,' Dr. 
Jessopp's third edition (1882), we read that 
St. Werner was a peasant boy martyred by 
the Jews, A.D. 1285, and that in some ancient 
representations of him he is shown carrying 
a hod. Oddly, Dr. Owen, in 'Sanctorale 
Catholicum,' does not notice him. 


Fair Park, Exeter. 

This saint is honoured in the Catholic 
Church on the 19th of April. See the ' Acta 
Sanctorum' for this day. In France he is 
usually called St. Vernier. H. GAIDOZ. 

22, Rue Servandoni, Paris. 

For a mention of " the boy Wernher, pricked 
to death with needles, worshipped as a 
martyr at Bacharach, 1432," see Milman's 
' History of the Jews,' iii. 225, 11. 



The festival of this boy saint occurs on 
19 April. See the list of saints in Potthast's 
'Bibliotheca Historica Medii ^Evi.' There 
is not a biography of him in Butler's ' Lives 
of the Saints,' but it is pretty certain that 
MR. HOOPER will find an account of him in 
the ' Acta Sanctorum.' EDWARD PEACOCK. 

FROBISHER FAMILY (9 th S. i. 508). If MR. 
PIGOTT will refer to 6 th S. iii. 311, he will 
find a reply of mine to a query similar to his, 
and giving nearly all the information and 
references he requires about the Frobishers. 
I then wrote, " Hopkinson's pedigree bringing 
them from Chirk, in North Wales, is rather 
improbable,'' and I think so still. (See Harl. 
MS. 4630, f. 190.) There is no necessity to go 
to Wales, for the name occurs in the Poll Tax 
for Yorkshire, 1379, at Stanley, in Wakefield 
parish (Matilda Forbuschour iiij' 1 ), though 
not at Altof ts ; and I added, " Perhaps the 
original furbishour of armour from whom this 
family had its name lived and plied his craft 
in that very town," i.e., Wakefield. Flower's 
'Visitation of Yorkshire,' 1563 containing 
the Frobisher pedigree, but nothing about 
Chirk in it has sim ,/ >en printed by the 
Harleian Society. T *&^-.liest will at York 

is that of Oliver Furbyshour, chaplain, dated 
1455, to be buried in Wakefield Church ; and 
the next that of John " Frobyser " of Altof tes, 
one of the king's coroners for the co. York, 
dated 20 Sept., 1542, proved 20 April, 1543. 


i. 328, 436). I have a reference (mislaid at 
this moment) picked from Chalmers under 
either Brown or Sloan, at any rate from an 
account of some old English-speaking "Irish" 
worthy recorded there wherein the fact is 
incidentally mentioned that Loudoun was an 
" Irishman " whose personality had been the 
main cause of first attracting the mind of the 
ambitious Ulster student to the college at 
Glasgow. C. 

REV. MR. MARRIOT (9 th S. i. 249). The Rev. 
Randolph Marriott was rector of Darfield, 
Yorks (having been presented to the living in 
1732 by the Hon. John Finch), till his death 
in 1782. A monumental tablet to his memory 
is on the wall north of the altar with this 
inscription : 

In Memory of 
Randolph Marriott, D.D., fifty years Rector of this 

who died 6th of May, 1782, aged 82, 

And of Lady Diana his wife 

(daughter of Basil, fifth Earl of Denbigh), 

who died 29th of March, 1758, aged 49. 

Their remains are deposited in a vault 

contiguous to the north side of this wall. 

During a happy marriage of 25 years 

they had fourteen children, 

seven of whom surviving 

joyn in offering this testimony of respect 

to their justly revered parents. 

The Darfield registers will, of course, give 
some particulars of his family, and some 
further information may be gained from 
Burke's ' Royal Families and Royal Descents ' 
(London, 1851), vol. ii. Pedigree XX. I also 
notice that the monument says that the Lady 
Diana was daughter of the fifth earl of 
Denbigh, where MR. MASON, in his query, 
has/owr^A. Dr. Marriott rebuilt the rectory 
of Darfield at, I believe, his own cost. Whether 
the Rev. Mr. Marriot who died in 1732 was 
connected with the rector of Darfield or not I 
cannot say. F. J. LANE. 

Humberstone Vicarage, Grimsby. 

" DEWY-FEATHERED " (9 th S. ii. 7). The 
refreshing effects of dew on slumbering vege- 
tation are manifest, and have been recognized 
from early days. The phenomena are sug- 
gestive of some of the most striking examples 
of Scripture imagery. The Psalmist (e.g., 
Psalm cxxxiii. 3) asserts that the communion 

9 th S. II. AUG. 6, '98.] 



of saints the complete sympathetic co-opera- 
tion of brethren is a potent influence, even 
" as the dew of Hermon, and as the dew thai 
descended upon the mountains of Zion." So 
the conferring of spiritual blessings is as the 
infusion of new life into languid nature by the 
gentle ministration of dew. In Hosea xiv. 5 
this promise of restoration is made to the 
backslider, " I will be as the dew unto Israel : 
lie shall grow as the lily, and cast forth his 
roots as Lebanon." Renewal, refreshing, 
reinvigoration of plant-life are effected by 
the presence of dew, and sleep similarly 
benefits the wearied frame of mortals. The 
similarity of action and result is so readily 
perceived that the figurative application is 
easy and appropriate. Thus one accepts 
without demur "the golden dew of sleep" 
of ' Richard III.,' IV. i. 83 ; nor does Brutus 
give pause when he says ('Julius Caesar,' 
II. i. 230) : 

Boy ! Lucius ! fast asleep ? It is no matter ; 
Enjoy the honey-heavy dew of slumber : 
Thou hast no figures nor no fantasies, 
Which busy care draws in the brains of men ; 
Therefore them sleep'st so sound. 

Milton's "dewy-feathered sleep "is in keep- 
ing with these precedents. 


Helensburgh, N.B. 

Compare Milton's own words in ' Paradise 
Lost,' iv. 614, 

and the timely dew of sleep, 
Now falling with soft slumbrous weight, incline 
Our eyelids, 

and Keble's 

When the soft dews of kindly sleep 
My wearied eyelids gently steep. 

' Christian Year,' ' Evening.' 

See also Shakespeare, ' Richard III.,' IV. i., 
and 'Julius Ctesar,' II. i. 


Sleep is also associated with moisture in 
Keble's lines, 

When the soft dews of kindly sleep 
My wearied eyelids gently steep. 


" Entice the dewy-feathered sleep " appears 
to suggest sleep that falls so lightly that its 
wings are but of dew. I imagine that the 
dewiness of the wings of sleep suggests im- 
perceptible lightness, and not dampness. A 
close examination of metaphor is, however, a 
heartless task. ED. PHILIP BELBEN. 

The dew is of the night, and suggests cool- 
ness and refreshment. So Keble, 

When the soft dews of kindly sleep. 

Milton, however, probably alludes to the 
passage in Virgil ('^Eneid,' v. 854) in which 
the god of sleep is described as shaking over 
the hero's brow a branch drenched in the dew 
of Lethe, and so dissolving his eyes in sleep. 

C. C. B. 

i. 487). In the first book of Kings, iv. 32, we 
are told that Solomon " spake three thousand 
proverbs." In 1819 the Rev. George Holden, 
M.A., issued 'An Attempt towards an Im- 
proved Translation of the Proverbs of Solomon 
from the Original Hebrew, with Notes, Critical 
and Explanatory, and a Preliminary Disser- 
tation.' During 1842 a volume was pub- 
lished entitled 'National Proverbs in the 
Principal Languages of Europe,' by Caroline 
Ward. In 1857 Henry G. Bonn gave in his 
" Antiquarian library " series a ' Handbook 
of Proverbs,' in which 'Ray's Collection of 
English Proverbs' is included. In 1869 there 
appeared ' English .Proverbs and Proverbial 
Phrases, collected from the most authentic 
Sources, alphabetically arranged and anno- 
tated by W. Carew Hazlitt.' Lastly, but by no 
means the least, we have the indexes to the 
eight series of 'N. & Q.,' each containing 
references to about three hundred proverbs 
71, Brecknock Road. 

The most easily obtained works on English 
proverbs are 'English Proverbs and Proverbial 
Phrases,' by W. Carew Hazlitt; 'A Handbook 
of Proverbs,' Routledge, s. a., pp. 192 (Rout- 
ledge) ; Geo. Herbert, ' Outlandish Proverbs ' 
(scarce). I have a rather long list, but most 
of them are not accessible except at public 
libraries such as the British Museum. 


Ashley House, Epsom. 

Perhaps INQUIRER does not know of George 
Herbert s ' Jacula Prudentum,' of which the 
irst edition was, I think, printed in 1 640, and 
an enlarged edition eleven years later. 


The following may be the book INQUIRER 
wants : 'English Proverbs and Proverbial 
Phrases,' collected, &c., and annotated by W. 
arew Hazlitt (London, 1869). The preface 
of twenty-nine pages is worth perusing as it 
contains information on the subject, and gives 
an opinion of the collectors of the past and 
their works. JOHN RADCLIFFE. 

" HARROW " (9 th S. i. 485 ; ii. 32). Since my 
>aper on this subject appeared I have met 
with two persons who have seen farm harrows 
vith wooden teeth. One example was at 
n in Lincolnshire but my informant 



[9 th S. II. AUG. 6, '98. 

says it was regarded as " old lumber." The 
other was at Ran by, in Nottinghamshire ; it 
had been used for harrowing grass land. The 
teeth were set in the " bulls " in a slanting 
direction, and corresponded to Fitzherbevt's 
description of those at Ripon in that they 
stood up high above the frame. 


(9 th S. ii. 67). This line occurs in Whittier's 
poem 'Snow-bound': 

O heart sore-tried ! thou hast the best 
That Heaven itself could give thee rest, 
Rest from all bitter thoughts and things ! 
How many a poor one's blessing went 
With thee beneath the low green tent 
Whose curtain never outward swings ! 


The Brassey Institute, Hastings. 

QUOTATION IN EMERSON (9 th S. ii. 27). 
The Rev. James Wood, in his c Dictionary of 
Quotations,' attributes the following lines to 
Sydney Smith : 

The good of other times let other people state ; 
I think it lucky I was born so late. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

Prisca juvent alios : ego me mine denique natum 

From Ovid, 'Ars Am.,' iii. 121. I have 
obtained this reference from Smith's ' Latin 
Dictionary.' C. LAWRENCE FORD, B.A. 

" DRANGUT " (9 th S. i. 507). This word is 
not locally in use, but " drangway " is common 
enough all through Devonshire : 

"Urn up thickee there drangway, Polly ; there's 
a wild buUick comin awver drii tha strayte." See 
Mrs. Hewett's 'Peasant Speech of Devon' (1892). 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

" Drangway " for a narrow passage is in 
very general use throughout Devonshire and 
Somerset, especially in the rural districts, 
although in the latter county, I believe, it i: 
more frequently "drang." I have never 
met with "drangut" before, nor does it 
appear in any work on Devon or Somerset 
provincialisms with which I am acquainted. 

A. J. DAVY. 


HAMLAKE = HELMSLEY, co. YORK (9 th S. ii 
67). MR. RUTTON wishes to know a reason 
able explanation of the relationship between 
the final syllables -lake and -ley in these 
names. I have shown in ' Names and their 
Histories,' p. 374, that the A.-S. -leah(L), a 
"rough woodla,nd pasture," generally becomes 

ley in modern names ; but names derived 
! rom -ledr/e, the dative of -leak, usually become 
lege or -lage in Domesday, although Domes- 
day sometimes has -lac instead of -lage. 
Thus Helmsley is JSlmeslac, Pockley is Poche- 
'ac, while Osmotherley is Asmundrelac, and 
Beverley is Beverlac. Afterwards lac was 
spelt lake. ISAAC TAYLOR. 

[ cannot say whether the depositions of this 

rucifixion trial of 1649 are still in existence ; 
Dhey would undoubtedly be interesting both 
as regards folk-lore and a peculiar branch of 
religious fanaticism. But a much more 
remarkable crucifixion case occurred as 
recently as 1823 at Wildenspruch, in Switzer- 
land, and the trial and depositions are fortu- 
nately fully recorded in a book of 350 pages 
(penes me) published at Zurich in 1824. A 
household of seven grown-up persons was 
involved, and their portraits, grouped as a 
frontispiece, throw a little light, perhaps, on 
the mystery. They all aided and abetted, as 
did Isabella Billington's husband. I am 
afraid the account of the Yorkshire case is 
too meagre for any theory of " survival," but 
the date, 1649, is certainly suggestive of 

Eikon Basilike ' and the royal martyr. What 
if the Billingtons were devoted Royalists 
fanatically offering another sacrifice for the 
sins of the nation ? NE QUID NIMIS. 

East Hyde. 

This case is briefly mentioned in White- 
locke's ' Memorials,' 1682, p. 298. W. C. B. 

STONYHURST CRICKET (9 th S. i. 361, 416 ; ii. 
76). The account of the Roman Catholic 
College of Stony hurst appears in the Pall 
Mall Magazine, and not in the Pall Mall 
Gazette, of July, 1894. 


Clapham, S.W. 

" TIT-TAT-TO " (9 th S. ii. 26). I do not know 
how it may be in other counties, but in 
Gloucestershire, where my childhood \\as 
passed, the more original East Friesic name 
of this form of amusement, disclosed by PROF. 
SKEAT, seems to have been closely preserved. 
I well remember victory in "noughts and 
crosses" was not deemed to be properly 
rounded off unless the winner tapped his 
completed row of marks with his pencil to 
the accompaniment of tic-tac-to, never tit-tat- 


SHERIDAN AND DUNDAS (9 th S. ii. 28). The 
words referred ' to have lived as a reply ; 
but were they ever uttered? They are not 

. II. Auci 6, '98,] 



to be found in the collected speeches of 
Sheridan, and those who refer to them give 
no date. The fact that they are of ' Sheri- 
daniana ' origin is not in their favour. The 
pith of the remark exists in a note among his 
loose sketches for a comedy of affectation. 
In 8 th S. x. 199 I quoted this note and sug- 
gested that it might have been borrowed 
from a similar idea in ' Gil Bias.' Sheridan 
appears to be like Swift in his posthumous 
production of " funny tales." 

Sefton Park, Liverpool. 

Bartlett gives as his authority ' Sheridani- 
ana ' (London, 1826). At the same time it is 
shown that it is not wholly original : '"On 
peut dire que son esprit brille aux depens de 
sa memoire,' Le Sage, ' Gil Bias,' 1. iii. ch. xi." 
(1891, p. 443). There are collections of Sheri- 
dan's speeches, e.g., Bohn, 1842. 


BOOK-BORROWING (9 th S. ii. 66). More than 
twenty years ago, to my knowledge, the pre- 
sent librarian introduced into the University 
Library at Durham the plan here suggested 
of placing in the space previously occupied 
by the borrowed book a wooden tablet bear- 
ing the name of the book, the press-mark, 
the name of the borrower, and the date. I 
think it was about 1874, but as the said 
librarian is a well-known and highly esteemed 
contributor to 'N. & Q.,' perhaps he may 
inform us. W. C. B. 

ANDR (9 th S. ii. 47). In the churchyard at 
Bathampton, near Bath, are buried Mary 
Hannah Andre, ob. 3 March, 1845 : Ann 
Marguerite Andre, d. 8 August, 1830 ; Louisa 
Catherine, d. 25 Dec., 1835 ; Marie Louise 
Andre, their mother, d. 13 Feb., 1813. There 
is also a M.I. to their brother, Sir William 
Louis Andre', Bart., who died unmarried at 
Deans Leaze, near Southampton, 11 Nov., 

123, Pall Mall. 

A Bibliography of British Municipal History, in- 

chidiny Gild* and Parliamentary Representation. 

By Charles Gross, Ph.D. (Longmans & Co.) 
THIS work forms vol. v. of the " Harvard Historical 
Studies" issued by the authorities of the great 
American University from the income provided by 
the bequest of a most praiseworthy citizen, the late 
Mr. Henry Warren Torry. We have already 
noticed several of the former issues of the studies, 
and have in each instance felt bound to describe them 
as scholarly productions. We cannot in any way 
contrast Prof. Gross's compilation with the works 

of his predecessors. It is so different in character 
from them that comparison is impossible. We 
may venture to say, however, that it will be far 
more useful for the serious students of this country. 
It is an undoubted fact and we trust \ve need not 
say that we deplore it that, since the great struggle 
\vith the slave power came to an end, the English- 
men who take intelligent interest in materials for 
American history are very few ; but the number of 
those who are attracted oy our municipal history 
are many, and we are glad to think there are signs 
that they are on the increase. The time has gone 
by when men could say that all corporations were 
so much alike that when you were acquainted with 
the history of one you knew them all. This, like the 
parallel nonsense that all boroughs were the direct 
and immediate creation of kings, has passed away, 
and we are perhaps now drifting into the opposite 
error of thinking that they are all of democratic 
origin. Those who possess themselves of Prof. 
Gross's elaborate bibliography will now have such 
means of study as they never had before. It is an 
admirably compiled book, and arranged in a very 
lucid manner. There are two sections only one 
dealing with general authorities and the other with 
those which give information as to the municipal 
life of particular towns. This latter extends from 
Aberdeen to Youghal. We have carefully examined 
those parts of the work which we are able to test, 
and have found them very full and accurate ; perhaps, 
indeed, rather too full, for here and there we en- 
counter an entry directing attention to some obscure 
book which is pretty certain to disappoint the stu- 
dent who examines it. This is, however, an error, 
if error it be, in the direction of safety. We appre- 
hend compression has been thought necessary, 
otherwise we might not unreasonably complain that 
the notes added to some of the entries could 
have been made fuller and more numerous. We 
would also have gladly had a longer introduction 
from the pen of one so well fitted to instruct us. 
We quite agree with the author in his severe criti- 
cisms on the way many of our town histories have 
been put together; but it must be remembered as to 
the writers of the older ones that they had in many 
cases no opportunity given them of examining the 
local archives. 

The Ayricola of Tacitus. Edited by Henry 

Furneaux, M.A. (Oxford, Clarendon Press.) 
HAVING given us already excellent editions of the 
' Annals and 'Germania' well known to scholars, 
Mr. Furneaux here presents us with another treatise 
of his favourite author, admirably edited, with a 
critical introduction and full apparatus of notes. 
The 'Agricola' affords ample scope for the varied 
erudition of the editor, as, in addition to questions 
of text and interpretation, it incidentally raises 
many considerations of a topographical and anthro- 
pological character which do not come within the 
range of the mere classical scholar. In both fields 
of inquiry Mr. Furneaux seems equally at home. 
The fifth section of the introduction, in which 
Tacitus's account of Britain and its conquest is 
discussed in the light of comparative research, will 
be of special interest to the student. Here, as 
elsewhere, while exercising an independent judg- 
ment, the editor shows an intimate acquaintance 
with the works of our own anthropologists, Dawkins, 
Elton, and Evans, no less than with the great 
German commentators, Wex, Andresen, and 
Draeger. " The map at the end of the volume," 



[9 th S. II. AUG. 6, '98. 

occasionally referred to (pp. 22, 36), is, we presume, 
that which, by a change of arrangement, stands as 
frontispiece, it being the only one supplied. 

The. Place -Names of the Liverpool District. By 

Henry Harrison. (Stock.) 

MR. HARRISON possesses one very essential qualifi- 
cation of an investigator of place-names in haying a 
personal acquaintance with the localities whichlie 
writes about. He has also taken pains to examine 
the ancient documents which would enable him to 
pursue his inquiries on an historical basis. And 
yet, with all these advantages, he is often only able 
to advance mere conjectures as to the origin of the 
names which he discusses in his little volume. He 
is quite at a loss, e.r/., as to whether the first element 
of Wargrave is E. Eng. werre, or A.-S. waer (sea), or 
war (seaweed), or waroth (shore), or warn (defence), 
or wyrt (wort), or wer (fishing station), or wer(man) ; 
and whether the last element is A.-S. araef, a ditch, 
or Fr. greve, strand ; and finally, discarding all 
these, he suggests wir-grdf, myrtle - grove, as a 
possible original which shows now little finality 
there is in this branch of etymology when ancient 
records are wanting. For, unfortunately, the 
Hundred Rolls, which often throw some light on 
these doubtful points, are not forthcoming for 
Lancashire and Cheshire. Again, Mr. Harrison's 
speculation that Mersey may somehow be a trans- 
formation of the Celtic Belisama seems to the last 
degree unlikely. 

The most interesting name, and at the same time 
one of the most difficult, that Mr. Harrison has to 
deal with, is that of Liverpool itself. Though the 
oldest recorded spelling we have is Leverpol, he 
inclines to the conclusion that it represents the old 
Norse hlithar-pollr, the pool of the slope. Prof. 
Skeat thinks it may be the sluggish pool, O.Eng. 
lither. The mythological liver bird seems to have 
no champion. In the full and well-informed chapter 
devoted to this subject the author appears to 

Masters of Medicine. Sir Benjamin Brodie. By 

T. Holmes. (Fisher Unwin.) 

MR. HOLMES must be warmly congratulated on this 
admirable biography of one who was a perfect 
representative of thorough and cultured surgeons. 
To Mr. Holmes a surgeon to St. George's Hospital 
it has been evidently a labour of love to bring out 
the sterling character, the saving common sense, 
which marked one of the greatest of the surgeons 
to St. George's Hospital, Sir Benjamin Brodie. 
Besides the mere record of his life there are many 
points touched upon in this bright little volume of 
much interest and importance to the general public 
at the present day ; the question of medical educa- 
tion, for instance, which, like the poor, is always 
with us, or that of quacks and quackery, to which 
the same remark applies with still more force. Mr. 
Holmes regards the argument that quacks should 
be prevented from practising by law, as is done in 
the legal profession, as an entirely fallacious ana- 
logy. No doubt, as he says, the object of prevent- 
ing sham lawyers from practising is to protect the 
public from fraud, not to protect the lawyers. At 
the same time we feel bound to observe that surely 
the life, health, and limbs of the public require 
protection from unqualified practice quite as much 
as their purses, wills, or estates. 

This series of medical and surgical biographies 
supplies, we believe, a decided want in literature. 

Eminent divines, soldiers, and lawyers have had 
their lives written as a matter of course, but emi- 
nent doctors hardly ever. And yet, one would 
think, apart from the technicalities the "shop- 
piriess" of his calling, there should be some record 
of the qualities of head and heart and hand which 
gave some one the standing above his fellows in the 
merciful art and science of healing. 

THE most noteworthy paper in the July number 
of the Antiquary is ' Church Notes,' by the late Sir 
Stephen Glynne, Bart. The author deals with 
the two churches at Barton-on-Humber, Lincoln- 
shire. There is no doubt that Sir Stephen was 
much interested in thesubjectof church architecture, 
an^. although he had no claim to take rank as an 
authority upon the subject, yet he understood what 
he saw, and was able to describe it. Still, there is 
a great gap between the year 1825, when these notes 
were made, and the present day. Our knowledge 
has increased upon most subjects ; and a note is 
added to say that some of the remarks are out of 
date. ' Notes of the Month ' are, as usual, very 
well done. 

THE frontispiece to the Genealogical Magazine 
for July is the arms of Lane-Fox, the shield of 
which contains 135 quarterings. All of them 
have been officially proved, ana are to be found 
in the records of the College of Arms. They 
are borne at the present time by Lady Yarborough, 
who is Baroness Conyers in her own right, and oy 
her sister, the Countess of Powis. We hope this is 
but the first instalment, and that other arms will 
be given. 

fjfoikes ixr Cxrrmjrcm&ettls. 

We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rule. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. Correspond- 
ents who repeat queries are requested to head the 
second communication " Duplicate." 

T. M. ("Russian Enmity"). From all authentic 
accounts it appears that the Emperor Nicholas was 
very fond of the English, and especially favoured 
those resident in St. Petersburg during the Crimean 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to 
"The Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" Advertise- 
ments and Business Letters to "The Publisher" 
at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print ; and to this rule we can make no exception. 

For this Year, Fifty -three Numbers. 

For Twelve Months ...... -. 

For Six Months ............... 10 6 

s. d. 

1 11 

9< h S. II. AUG. 13, '98.] 




CONTENTS. -No. 33. 

NOTES : Wilkie's Epigoniad.' 121 Dictionary of National 
Biography, 122 Australian Nomenclature Hobsonize" 
-" Who sups with the devil," 124 Englishwoman's View 
of French Flitting Wire in Bookbinding Brasses Lapsus 
Calami Fox's Aunts, 125-Scott Entrance into Church- 
yards Long-lived Families Caspar de Guzman, 126. 

QUERIES: Battle of the Nile " Horny-handed sons of 
toil" "Kinging out" " Housty " W. Doddington 
Slabs in St. Margaret's Churchyard Musical Coverdale's 
Bible, 127 Picture by Murillo Dr. Thompson Gordon 
Family Count St. Germain Mrs. J. Hunter Penny- 
Farthing Street Si borne's Waterloo Models Wellington 
and Ney ' Telegraph 'Engraving, 124 Dean Modesley 
A " Writing Engine " King's Langley Priory Cardinal 
Rossi Master, 129. 

REPLIES :-Col. Wall, 129 Walker Family-Colin Tampon, 
130 The King's Stone Scaffolding Personate=Resound 
" Horse-sense" " The man in the street" K. Burton- 
Duchess of Kendal Naval and Military Directory, 131 
Spade Guinea Angel and London Standing Egg 
Caxon " Come, lasses and lads" Johnson's Residence 
" Whitsul" Shepherd's Chess Faithorne's Map Folk- 
lore, 132 Oldest Parish Register "Another story" 
"Sable shroud" Lexicon to the Septuagint, 133 B. 
Fergusson ' Beaux' Stratagem ' " Horse Guards " 
Source of Quotation " Kitty-Witches," 134 Head of 
Duke of Suffolk Porter's Lodge Hugh Awdeley " So 
pleased " S. Wilderspin " Facing the music ""Restore 
the Heptarchy " " Crex." 135 Pentonville Bacon 
Family" Two is company "Dolor Mallet " God tem- 
pers the wind " " Ranter," 136 Todmorden Old Punish- 
mentsPrecedence 'La Seconda Cena,' 137 Anthors 
Wanted. 138. 

NOTES ON BOOKS :-Hume's ' Calendar of State Papers' 
'Pembrokeshire Antiquities' Aitken's 'Spectator,' 
Vol. VIII. Magazines and Reviews. 

PROBABLY few readers of the nineteenth 
century have read the 'Epigoniad' the 
fluent epical work of Wilkie, " the Scottish 
Homer" from the first line to the last. 
When one has conscientiously done so, it 
may be allowable to make some little report 
of the experience. The poem, published in 
1757, was probably as much overrated on its 
first appearance as it has been depreciated 
since. The author (Prof. William Wilkie, of 
St. Andrews) was a notable personality in 
his day a scholar, a scientific agriculturist 
ahead of his generation, and a manifest 
"character" and in the 'Autobiography of 
Dr. Alexander Carlyle ' an English nobleman 
is reported to have declared that he had 
never met one who so thoroughly combined 
in his own person as did Wilkie the leading 
qualities of a god and a brute. Wilkie had 
an enthusiasm for the higher scholarship 
and for speculation, and a singular indif- 
ference to the conventionalities of dress 
and habit. But, in spite of his eccentricities, 
he had poetic sympathies and appreciation, 
and as his constructive skill and his com- 
mand of imagery attest he enjoyed a 
measure of the rare creative gift. His sense 

of style is excellent, and his skill in rhyme 
adjustment is so nimble and precise that he 
seldom lapses into inequalities, and sparingly 
uses assonance as a convenience. Perhaps 
his feeblest couplet is the following (p. 256) : 
Let not, tho' oft renew'd, these tedious toils 
Your martial ardor quench, and damp your souls. 

The poetic qualities, however, are probably 
not the features of Wilkie's work that a 
modern reader will find specially attractive. 
A mythological poem must be particularly 
strong to be engaging ; it must be fresh in 
conception, unhackneyed in method, and 
charged with distinctness of aim and manifest 
sincerity. Morris's ' Jason ' and Browning's 
' Ixion ' answer these conditions. Wilkie's 
achievement is largely a tour de force ; it is a 
clever and, on the whole, a graceful and con- 
sistent exercise in poetics. Its value, how- 
ever, lies mainly in the illustrations it gives 
of eighteenth - century characteristics and 
methods. Wilkie felt the necessity of writing 
verse in accordance with certain fundamental 
rules and definitions. Thus his elaborate in- 
troduction sets forth in clearand decisive style 
what he takes to be the epical theme and its 
appropriate embodiment. Then it was natural 
that a man with fine feeling and poetic zeal, 
setting himself at the zenith of the eighteenth 
century to depict a heroic story in verse, 
should execute his task with the dignified and 
imposing machinery of the heroic couplet. 
Wilkie's management of the couplet is that 
of an expert, and even for that feature alone 
his work should command careful attention. 

Certain details of the 'Epigoniad,' illus- 
trative of the fashion prevalent in Wilkie's 
day, deserve to be specially noted. Both in 
the preface and the poem Romance words 
with final our are consistently written with 
or. "Ardor," "favor," "honor," "labor" are 
given as regularly and confidently as if the 
author- had served an apprenticeship in a 
Government office or graduated in a modern 
American college. Other notable instances of 
spelling are "centinel"for sentinel, "scepters" 
for scentres, "drag'd," "impell," "excell," 
"smooths," "spiring" in reference to a 
cedar with a "spiring top" and so on. 
Some of the rhymes indicate peculiarities of 
pronunciation. For example, " plow " (book v. 
p. 122) has, apparently, the sound which it 
retains in provincial Scotland to-day : 

The harness'd wains ten thousand oxen drew 

Tam'd to the yoke, the servants of the plow. 

Further on in the same book (p. 150) "brow" 

is similarly rhymed : 
The desp'rate paths of folly you pursue, 
And scorn instruction with a lofty brow. 

As was to be expected, "peal" rhymes to 


NOTES AND QUERIES. w* s. n. AUG. 13, i 

"gale" (book iv. p. 95), but the value given 
to the final syllable of "retrieve" .seems 
curious. It rhymes to "hive," and not to 
"heave." Of several examples one, from a 
description of the agony of Hercules (book vii. 
p. 206), may be cited : 

No kind assistance can my state retrieve, 
Nor any friend attend me, and survive. 

Near the end of book viii. p. 259 occurs this 

couplet : 

His powers defeated, and himself depriv'd 
Of hopes of conquest, nor to be retriev'd. 

Perhaps the most interesting of all the 
peculiarities of pronunciation in the poem 
is the survival represented in the use of 
" hings " for hangs. " Kings " was a normal 
form in early literature, and it is prevalent 
in Lowland Scotland at the present time. In 
Wilkie's description of the siege of Thebes 
(book ix. p. 285) there is the following 
passage : 

Rank above rank the living structure grows, 
As settling bees the pendent heap compose, 
Which in some shade or vaulted cavern, hinys, 
Woven thick with complicated feet and wings : 
Thus mutually sustained, the warriors bend ; 
While o'er their heads the order'd ranks ascend. 
Finally, as a tribute to Wilkie's observation 
and skill of setting, I quote the night scene 
depicted in the closing lines of book iii. : 
And now the night began her silent reign ; 
Ascending, from the deep, th' ethereal plain, 
O'er both the hosts she stretch'd her ample shade, 
Their conflict to suspend : the hosts obey'd. 
The field no more a noisy scene appears, 
With steeds and chariots throng'd and glitt'ring 

spears ; 

But still, and silent : like the hoary deep, 
When, in their caves, the angry tempests sleep, 
Peaceful and smooth it spreads from shore to 


Where storms had rag'dand billows swell'd before : 
Such seem'd the field ; the martial clangors cease ; 
And war tumultuous lulls itself to peace. 

Helensburgh, N.B. 



(Continued from 9 th S. i. 322.) 

Vol. LIV. 

P. 6 b. How can one man be " popular " 
with another ? 

P. 7. Sir Edward Stanhope. See Gent's 
' York.,' p. 222 ; ' Fortescue Papers,' Camd. 
Soc., pp. xii-xiv ; Stow's ' Survey,' 1618, 
p. 644. 

P. 7 b. For " Wharffe " read Wharf e. " Ra- 
leigh," 'D.N.B.' has decided for Ralegh. 

Pp. 10-12. Dean Stanhope. In 1697 he is 
styled late Fellow of King's College. Hervey 

alls him " the nervous, florid, and persuasive," 
' Meditations,' 1758, i. 273 n. ; Black wall says 
be is "a very great man," 'Sacred Classics,' 
1737. Among his separate printed sermons 
are : Sermon at the Commencement, Cam- 
bridge, 4 July, 1697, on 2 Tim. iii. 16, 17, 4to., 
Lond., 1697 ; Concio ad Clerum, Convocation 
at St. Paul's, 25 Oct., 1705, on St. James iii. 
17, 4to., Lond., 1706; sermon before the 
Queen at St. Paul's, thanksgiving for victory, 
on Deut. xxxiii. 29, 2nd ed., 8vo., Lond., 
1706 ; funeral sermon for Richard Sare, 
bookseller, 1723, 4to., 1724 ; his Boyle 
Lectures were 1701, not 1702 ; his version 
of Thomas a Kempis was an early favourite 
with John Newton, 'Memoirs,' 1843, ed. 2, 
p. 57. See Yorksh. Arch. Jour., i. 236 ; 
Nichols, 'Lit. Anecd.,' 1812, iv. 150. 
P. 12 a. "alien to"? 

Pp. 14-19. General James Stanhope. See 
Akenside's ' Ode to Bp. Hoadly,' and an ode 
in W. Somerville's ' Poems.' 
Pp. 14 b, 72 a, 166 a. " averse to " ? 
P. 32. Chesterfield. Thomson praises him, 
'Winter,' 656; Young, 'Night Thoughts,' 
Nt. viii., "a half-Chesterfield is quite a 

Pp. 36 b, 241 a. For "baptised " read baptized 
(always thus in the Bible and in the Book of 
Common Prayer). 

P. 50 b, line 8. Correct press. "Bards- 
worth, Yorkshire " ? 

P. 52 b. Holy Orders are not a "profession." 
P. 54 b. " the new ministry refused the 
silk gown "; after " refused " insert " to give 

P. 58 a. " to again assume"? 
Pp. 78-81. Tho. Stanley. Richard Brome 
dedicated to him ' Joviall Crew,' 1652 ; the 
3rd ed. of his ' History of Philosophy ' is 1701 ; 
an 8vo. 'Lives of Ancient Philosophers,' 1702 
was partly taken from Stanley's. See Wrang- 
ham's ' Zouch,' i. p. Ixxvii ; ' N. & Q.,' 2 nd S. 
xi. 43C-1. 

P. 80 b. For " Enyon " read Engan. 
P. 87 b. Stanyan. See Leibnitz, ' Theodicee,' 
1760, i. 120. L. 30, for " 1607 " read 1707. 
P. 97 a. bis. " Brustwick," i. e., Burstwick. 
Pp. 98-100. Sir Philip Stapleton's two 
speeches were separately printed, (1) 'Worthy 
Speech' concerning Digby and Lunsford, 
4to., 15 Jan., 1641; (2) 'Renowned Speech 

at the Great Assembly of Yorkshire,' 

4to., 28 May, 1642 ; both also in Somers 
Tracts, 2nd S. ii. See also 'Letter from Lord 
Fairfax, Sir Hugh Cholmley, Sir P. S., and 
Sir Henry Cholmley,' May, 1642; 'The King's 

Answer to the Earl of Holland, Sir P. S., 

and Sir John Holland,' 1642 ; ' Particular 
Charge or Impeachment against Holies, 

9* s. ii. ATTG. 13, 



Stapleton, Lewis, Waller, and others,' 1647 ; 
a letter from " young Hotham " to his 
"brother" Sir P. S. is in ' Certaine Letters 
sent from Sir John Hotham,' Oxford, 1643 ; 
lie was one of the sequestrators for the East 
Riding, 1645 ; there are several engraved 
portraits of him. See further Lilly's 'Life,' 
1826, pp. 49, 51 ; 'Life of Col. Hutchinson'; 
' Savile Papers ' in ' Camden Miscellany,' viii.; 
Gill's 'Vallis Ebor,' 1852, p. 145; 'N. & Q.,' 
7 th S. iv. 274 ; Butler's ' Hudibras,' note on 
I. iii. 750. 

Pp. 100-1. Sir Robert Stapleton. Dryden 
speaks slightingly of his translation in the 
dedication of 'Juvenal.' 

Pp. 101-4. Thomas Stapleton. See Sander- 
son's 'Sermons,' ed. 5, 1671, i. 24. 

P. 106. Adam Stark. An anecdote of him 
in ' N. & Q.,' 3 rd S. iv. 369 ; see also Gent. Mag., 
1816, ii. 542 ; 1823, ii. 613. 

P. 114 b. Sir G. L. Staunton. See Mathias, 
' P. of L.,' p. 76. 

P. 123 a. For " Tangiers " read Tangier. 

P. 123 b. For "Malton" read Walton ? 
L. 20, for " 1821 " read 1721. 

Pp. 123-4. H. Stebbing published a ' Sermon 
on the New Birth, occasioned by the Preten- 
sions of the Methodists,' 1739; the two fol- 
lowing were attributed to him : ' Defence of 
Script. Hist.'; 'Our Saviour's Miraculous 
Power of Healing,' both anon., 8vo., against 
Woolston. Blackwall quotes " the judicious 
Dr. Stebbing," 'Sacr. Classics,' 1737, ii. 

P. 130 a. An ed. of Steele's 'Antidote 
against Distractions,' abridged, with a me- 
moir by L. Kershaw, was printed at Howden, 

Pp. 130-137. Steele. See Curll's 'Miscel- 
lanea,' 1727, i. 143 ; Guardian, 1756, i. pref. 
and pp. 234, 238; Addison's 'Works'; he 
wrote a poem on Congreve's 'Way of the 

P. 146b. For "Birkenhout" read Berken- 

P. 163 a, 1. 8. For " Robert's " read Roberts'*. 

Pp. 168-9. Catherine Stephens. See Roberts, 
' H. More,' iv. 63. 

P. 171 b. Edward Stephens. Robert, son 
of Bp. Bull, married Rachel, daughter of Edw. 
Stephens, Nelson's ' Bull,' 477. 

Pp. 176-7. Jeremiah Stephens was probably 
the author of ' Historical Discourse on Pro- 
curations, Synodals, and Pentecostals,' by 
J. S., 4to., 1661. His ed. of St. Gregory, ' De 
Cura Pastorali,' was recommended by Baxter, 
'Reform'd Pastor,' 1656, p. 78. 

P. 178. Jos. Raynor Stephens. See Slugg, 
' Woodhouse Grove School,' p. 309. 
P. 179 b. " Purefey." Purefoy ? 

P. 182 a. Win. Stephens was the tutor of 

Oldham (ed. Bell, p. 6). See ' D.N.B.,' xlix. 
143 b ; ' N. & Q.,' I 8t S. ii. 34 : 2 nd S. vii. 133. 

P. 191. Stepney "paints the god-like acts 
of kings," Garth, ' Dispensary,' iv. See Addi- 
son's ' Works,' 1726, i. xvi. 

P. 201 a. For " Ritson " read Riston. 

P. 205 b. For " Totteston " read Tollerton. 

P. 222 a. For " Bishopsthorpe " read Bishop- 

Pp. 240-2. Joseph Stevenson was a student 
at the University of Durham, where he be- 
came a Licentiate in Theology in 1841 ; see 
more in the Durham Univ. Jour., xi. 169, 

P. 245. R. L. Stevenson, a man of yesterday,, 
whose position cannot yet be assumed to be 
settled, obtains 18i columns. When compared 
with Dean Stanley, Sir Richard Steele, and 
Geo. Stephenson, in the same volume, this 
shows great want of proportion. 

P. 289. Dugald Stewart's ' Outlines of Moral 
Philosophy ' was reissued by Prof. M'Cosh in 
1873, who says " it has not been superseded, 
it has not even become antiquated." See 
Morell, ' Philos., 19th Cent.,' ii., 1846 ; Sidg- 
wick, 'Outlines Hist. Ethics,' p. 221, 1886. 

P. 291 a. For " commons " read commoners. 

P. 295 a. "Byland Abbey near Melton"; 
doubtless Malton was intended. 

Pp. 297 a, 305 a. For " license " read licence. 

Pp. 331-6. Matthew Stewart, Earl of Len- 
nox. See Yorksh. Arch. Jour., x. 63 - 82, 

P. 349 a. "Kissed hands." How many 
hands did he kiss ? 

Pp. 375-8. Bp. Stillingfleet. His consecra- 
tion, J. Scott's ' Sermons,' 1704, p. 331 ; J. 
Edwards dedicated to him ' Socinian Creed,' 
1697 ; his controversy with Locke, Locke's 
'Letters,' 1708: with Lob and Williams, 
Nelson's 'Bull/ 1714, pp. 253, 264 sq., 499, 
Law's ' Works,' 1893, viii. 82 ; his ' Orig. Sacr.,' 
praised by Ray, 'Creation,' 1717, p. 35; his 
works were quoted for the defence at the 
trial of Sacheverel, 'Tryal,' 1710, pp. 239, 240; 
was a friend of Sir M. Hale, Wordsworth, 
'Eccl. Biog.,' 1818, Vi. 45. See Tillotson's 
Answer to ' Sure Footing,' by J. S. ; Patrick's 
'Autob,,' 1839, pp. 122, 133, 150; Garth's 
'Dispensary,' canto v., 1775, p. 76 n; Old- 
ham, 'Boileau,' viii. Stillingfleet's many 
controversies produced a very large amount 
of literature. 

P. 392 a. " Fitter." Fit-tier ? 

P. 393. Lumb Stocks's widow, Ellen, died 
at Culmington Rectory, Shropshire, the re- 
sidence of her son-in-law, the Rev. E. Holland, 
13 March, 1898, aged eighty-four. 

P. 404. Bp. Stokesley was rebuked in the 
Star Chamber by Wolsey and sent to the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. IL AUG. 13, v 

Fleet, Wordsworth, 'Eccl. Biog.,' ii. 160; his 
journey to the Pope, iii. 441. 

Pp. 417-8. Stonnouse. See ' Life of Lady 
Huntingdon, 1840, i. 80, 136 ; Carus's ' Life of 
Simeon,' 1848, p. 22 ; Tyerman's ' Oxford 
Methodists,' 1873 ; Roberta's ' H. More,' 1835, 
iii. 197, &c. ; iv. 190. His ' Sick Man's Friend,' 
Bath, 1794, ed. by Vigor, Oxford, 1818. 

P. 419. Richard Stopes. See'Chron. Monast. 
de Melsa,' iii. p. xxxv n. 

P. 436 b, line 5. Correct press. W. C. B. 


IT has been a moot question here in Vic- 
toria, amongst those of us who took an active 
part in framing and instituting the system of 
universal, free, and compulsory education, now 
for nearly thirty years in full operation, how 
many generations of pupils would be required 
in order to displace in the popular speech, 
and to replace by good English, a barbarous 
dialect first imported by illiterate settlers 
and involuntary exiles from their native land. 
The topographical name " Botany Bay " suffi- 
ciently discriminates the dialect in question, 
and for that very reason we have been 
doing our utmost to exterminate it root 
and branch. But hitherto our labours in 
this direction have pretty nearly been ex- 
pended in pure waste. An interested spec- 
tator on the spot might say of the younger 
Australians what Sheridan said of Harry 
Dundas : " He. could forgive him everything 
except his invincible hostility to the English 
language.". Five generations of pupils have 
passed through the schools, drinking daily at 
.the pure wells of English undefiled ; yet the 
instant they quit their books and run off to 
the playground they as a rule fall naturally 
into their traditional Babylonish dialect. 

Acquit these sprightly juveniles of all 
complicity in labelling their own native plants 
and animals with the hideous designations 
referred to in a previous note from the p^e- 
sent pen, it remains difficult to account for 
their obstinate adherence to repulsive names 
for almost every object in nature around them, 
and almost every action of their daily lives. 
In their school-books they spell and pro- 
nounce and read (for example) of brooks, 
streams, rivulets, flowing through the green 
fields and flowery meadows, in the manner so 
charmingly sung by the poets from Shak- 
. speare to Tennyson. But hear them chatter 
amongst themselves and you would judge 
that they had never so much as heard spoken 
the name of one of these pleasant rural 
objects.. They only know of a " creek " dry, 
or muddy, or Big, or Little, as the case may 

be and a "paddock" never saw a field or 
meadow in their lives ! Of heath, heather, 
moor, or moorland, they know no more than 
they do of Sanskrit. No matter that they 
have spelt and read these finely descrip- 
tive names a thousand times ; all they ever 
saw or knew was " the scrub." Similarly, of 
underwoods and undergrowth they never 
heard ; but only of " brush." Does one of 
them announce to a schoolfellow that he is 
going for a holiday to his uncle's in the 
country 1 No, he does not ; he merely 
remarks that he is going "up the bush" a 
phrase picturesque enough in its original 
Dutch form, but preposterously ludicrous in 
English. Or a boy may tell his comrade 
that he is going to his uncle's station " in the 
backblocks." Of the backwoods, woodlands, 
or even of the wilderness, he has never heard. 
Never once in his life has the same youth 
seen a pond, nor a pool, nor even a puddle ; 
he is familiar alone with " waterholes." He 
has never seen a flock of sheep, or a drove of 
horses ; but " mobs " of both sneep and cattle 
he sees every day of his life. His favourite 
pony is merely a "scrubber"; his daily food 
is " tucker "; ne is very familiar with tramps 
" humping their swags " shamming to look 
for work from station to station ; his father 
is " the Boss "; and so on through a long 
catalogue of traditionary barbarisms of illite- 
rate, or, it may be, of penal, origin. The 
question here is not merely one of a slang 
phrase or two used half-sportively ; it con- 
cerns the very serious matter of framing the 
populai* speech of a young nation deeply 
English in feeling, character, and sentiment, 
and whose citizens ought, therefore, to be 
purely English in their language, both spoken 
and written. DAVID BLAIR. 

Armadale, Melbourne. 

SONIZE." Has Lieut. Hobson by his gallant 
deed added a word to the nautical portion 
of the English language ? It looks like i f -. 
According to a statement in the Daily Tele- 
graph, a passenger steamer, one of the grimiest 
and most tumbledown of the many dilapi- 
dated craft of the kind that plough the silent 
highway, nearly collided with a barge at 
London Bridge. The skipper used strong 
language to the bargee ; but to his taunts 
the latter bellowed, "Better take your old 
tub out to sea and Hobsonize her." 


Clapham, S.W. 


proverb, recently used by a Cabinet Minister 

9 th S. II. AUG. 13, '98.] 



in one of his famous speeches, is quaint and 
curious, and smacks of the monkish days. It 
may be of interest to note that it is alluded 
to by Shakespeare in ' The Tempest,' II. ii., as 
though it were well understood at that time : 
. "Stephana. Doth thy other mouth call me? 
Mercy, mercy ! This is a devil, and no monster : 
I will leave him ; I have no long spoon." 



FLIRTING. I find this item in the Journal 
des Dames et des Modes for 28 February, 1822, 
and it seems to me worth preserving in 
' N. & Q.' as a contribution to the comparative 
history of manners : 

" Qu'avez-voxis fait, demandoit-on A M mo I)***, de 
cc brillant cortege de jeunes-gens qui nagueres 
peuploit vos salons et assistoit a vos fetes ? Je ne 
les vois plus, ils ont eu peur ! Vows voulez vous 
moquer tie moi ? Non, ecoutez bien : ma sceur est a 
la campagne, mes cousines voyagent en Italic ; 
plusieurs autres de mes amies sont en deuil ; ma 
societ^ de femmes, dans ces derniers terns, ne se 
composoit que d'Anglaises ; je n'en vois que de bien 
elevees et qui de plus sont jolies et aimables ; mais 
elles ont une singuliere id^e de nos jeunes-yens. 
Des que ceux-ci leur ont fait un compliment sur leur 
toilette, des qu'ils ramassent leur gant ou leur 
eventail, elles les croyent ^perdument amoureux, et 

parlent de mariage h, present ma solitude est 


Yet this flirting was of some effect, for we 
read later the following jest in the same 
periodical (15 November, 1828) : 

" Jamais, disait une demoiselle qui a dejk depasse 
1'age de la majorite, les Anglais ne nous ont fait 
autant de mal que depuis que nous sommes en paix 
avec eux. Je ne vois pas de quoi vous avez a vous 
plaindre? Us ont importo cnez nous vingt car- 
gaisons d'heritieres de toute espece qui nous ont 
eiilevo nos maris." 


22, Rue Servandoni, Paris. 

WIRE IN BOOKBINDING. When the use of 
wire in bookbinding came into vogue, about 
twenty years since, there were notices of it 
in 'N. & Q., 5 th S. xii. ; 6 th S. i., ii. In the 
last instance there was an expression of dis- 
approval, but in the previous cases there was 
a favourable account of it. It seema to me 
that it has come into general use at least 
for books on their publication without 
sufficient attention to one common defect. 
The wire rusts and corrodes the paper 
where it touches it. With every possible 
care for the preservation of books in libraries 
generally, this becomes apparent not only 
from the damp of any library which is un- 
favourably placed, but from the varying state 
of the atmosphere. No librarian who cares 
for his books, who " treats them as though he 

loved them," will use it in his binding, bufc 
he cannot help their being so sent out by 
publishers. ED. MARSHALL, F.S.A. 

BRASSES. In no carping or fault-finding 
spirit, but from a wish that the few good 
brasses still remaining should be preserved, 
I call the attention of antiquaries, through 
the medium of ' N. & Q., to the fact that at 
Roydon Church, Essex, the fine brass of 
Thomas Colt, 1471, has had an unsightly 
heating apparatus placed on it. On the 
cuirass is an early example of the lance rest. 
An illustration of this brass is given in 
Gough's 'Sepulchral Monuments,' vol. ii. 
The Roydon brasses have fallen on evil times,- 
as inside the altar rails another brass of the 
Colt family has been polished in a manner 
more calculated to please a model housewife 
than an antiquary. MATILDA POLLARD. 

Belle Vue, Bcngeo. 

and Son,' chap, v., after describing the "frosty 
christening" of Dombey//*-, Dickens adds 
" The register signed, and the fees paid," &c. 
The novelist was surely napping over his pen 
when he committed those two blunders, for 
in the first place no register is signed at 
baptism in the sense in which he evidently 
uses the phrase the officiating minister alone 
adding his signature to the entry ; and in the 
next, there are no fees exacted or expected at 
such a ceremony. The only possible exception 
lies in a request for a copy of the entry, which 
is unusual on such an occasion. Dickens must 
have known these simple facts, to ignore 
which argues wanton carelessness. Genius 
hardly excuses, but rather emphasizes the 
lack of that infinite painstaking which is said 
to be its very essence. J. B. S. 


Fox's AUNTS. It is a curious fact, perhaps 
not generally known or remembered, though 
doubtless familiar to Macaulay's omniscient 
schoolboy, that Charles James Fox had two 
aunts, of whom one died in 1655 and the 
other in 1826, the deaths of these two ladies 
having thus been separated by the extra- 
ordinary interval of 171 years. The par- 
biculars of this remarkable case are, of course, 
accessible to all students of biography ; but 
it may be a convenience to readers of ' N. & Q.' 
if I briefly recapitulate them here. 

The celebrated statesman's grandfather, Sir 
Stephen Fox, was born in 1627 ; and in 1654, 
being then twenty-seven years old, he married 
his first wife, who is described by the historian 
of the family as "a Sisterof the King's Surgeon." 
By her he had a numerous family, the eldest 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. n. AUG. 13, m 

of whom, a girl, died in infancy in 1655, while 
all the rest of his children by that marriage 
died childless. But in 1703 Sir Stephen, being 
then seventy-six years old, and being, more- 
over, as is quaintly recorded of him, "of a 
vegete and hale constitution," was, naturally 
enough, unwilling that his abundant estate 
should pass out or his family for want of heirs 
of his body ; and accordingly this vegete old 
gentleman then married his second wife, who 
is stated to have been "the daughter of a 
Grantham clergyman." By this lady he had, 
among other progeny, a son Henry, who, in 
1744, married Lady Caroline Lennox, the 
eldest daughter of Charles, second Duke of 
Kichmond, and the said Henry's second son 
by her was Charles James Fox. Now the 
Duke of Richmond's youngest daughter, 
Lady Sarah Napier, who, of course, was an 
aunt of Charles James Fox, survived till 
1826, while the infant daughter of Sir Stephen 
Fox, his other aunt, died, as above stated, in 
1655, and thus there was an interval of 171 
years between the deaths of these two aunts 
of our hero. 

The widow of Charles James Fox survived 
till 1842, or nearly 200 years after the death 
of her aunt by marriage. 



part of ' Redgauntlet ' is the story in it en- 
titled 'Wandering Willie's Tale.' In this 
story a visit is made to the place where the 
dead are by Steenie, who is, warned not to 
eat or drink anything whilst he is there. It 
may be remembered that when Proserpine 
was carried to Hades, she lost her chance of 
returning through eating a pomegranate. In 
an old Jewish legend a man who is visiting 
the Mazikeen has a similar warning. Sir 
Walter Scott may have met with this legend, 
which now can be found in Keightley's ' Fairy 
Mythology.' An amusing introduction to a 
feeble novel is that which precedes ' The 
Betrothed'; and one incident in it has been 
imitated ; for in the comic papers of modern 
days the story has been told at least once 
concerning the reporter who concealed him- 
self under the table, was discovered, and 
finally kicked out. But Scott himself was 
remembering old jokes. Monkbarns drops 
his snuff-box and spills the snuff. The un- 
fortunate reporter cannot hinder himself 
from sneezing, and is in consequence detected. 
This probably was suggested by the discovery 
of the concealed lover in Apuleius and Boc- 
caccio. Charles Dickens, in one of the in- 
ferior stories with which he began his literary 

career, mentions the case of a concealed lover 
who was discovered because he could not 
prevent himself from coughing when tobacco 
was smoked. And probably there are in 
literature other instances of persons similarly 
situated. E. YARDLEY. 

following extracts furnish an interesting 
example of parallelism of custom between 
distant European countries. 

Mrs. S. H. Dunn, a writer in the June 
number of the Month, speaking of the 
Basque churchyards, says : 

" The old burial-ground lies around the feet of the 
mother church. The gathered dust of the dead of 
many centuries has raised its level above that of 
the outside ground, and low walls retain it within 
their bounds. The entrances are merely openings 
in the wall without bar or gate; but at the threshold 
of each a small pit, dug in the soil and covered with 
an open grating, guards against the intrusion of 
errant cattle or enquiring dogs." P. 635. 

The following occurs in Andrew Hamilton's 
' Sixteen Months in the Danish Isles,' 1852 : 

"Before entering the churchyard [of Baago] my 
attention was called to an arrangement at the gate, 
viz., a grating below the gate itself, over which it 
was needful to pass. Below the grating was a pit 
or hole in the ground about two feet in depth. The 
bars were thin pieces of iron, strong enough to bear 
the weight of a man, if he stepped upon them of a 
Sunday. The spaces between were about three 
inches each way. One design of the entire appara- 
tus was to prevent animals from desecrating the 
churchyard with their unhallowed feet. If a sheep 
or a pig or such like took it into its head to explore 
the graves, he would be effectually hindered at the 
outset by finding his legs literally taken from him, 
for they would sink through the grating, and re- 
main there till some Christian set him free ; or if 
the animal should struggle, he ran a great chance of 
getting off and leaving his legs behind." Vol. i. 
p. 315. 

I have not heard of a contrivance of this 
sort having been in use in the British Isles. 
Dunstan House, Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

LONG - LIVED FAMILIES. The following 
should be recorded in 'N. & Q.'asan instance 
of three lives covering a very long space of 
time. Sir C. Matthew Goring, the grand- 
father of the Rev. J. Goring, of Wiston, 
Sussex, now alive and vigorous, was born in 
1703, the reign of Anne. He had a son 
Charles born in 1744, and his son, the Rev. 
John as above, was born in 1824. 

A short time ago, i. e., till 1886, we had 
among us the Hon. Capt. Francis Maude, 
whose grandfather, Sir Robert Maude, was 
born in 1673, the reign of Charles II. Q. 

GASPAR DE GUZMAN. In an article on 
Endymion Porter in the current number 

. ii. AUG. 13, *] 


of Temple Bar the author refers to my 
life of Sir Walter Ralegh as his authority 
for the statement that in 1603, at the 
age of sixteen, the third Count de Olivares 
(Gaspar de Guzman) made an important 
speech which changed the policy of Spain 
towards the English succession, in the inter- 
est of historical accuracy I am anxious for an 
opportunity of recording the fact that nothing 
I have written bears out this reference. The 
speech in question, of which a summary will 
shortly be published in my fourth volume of 
Spanish State Papers of Elizabeth, was made 
not by the Conde-Duque, but, in trie Spanish 
Council of State, by his father, the second 
Count de Olivares, tnat arrogant ambassador 
who cajoled and bullied Sixtus V. into 
promising vast sums to aid the Armada. 


WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be addressed to 
them direct. 

of Padua, lately read before the Reale 
Accademia of that city a paper on some 
literary curiosities, one of which was a 
pamphlet of twelve pages, being a poem on 
the Battle of the Nile printed at Pisa in the 
same year. The title of the poem is "On 
Lord Nelson's Victory | over | the French 
Fleet | at | Abouquir. | An idyl | by P.P. D.D. 
| Pisa | from the new Typographical Press | 


Prof. Teza observes that the poet appears 
to be unknown, and the little book is 
rare. He remarks that the D.D. points to 
the writer being a theologian, probably an 
Evangelical minister. The poem begins : 
Come here, my Muse, come, for a moment sing 
Great NELSON'S deeds, which, on the lofty wing 
Of loudest FAME swift borne, from ev'ry breast 
Ecstatic joy and wonder have exprest, &c. 

Can any correspondent throw light upon 
the poem or its author ? B. W. S. 


and when did this phrase, so hackneyed 
about 1850-70, originate? 


" RINGING -OUT." What is the exact mean- 
ing of this U.S. Stock Exchange term 1 I find 
it in clause 7 of " A Bill regulating the Sale 
of certain Agricultural Products, defining 
4 Options ' and ' Futures,' and imposing Taxes 
theron and upon Dealers therein," which 

refers (inter aim) to "every cancellation, 
clearance, settlement, acquittance, contango, 
backwardation, waiver, privilege, ringing- 
out, or other agreement or ar/angement 
whereby any ' options ' contract or wliereby 
any 'futures' contract shall be terminated 
otherwise than by delivery." Q. V. 

" HOUSTY." Kingsley, in 'Westward Ho,' 
ch. xv., has : 

" Lady Grenville had a great opinion of Lucy's 

medical skill, and always sent for her if one of the 
children had a housty, i.e., aore-throat." 

Can any reader of 'N. & Q.' inform us 
whether housty is known to be in use or to 
have been in use anywhere ? As yet I know 
nothing whatever of it as a real word. Of 
course, it reminds one of hoose, hoast, and other 
words meaning a cough. 



WILLIAM DODDINGTON was elected from 
Westminster School to Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1574. I shall be glad to have any 
particulars relating to him. G. F. R. B. 

WESTMINSTER. Arising out of the note, ante, 
p. 44, I would ask, Where is now the list of 
the gravestones made in 1881-2, under in- 
structions by the Rev. Dean Farrar ; and 
could it not be printed ? Also, Where is now 
the list of the gravestones made by a former 
clerk or sexton (I think) of St. Margaret's 
Church in the early part of this century ? 


29, Emperor's Gate, S.W. 

MUSICAL. Where does " the opera tune " 
"Fair Dorinda, revenge," &c., occur? Is it 
in any operatic version of ' The Tempest ' by 
Dryden and Davenant and Lock ? It is 
referred to in a play in 1707 as a popular 
song. The same play mentions a dance tune 
' Sir Simon the King.' What was this ; and 
where can it be found ? Z. 

Co VERD ALE'S BIBLE OF 1535. In Harts- 
horne's ' Book Rarities of the University of 
Cambridge ' (1829), there is the following note 
(p. 405) on a copy of Coverdale's Bible of 1535 
which is in the library of St. John's College : 
" Of the exceeding rarity of a perfect copy 
little need be said, since only the collections 
of the Earl of Northampton and Mrs. Smith, 
of Dulwich, possess one." I shall be obliged 
if any one will inform me who Mrs. Smith, of 
Dulwich, was, what her collection consisted 
of, and what has become of her copy of 
Coverdale. W. ALDIS WRIGHT. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. IL AUG. 13, 

Anderdon's sale the first Duke of Wellington 
purchased a picture by Murillo, 'La Vieia' 
or 'An Old Woman eating Porridge.' Will 
any of your readers kindly give me informa- 
tion respecting this picture before it came 
into the possession of Mr. Anderdon, espe- 
cially respecting the date at which he bought 

Apsley House. 

BRIDGE, AND A VICTIM. By general consent 
the best-known sarcasm of this master of 
sarcastic phrase would be that usually quoted 
as " We are none of us infallible not even 
the youngest of us." The point on which I 
ask for information is, Of whom was it said ? 
Mr. J. G. Cotton Minchin, at p. 206 of a 
volume entitled 'Old Harrow Days,' states 
that " it is not generally known, but it is a 
fact," that the phrase was " called forth " by 
Francis Maitland Balfour, who, at a meeting 
of the fellows of Trinity College, advocated a 
limitation of the Master's power. The author 
of " Collections and Recollections, by One who 
has Kept a Diary " (p. 234) asserts with equal 
rashness that it was a "hit " at Mr. Balfour' 
brother, Gerald Balfour, the present Chiel 
Secretary for Ireland. Clearly both these 
instructors of the public, though possibly 
young, cannot be accused of infallibility 
Neither Mr. Minchin's name nor that o: 
the reputed author of the second work 
can be found in the list of Cambridge 
graduates. Had they been brought up 
in the social life of the University they 
would have learnt that the phrase was curreni 
there long before either of the brothers Bal 
four had earned the distinction of being ; 
fellow of Trinity. Of whom, then, was i 

GORDON FAMILY. Sir Christopher Seton 
married Christian, sister of Robert I. (Bruce) 
and had a son Sir Alexander Seton, wh< 
married Christian Cheyne, of Straloch, am 
was father of Margaret Seton, who marrie 
Alan de Wintoun, and had a son Sir Williar. 
Seton. He married Katherine, daughter o 
Sir William St. Clair, of Herdmanston, an 
had a son Sir Alexander Seton, who marrie. 
Elizabeth de Gordon, and was father of Si 
Alexander Gordon, first Earl of Huntly. I 
there a "royal descent" in any of thes 
marriages? A. C ALDER. 


COUNT ST. GERMAIN. Details required o 
Count St. Germain /arrested i n London an 
committed to the iSurahalsea Prison on 

large of high treason in 1745 (see ' Letters 
f Horace Walpole,' Cunningham's ed., vol. i. 
. 410 ; Gentleman's* Magazine, 1745, p. 665). 
Dorney Wood, Burnham, Bucks. 

MRS. JOHN HUNTER. Can any of your 
orrespondents kindly tell me if a portrait 
ias been published of Mrs. John Hunter, 
uthor of My mother bids me bind my hair," 
:c.? She was the wife of the celebrated Dr. 

Tne Hull Press, Hull. 

Salisbury, some forty - five years ago, the 

erger, a very intelligent man, in showing me 

ver the cathedral, mentioned incidentally 
/hat when it was in course of construction 
,he labourers only received one penny per 
lay. A strike occurred for another far- 
thing, which they obtained, and in cele- 
oration thereof they had a jollification over 

t. He added, in corrobation of this, that 
a street adjoining the cathedral was still 

:alled Penny-Farthing Street. Is there such 
a street in existence in the vicinity ? 


Siborne made two models, representing two 
different periods in the battle of Waterloo. 
One of these is well known, and is to be seen 
at the United Service Museum, Whitehall. 
What has become of the other? It was 
advertised in 1845 as being on view at the 
Egyptian Hall, Piccadilly. It represented 
(so a little guide-book in my possession states) 
" the splendid charge between 1 and 2 o'clock 
by the British heavy cavalry under the 
Marquess of Anglesey and by the British 
infantry under Sir Thomas Picton." 

T. W. B. 

WELLINGTON AND NEY. What is the autho- 
rity for Mr. Gladstone's statement, reported 
by Lord Tollemache, that the Duke of Wel- 
lington was in favour of Marshal Ney being 
shot. We know that he did not think proper 
to interfere in the matter ; but that is quite 
another thing. E. F. D. C. 

' TELEGRAPH.' As the title of a paper this 
word was used in 1795. It is described by 
John Taylor in his 'Records,' 1832, as an 
obscure evening paper. It was edited by an 
Irishman named McDonnell, and seems to 
have pandered overmuch to the public want 
of taste. S. J. A. F. 

ENGRAVING. The other day one of my 
friends found in a country house in the south 

9 th S. II. AUG. 13, '98.] 



of England an engraving, about twenty by 
thirty inches in size, of Cromwell's Parlia- 
ment ; it had neither printer's nor publisher's 
name to indicate its origin. I shall feel 
obliged if any of your readers can inform me 
where the original painting can be found, and 
also the name of the printer or publisher of 
the engraving, as I am anxious to procure a 

Information is desired respecting Thomas 
Modesley, Madesley, or Maudesley, Dean of 
Chester, 1580-89. F. SANDERS, M.A., F.S.A. 

Hoylake Vicarage, Cheshire. 

A "WRITING ENGINE." In the selection 
from the Athenian Oracle, edited by the late 
John Underbill, and issued in the "Scott 
Library," there are given, in an appendix, a 
few specimen advertisements from the Athe- 
nian Mercury. Among these is the following 
(p. 258) : 

" The Writing Engine, for taking several copies 
of the same thing at once, invented by Mr. Geo. 
Ridpath, being now brought to perfection by the 
assistance of Mr. Alexander Urwin, Clock-maker in 
St. Martin's Lane, over against the Church, such as 
have occasion for any of the said Engines may see 
the same at Mr. George Ridpath's, at the Blue Ball 
in Little Newport Street, near Leicester-Fields, and 
be accommodated, according to agreement, with 
Engines for 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 copies." 

Was this " Engine " of the nature of a type- 
writer or a copying-press 1 Is anything more 
known of it, or of George Ridpath ? I shall 
be very glad of any further information. 


separate history of this Dominican priory 
been published ; or in what works can I find 
most information about the priors, who were 
governors or supervisors of Dartford priory 
in Kent, the prioress of which house was 
patron of Elmeston rectory in this county 1 
Kings Langley Priory owned land in the 
adjoining parish of Preston next Wingham, 
from 1387 to 1538. ARTHUR HUSSEY. 

Wingham, Kent. 

CARDINAL Kossi. Is it known how Car- 
dinals Rossi and Jules de Medicis offended 
Raphael, so that he placed them amongst the 
condemned in his picture of the ' Last Judg- 
ment'? YDOLTOREE. 

MASTER. Can any one give me a pedi- 
gree of Margaret Master, wife of George 
Byng, first Viscount Torrington-. Her family 
are described as of East Langdon, Kent. 



(9 th S. i. 508.) 

Thisofficerappeared in two well-known cases, 
In Wall v. Macnamara the plaintiff brought 
an action against the Lieutenant-Governor 
of Senegambia for confining him nine months 
in an African prison. The imprisonment 
itself was legal, but it was attended by such 
barbarity that the jury found a verdict for 
the plaintiff with 1 ,000/. damages. In course 
of time Capt. Wall became Lieutenant- 
Governor of Senegambia, and committed a 
crime which was similar in nature to the, 
very offence for which he had himself re- 
covered damages. The crime was the murder 
of a sergeant of the African Corps by inflicting 
on him 800 lashes with such cruelty as to 
cause his death (28 Howell's 'State Trials,' 
51). The legal aspect of these two cases is 
discussed in the ' Manual of Military Law ' 
(War Office, 1894), pp. 194-5 and 206-8. The 
story of Wall's trial has been so often told 
that it need hardly be repeated. For in- 
stance, in Jackson's 'Newgate Calendar' 
forty-two pages are devoted to " The inter- 
esting trial of Joseph Wall, Esq., late Governor 
of Goree, at the Old Bailey, for the wilful 
murder of Benjamin Armstrong, 10 July, 
1782, with authentic particulars of his family, 
and behaviour previous to his execution, 
28 January, 1802, twenty years after the com- 
mission of the crime." The narrative is em- 
bellished by three engravings : " The cruelty 
of Governor Wall at Goree," " Governor Wall 
contemplating on his unhappy fate in the 
condemn'd cell," and " The execution of 
Governor Wall." It was politically expedient 
that Wall should suffer death, otherwise 
it appears not improbable that he would have 
received a pardon. Just before his trial .a 
batch of seamen had been executed for 
mutiny by order of a naval court-martial. 
Popular feeling became excited, and it seems 
to have been considered necessary to vin- 
dicate the impartiality of the law, lest it 
should be said that there was one code for 
the officer and another for the man. Wall 
was hanged at Tyburn. GUALTERULUS. 

According to the Editor's reply to an in- 
quiry made thirty-three years ago, Col. Joseph 
Wall was the son of a farmer at Abbeyleix, 
in Queen's County, Ireland. He entered the 
army about 1760, and was at the taking 
of Havannah. He afterwards obtained a 
command in the service of the East India 
Company, and proceeded to Bombay. He 
subsequently accepted the unenvied post of 


NOTlES AND QUERIES. p* s. n. AUG. is, * 

Governor of Gpree, a fortress garrisoned by 
desperadoes, picked from convicts in gaols 
and military prisons. On 10 July, 1782, he 
ordered Serjeant Benjamin Armstrong to 
receive 800 lashes (offence not stated). On 
Col. Wall's arrival in England he was tried 
at the Old Bailey, 20 January, 1802, under 
33 Henry VIII., c. 23, was convicted of the 
wilful murder of Benjamin Armstrong, and 
was executed on the 28th of the same month. 
His trial is in print as a separate pamphlet, 
8vo., 1802. See also 'Annual Register,' xliv. 
560-8 ; Gentleman's Magazine, Ixxii. (i.) 81 ; 
'N. & Q.,' 3 rd S. viii. 438, 450 ; 6 th S. viii. 208. 
71, Brecknock Road. 

Governor Wall was a native of Dublin. 
But his execution was at the Old Bailey, 
London, in 1802, for the murder of Sergeant 
Benjamin Armstrong in the island of Goree 
by the infliction of 800 lashes with a rope, on 
10 July, 1782. He came to England in 1784, 
when he escaped from his arrest. He came 
back in October, 1801, to give himself up for 
trial. This took place by a special commission 
in January. His plea of the mutinous con- 
duct of his men failed in want of evidence. 
The execution took place on the 28th of the 
month. ED. MARSHALL, F.S.A. 

This cause cdlebre is most fully treated in 
G. Lathom Browne's 'State Trials in the 
Nineteenth Century,' a review of which in 
the Edinburgh Review for January, 1883 
(vol. clvii. pp. 83 sqq.), contains an abstract of 
the case. Detailed reports of the trial and 
execution appear in the European Magazine 
(vol. xli. pp. 74, 154), and, there are brief 
accounts in the Gentleman's Magazine (1802, 
pt. i. p. 81) and the 'Georgian Era' (ii. 466). 
Wall was tried at the Old Bailey, not in 
Dublin, and executed outside Newgate gaol 
at the date stated by the editor of 'N. & Q.' 


106A, Albany Road, Camberwell. 

WALKER FAMILY (IRISH) (7 th S. iv. 108 ; 8 th 
S. ii. 298, 373, 457). In supplement to previous 
notes let me state the following items. 
Lieut. -CoL Walker, who was married to Anne 
Chamberlain, granddaughter of Sir Hugh 
Myddleton, Bart., was related to Sir Edward 
Walker, Garter King, and descended from an 
ancient family in Leicestershire. Col. Walker's 
sixth son, John Walker, of Gurteen, Queen's 
County, armiger, married to Anne Digby, 
daughter of Col. Digby Foulke, of the College, 
Youghal, by Angell, daughter of Sir Boyle 
Maynard, Curriglas, co. Cork, had two sisters- 

in-law : Angell Foulke, married to Edward 
Denny, Esq., M.P., 1695. son of Barry Denny, 
M.P., and great-grandson of Sir Edward 
Denny, by Ruth, daughter of Sir Thomas 
Roper, Lord Viscount Baltinglas, and Mary 
Foulke, married to the Rev. Richard Davies, 
son of the Very Rev. Roland Davies, Dean of 
Cork, by Elizabeth Stannard, great-grand- 
daughter of Richard Boyle, Archbishop of 
Tuam. Their daughter Martha married 
Henry White, Esq., of Bantry, grandfather of 
Richard, first Earl of Bantry, and great- 
grandfather of Lady Ardilaun and Lady 
Ferrers. The nephew of Anne Digby Foulke, 
ne'e Maynard, William Maynard, of Curriglas, 
M.P., 1734, married Henrietta, daughter of 
second Baron Wandesford and Viscount 
Castlecomer, by Elizabeth, daughter of 
George Montague, of Horton, and aunt of 
George, Earl of Halifax. Col. Digby Foulke 
above named was kinsman of Richard Boyle, 
Earl of Cork, and of the Lords Dungarvan, 
Orrery, and Shannon, and was agent of their 
estates in Ireland. He was brother of Sir 
Francis Foulke, Knt., a distinguished soldier 
in the Parliamentary wars, and cousin of Col. 
John Foulke, whose arms, Vert, a flower-de- 
luce arg., differenced with a mullet in a 
crescent, are registered in the Heralds' Office, 
Dublin Castle, with a copious pedigree of the 
Foulkes of Brewood and Gouston, Stafford- 
shire, comprising some twenty generations. 

F. F. C. 

COLIN TAMPON (9 th S. ii. 28V According to 
Rozan (' Petites Ignorances ae Conversation,' 
1887, p. 322) : 

"Cemotest 1'onomatopee du bruit du tambour 
battant la marche des Suisses. Les Franqais, tou- 
iours prodigues de sobriquets, ont et frappes de ce 
bruit qui annongait la presence ou 1'arrivee dea 
Suisses, et en maniere de derision Us les ont appele"s 
comme Us les entendaient, c'est-a-dire Colintampon. 
On fait dater ce surnom de la victoire de Marignan. 
C'est a cette victoire qu'il faut sans doute rapporter 
aussi 1'expression proverbiale, car 1'occasion etait 
belle pour nos soldats de faire fi des Suisses et de 
dire de"daigneusement : Je m'en moque comme de 
Colintampon. " 

The name is printed also as one word in 
' Ducatiana,' 1738, p. 486. 

But Colin was the by-name for a Swiss 
long before the battle of Marignan, as 
appears from a passage in Coquillart's 
'Droitz Nouveaulx,' composed about 1481 
(' (Euvres,' ed. Hericault, 1857, i. 46-7) : 
Chascun en lit une legon ; 
Tantost vela Colin le Suysse 
Qui en va faire une chanson ; 
Quelque tabourin ou bourdon 
En orra, peult estre, le bruyt ; 
C'est pour dancer ung tourdion 
Et faire une aubade de nuyt. 

9 th S. H. A.-UG, 13, ' 



On which the editor observes : 

" Colin paroit etre le sobriquet que les Francois 
donnoient aux Suisses. On appeloit colin-tampon 
le tambou r d'abord, puis le son, le jeu propre au 
tambour des Suisses.' 

And there is a further allusion to the 
drum-beating of the Swiss in the same poet's 
Blason' (ibid., ii. 172) : 

Les Suysses dancent leurs morisques 
A tout leurs tabourins sonnans. 

The ascription of the term to the date of 
Marignan (1515) is, therefore, questionable. 
There is, however, no doubt about its onoma- 
topoetic origin ; for Pasquier thus affirms it 
in his ' Recherches de la France ' (viii. 6) : 

"Ainsi le palalalalan a emprunt<$ ce nom du 
tambour des Francais ; ainsi le colin tampon de 
celui des Suisses." 

In connexion herewith there is an amusing 
anecdote of Madame de Pompadour, which 
the curious may read in Larousse's 'Grand 
Dictionnaire,' art. ' Colin-tampon.' 


106A, Albany Road, Camberwell. 

Mr. W. A. Wheeler, M.A., in his ' Diction- 
ary of the Noted Names of Fiction,' says of 
this national nickname for the Swiss that it 
is "a reproachful sobriquet, said to have 
been anciently given to the Swiss and to 
represent the sound of their drums." 

C. P. HALE. 

488). The rough upright column of basalt 
at Westfield, in Branxton, co. Northumber- 
land, was put there as a memorial of the 
victory of Flodden, and does not mark the 
exact spot where James IV. fell. Some 
writers doubt the truth of his being slain in 
this battle. JOHN RADCLIFFE. 

SCAFFOLDING IN GERMANY (8 th S. xii. 509 ; 
9 th S. i. 72, 170). It is a common custom in 
this part of Australia (South Australia) for 
builders to place either the bough of a tree 
or a flag on the top of a new building the 
day the roof is completed. BOOBOOROWIE. 

PERSONATE = RESOUND (9 th S. i. 388). 
Both Latham and Annandale give as an 
obsolete meaning " to celebrate loudly," with 
a reference to Milton, 'Par. Reg.,' iv. 341. 
Cf. Virgil's use of personal, '^En.,' i. 741, where 
see Conington's note. 


" HORSE-SENSE " (9 th S. i. 487 ; ii. 32). This 
term is included as an American slang term in 
Messrs. Farmer and Henley's ' Slang and its 
Analogues.' It means sound and practical j udg- 
ment. An excerpt from Lippincott's Maga- 

zine, March, 1893, p. 260. is given : "Around 
bullet head, not very full of brain, yet re- 
puted to be fairly stocked with what is termed 
horse-sense" C. P. HALE. 

" THE MAN IN THE STREET " (9 th S. ii. 7). 
The locus classicus for this phrase, now such 
a favourite with newspaper writers, is in 
Emerson's 'Conduct of Life Worship': 

"Certain patriots in England devoted themselves 
for years to creating a public opinion that should 
break down the corn-laws and establish free trade. 
' Well,' says the man in the street, ' Cobden got a 
stipend out of it. 5 " 


ENGLISH WRITERS (9 th S. ii. 1). In connexion 
with MR. CURRY'S interesting note on this sub- 
ject it may be well to preserve the following 
passage in ' N. & Q.' I cut it, some time ago, 
from a second-hand book catalogue, but with 
reprehensible carelessness neglected to affix 
to it the name of the issuer or the date. It 
was appended to an advertisement of the 
1676 edition of the ' Anatomy of Melan- 
choly ': 

"Mr. W. B. Rye, late of the B.M., has pointed 
out an interesting fact in connexion with the second 
and later editions, namely, that while the first 
edition contains not a single evidence that the 
author was acquainted with Shakespere's works, 
the latter ones contain numerous quotations which 
show that he had read them thoroughly." 

Robert Burton left his books, or some of 
them, to the Bodleian Library. A MS. cata- 
logue exists which I examined many years 
ago. I do not remember if there are any 
Snakesperes in it. The press-mark is " Sela. 
Arch. B, Supra 80 MS." CORNUB. 

DUCHESS OF KENDAL (9 th S. ii. 69). Ermen- 
garde Melusina, Baroness vonderSchulenberg, 
daughter of Gustavus Adolphus, Baron vonder 
Schulenberg, had two daughters by George I., 
viz., Petronille Melusine, Countess of Wal- 
singham, who married Philip, Earl of Chester- 
field, and Margaret Gertrude, who became the 
wife of Count von Lippe. See the 'Complete 
Peerage,' vol. x. pp. 341-2. G. F. R. B. 

DIRECTORY (9 th S. i. 500). Referring to your 
reviewer's remarks, it is worth while to point 
out that although, as he says, Francis would 
not have been called Emperor of Germany 
in 1794, the title Emperor of Austria would 
have been inapplicable, for this was not 
assumed until 1805-6. See Mr. Bryce's ' Holy 
Roman Empire.' 




[9 th S. II. Au. 13, '98, 

SPADE GUINEA, 1796 (9 th S. ii. 67). Accord- 
ing to Mr. R. L. Kenyon's 'Gold Coins of 
England ' (1884), p. 195, the British Museum 
does not possess a guinea of this date. 

G. F. R. B. 

44). Angels are habitants of Norton St. 
Philip, Bath ; and within the last twenty years 
a clergyman named London was head master 
of Pocklington School, Yorkshire. 


THE STANDING EGG (9 th S. i. 386, 472 ; ii. 
53). Great is the virtue of type ! Not till it 
appeared in print did I notice the absurd 
blunder in my note at the last reference. It 
is, of course, the yolk that rises, the white that 
sinks, in the egg. And it is not necessary to 
break the yolk to make the egg stand : the 
displacement of the air-bubble is sufficient. 
I have never seen an egg stand on its small 
end. C. 0. B. 

CAXON : CAXIN (9 th S. ii. 26). Halliwell, 
in his ' Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial 
Words,' says that caxon means a worn-out 

Charles Lamb wrote : 

"He had two wigs, both pedantic, but of different 
omen. The one serene, smiling, fresh powdered, 
betokening a mild day. The other, an old, dis- 
coloured, unkempt, angry caxon, denoting frequent 
and bloody execution." 

Anstey, the author of the 'New Bath 
Guide,' published in 1776, ridiculed in ' The 
Election Ball ' the mode in which a country 
girl supplied herself with oneof those fashion- 
able monstrosities, a modern headdress : 
With presence of mind flying up to the garret, 
Brought down my old wig, that s as red as a carrot, 
And to it she went, dear, ingenious sweet soul, 
Drawing up the old caul till it fitted her poll. 
Then with dripping and flour did so baste it and 


The hair all became of a beautiful grizzle ; 
Those curls, which a barber would view with 

She did coax, twist, and twine with such skill and 

such care, 
With combs, pins, and paste make such frequenl 

attacks on, 

She triumph'd at length, and subdu'd the old caxon 
Which done, she the front in a cushion did wrap, 
Till the foretop stood up like a grenadier's cap. 

The italics are mine. Does not the tern 
apply to an old wig of any description ? 

71, Brecknock Road. 

YOUR DADS " (9 th S. ii. 68). Nothing is knowr 
of the author* of these words. They are t 
be found in many ballad collections. In hi 

Popular Music ' Chappell gives seven verses, 
he first six from 'Westminster Drollery,' 
672, and the last from a later collection. 
They are obviously words capable of varied 
landling. Nothing is known about the music, 
ither, beyond the fact that the present tune 

not that originally used. Chappell prints 
>oth, and the early one (probably " the first 
^igure-dance at Mr. Young's Ball, in May, 
671") was employed in 'Pills to Purge 
ightly regrets that the song cannot be 
raced ; but he should console himself by the 
hought that ' The Leather Botte'l ' and r Bar- 
>ara Allen,' better and older tunes both, are 
n no better plight. GEORGE MARSHALL. 

Sefton Park, Liverpool. 

JLEET STREET (9 th S. i. 506 ; ii. 71). The long, 
original, and important communication on 
this subject in ' N. & Q.,' 1 st S. v. 232, ought 
ro be pointed out. W. C. B. 

68). See 7 th S. xi. 506 ; xii. 108, 233, 277, 374, 
449 ; 8 fch S. i. 55. C. C. B. 

SHEPHERD'S CHESS (9 th S. ii. 8). I should 
imagine this to be the same as nine men's 
morris, which is a substantial kind of tit-tat- 
to (ante, p. 26). ST. SWITHIN. 

This explains the words of one of the school- 
ohildren's singing games here which always 
puzzled me only they have it "shepherd's 
cross " (see ' Berkshire School Games ' in the 
Antiquary). E. E. THOYTS. 

Sulhampstead, Berks. 

491, 517). This appears to have been sur- 
veyed and designed by Richard Newcourt. 
Is there any valid reason why his claims are 
now eliminated 1 A. H. 

FOLK-LORE (9 th S. i. 488). The fear of 
being charged with burglary can hardly be 
called "folk-lore." The coincident informa- 
tion with respect to Belgian labour in France 
is interesting. In February, 1893, I noticed 
at the P.L.M. station, Paris, a number of 
men with bags of linen, dress, or apron stuff', 
and with implements shaped like a sickle, 
without an edge, but with a sharp point 
which was guarded with a cork. Some 
distance down the line they got out ; and I 
then asked a porter what they were. He 
told me they were Belgians who came to 
work on the sugar-beet farms. 


Tower House, New Hampton. 

9 th & It AUG. 13, ' 



OLDEST PARISH REGISTER (8 th 8. xi. 108. 
215; 9 th S. ii. 35). I should like to know upon 
what authority C. H. C. states that the 
register of Alfriston dates from 1512. Ha* 
he seen it ? The Parish Register Return gives 
the date of its commencement as 1538, which 
is much more likely. One is constantly being 
told of the existence of registers of an earlier 
date than 1538, but so far as my experience 
goes the story breaks down on proper inquiry 
being made, and with the exception of the 
three known to begin in 1528 I decline to 
believe in the existence of any of earlier date 
till I have personally inspected them. Of the 
three which begin in 1528 I can speak from 
personal knowledge : they are Elsworth in 
Cambridgeshire, and Perlethorpe and Car- 
burton, chapelries in the parish of Edwin- 
stowe, in Nottinghamshire. The last two, 
having been printed, require no remark. The 
Elsworth register, which, with the exception 
of the heading, appears to be a contemporary 
document, has not been printed, so I give its 
commencement : 

Elsworth booke of Baptzinge 
mariages & buirialls according 
to the law made at the parla- 
ment a 1597.* 
Baptizatoru' catalog" 
f Elena Holmes filia Patricij 
A 1528 -! Holmes baptizata 6 die octob. 

U d'ni 1528. 

There are only three entries of baptisms for 
this year ; then comes 

Con'ubioru' catalog 8 1529. 
The burial entries do not begin till 1539. 

With regard to Alfriston, a reference to 
British Museum Add. MS. 5697, 302, may 
possibly throw some light on its commence- 
ment. I am writing away from London, so 
cannot refer to it myself. 

Rouge Croix and Librarian of Registers 
in the College of Arms. 

"ANOTHER STORY" (9 th S. i. 349, 417). At 
the last reference you ask if this is to be 
found in Lucian. I nave not access to Lucian 
in the original. In Dr. Francklin's translation, 
vol. i. p. 30 (London, Cadell, 1781), I find : 

" If at any time I seem to fail, yon are to suppose 
the thing itself much better, and that, when the 
poet made it, it was quite another affair ; if you 
should hiss me, I assure you I shall not be angry." 

Perhaps this may be the passage you are in 
quest of. R. M. SPENCE, D.D. 

Manse of Arbuthnott, N.B. 

* This heading must be of later date, as it refers 
to the Constitution of 39 Elizabeth. 

"SABLE SHROUD" (9 th S. i. 445). As has 
been pointed out in the note, this expression 
was borrowed from Milton, and Mallet did 
not trouble himself to ascertain whether 
people were buried in sable shroitds or not. 
The reference to woollen shrouds calls to 
mind Pope's lines : 

" Odious ! in woollen ! 'twould a saint provoke," 
Were the last words that poor Narcissa spoke. 

In 'Much Ado about Nothing' Beatrice 
says : "I could not endure a husband with a 
beard on his face ; I had rather lie in the 
woollen." Thereupon Steevens weakly re- 
marks : " I suppose she means between 
blankets, without sheets." But the above 
lines of Pope show her meaning. She means 
that she would rather be dead, corpses being 
wrapped in woollen. E. YARDLEY. 

In ' Curious Church Customs ' (W. Andrews, 
1895) is an article on 'Burial Customs,' by 
England Hewlett, F.S.A. Thence I cull the 
following paragraph : 

' Burial in armour was not at all uncommon in 
the Middle Ages, and was considered a most honour- 
able form of burial. Sir Walter Scott, in ' The Lay 
of the Last Minstrel,' thus refers to it : 

Seem'd all on fire that chapelproud, 

Where Roslin's chiefs uncomn'd lie, 
Each baron, for a sable shroud, 
Sheathed in his iron panoply." 

West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

There is a modern instance in the Ghost's 
song in the second act of 'Ruddigore,' by 
W. S. Gilbert : 

And inky clouds, 
Like funeral shrouds, 

Sail over the midnight sky. 
Thou sable cloth and cover of my joys, 
I lift thee up and thus I meet with death. 

Beaumont and Fletcher. ' Knight of the 
Burning Pestle, IV. iv. 

Canonbury, N. 

Perhaps the following stanza from 'The 
Lay of the Last Minstrel' (canto vi.) may 
36 an illustration : 

Seem'd all on fire that chapel proud, 

Where Roslin's chiefs uncomn'd lie, 
Each baron, for a sable shroud, 
Sheathed in his iron panoply. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 
This term need not be taken literally as 
' black," but figuratively, as " sad, dismal, 
mournful." See dictionaries with meanings. 

A. H. 

" Novus Thesaurus Philologico - Criticus, 
sive Lexicon in LXX. et reliquos Interpretes 



s. IT. AUG. 13, m 

Grsecos, ac Scriptores Apocryphos Veteris 
Testament!; post Bielium et alios viros 
doctos congessit et edidit Johannes Friederi- 
cus Schleusner." Lipsise, 1820-21, in five parts 
or volumes, 8vo. Glasguae et Londini, 1822, in 
three thick volumes, 8vo. In the last edition 
many typographical errors in the former are 
corrected and English renderings are given 
of Schleusner's German translations. 

Manse of Arbuthnott, N.B. 

The first complete lexicon of the Septuagint 
is, I think, that of J. C. Biel, Hag. Com., 
1779-80, in three octavo volumes. An im- 
provement upon this as its basis is the 
lexicon of J. F. Schleusner, Lips., 1820, or 
Glasgow and London in two volumes, 1822. 


ROBERT FERGUSSON (9 th S. i. 186). The 
inscription on the stone in Canongate Kirk- 
yard, Edinburgh, placed by Burns over 
Fergusson's grave, is as follows : 

Here lies Robert Fergusson, poet, 

born 5 Sept., 1751, and died 16 Oct., 1774. 

No pageant bearings here nor pompous lay, 

No storied urn nor animated bust, 
This simple stone directs old Scotia's way 
To pour her sorrows o'er her poet's dust. 

From which it will be seen that the poet at 
his death had only just completed his twenty- 
third year. 

Burns's appreciation of Fergusson may be 
gathered from the opening sentence of his 
letter to the bailies of Canongate requesting 
permission to place a stone over Fergusson's 
grave, which runs : 

" I am sorry to be told that the remains of Robert 
Fergusson, the so justly celebrated poet, a man 
whose talent for ages to come will do honour to our 
Caledonian name, lie in your churchyard among the 
ignoble dead, unnoticed and unknown. Some 
memorial to direct the steps of the lovers of 
Scottish song, when they wish to shed a tear over 
the ' narrow house ' of the bard who is no more, is 
surely a tribute due to Fergusson's memory." 
' Book of Burns,' p. 143. 

A letter from Burns to Peter Hill, dated 
Dumfries, Feb. 5, 1792, enclosing 61. Is., and 
authorizing him to pay to Mr. Robert Burn, 
architect, the designer and builder of the 
Nelson monument on Calton Hill, Edinburgh, 
" for erecting the stone over pcor Fergusson." 
was sold at the sale of the late Mr. A. C. 
Lamb's library and autographs on 7 February 
last for 30. 9s. JOHN HEBB. 

Canonbury, N. 

L/OME, L.> Beaux' Stratagem ' was very 
YOUR DADS (ff u v the late Miss Litton, at 
of the author- of the, ttached to the Aqua- 
be round in many ballau 

rium, Westminster), on Monday, 22 September, 
1879. The characters were cast as follows : 
Lady Bountiful, Mrs. Stirling; Mrs. Sullen, 
Miss Litton ; Dorinda, Miss Meyrick ; Cherry, 
Miss Carlotta Addison ; Gipsy, Miss Pas- 
singer ; Aimwell, Mr. Edgar ; Sir Charles 
Freeman, Mr. Denny; Archer, Mr. William 
Farren; Sullen, Mr. Ryder; Foigard, Mr. 
Bannister ; Boniface, Mr. Everill ; Hounslow, 
Mr. Bunch ; Bagshot, Mr. Leitch ; Gibbet, 
Mr. Kyrle Bellew ; Scrub, Mr. Lionel Brough. 
The old comedy was fitted on this occasion 
with a new Prologue (spoken by Mrs. Stirling) 
and Epilogue, from the clever pen of Mr. 

10, Old Burlington Street. 

" HORSE GUARDS" (9 th S. ii. 7). "1691, 
April 16. An order is fixed on the Horse Guards' 
door by Whitehall, that no suspected person be 
permitted to walk in St. James's Park ; and 
that several private doors into it should be 
shut up " (Ewald's ' Paper and Parchment 
Historical Sketches,' p. 186, s. v. ' Leaves from 
an Old Diary'). H. ANDREWS. 

249, 416). "In writing, in criticism, and in 
life in all these, first impressions are to 
be preserved." In reading some remarks of 
Sir Joshua Reynolds more than fifty years 
ago, I took a note of these words. I should 
be obliged if any of your readers would tell 
me where they are to be found. D. R. 


" KITTY- WITCHES" (9 th S. i. 388). For 
" kitties " see Ramsay's ' Christ's Kirk on the 
Green,' Canto I. (supposed to have been the 
composition of James I. of Scotland, who 
died in 1437), v. 1. 1. 7. "There came out 
kitties washen clean," who, in v. 2, 1. 2, are 
spoken of as 

Thir lasses light o' laits ; 

with the note, "Light or wanton in their 
manners." I presume &^y kitten. Cf. " A 
Welsh bitch makes a Cheshire cat, and a 
Cheshire cat makes a Lancashire witcn," 
which describes the harlot's progress in the 
factory towns. THOMAS J. JEAKES. 

Tower House, New Hampton. 

The Rev. A. Smythe Palmer in his 'Folk- 
Etymology ' says a kitty- witch is a Norfolk 
word for a cockchafer, from the A.-S. 
ivicga, seen also in e&r-tvig, and refers to the 
Philological Society's Transactions, 1858, p. 103 
Halliwell in his 'Dictionary of Provincial 
Words ' gives as a meaning '* a kind of small 
crab, a species of sea-fowl, a female spectre." 

71, Brecknock Road. 

9 th S. II. AUG. 13, '98.] 



SUFFOLK (9 th S. i. 508 ; ii. 56). At the latter 
reference Miss POLLARD states that it is my 
" present attitude " which prevents the amal- 
gamation of Holy Trinity Church with St. 
Botolph's, Aldgate, taking place. This is a 
little mistake on her part, for it is the Rev. 
R. H. Hadden, the vicar of St. Botolph's, who 
stands in the way of " the Order in Council " 
being carried out. 

In my new work ' Six Hundred Years,' of 
which I enclose a few particulars, every pos- 
sible information will be found in reference 
to the church, ranging from 1293 to 1893. 
Many wrong impressions are also there 
brushed away. SAMUEL KINNS. 

THE PORTER'S LODGE (8 th S. xii. 507 ; 9 th 
S. i. 112, 198). Thus Mistress Lilias Brad- 
bourne, the waiting-woman on the Lady of 
Avenel, with reference to Roland Grseme : 

" ' Nay, chide him not, Lilias,' said the Lady of 
Avenel, ' for beshrew me, but I think he comes of 
gentle blood see how it musters in his face at your 
injurious reproof.' 

" ' Had I my will, madam,' answered Lilias, 'a good 
birchen wand should make his colour muster to 
better purpose still."' 'The Abbot,' chap. iii. 

In chap. vi. of the same work a proverb is 
used which I have long been in quest of. 
Master Wingate, the steward at Avenel 
Castle, observes : 

"And for Roland Graeme, though he may be a good 
riddance in the main, yet what says the very sooth 
proverb, ' Seldom comes a better' ? " 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

HUGH AWDELEY (9 th S. i. 185). A claim to 
noble descent has been put forward on behalf 
of this miser may I not add usurer 1 Can 
the details be submitted to 'N. & O.'l 

A. H. 

"So PLEASED" (9 th S. i. 188, 315). It does 
not seem to have been noticed that there 
was a similar use in Latin of so for very, as 
in the phrases " non ita pridem " for " not 
very long ago" and "non ita multo post" 
for " not very long after." 


Trinity College, Melbourne. 

SAMUEL WILDERSPIN (8 th S. xii. 387 ; 9 th S. 
i. 270, 332.) Mr. Bartley, in ' The Schools for 
the People,' 108, repeats the statement about 
Robert Owen made by Lord Brougham. On 
the same authority it is added that "Mr. 
Buchanan shortly afterwards started the 
school at Brewer's Green, Westminster," " the 
first complete infant school in the world." 


"FACING THE Music" (8 th S. ix. 168, 272, 
477 ; x. 226, 306, 403). I have just come across 
another explanation or rather two, for there 
is an alternative of this phrase. In Mr. W. S. 
Walsh's 'Handy-book of Literary Curiosities' 
(London, 1894), is the following : 

"Face the music, a proverbial phrase, probably 
derived from the stage, where it is used by actors in 
the green-room when preparing to go on the boards to 
literally face the music. Another explanation 
traces it to militia-muster, where every man is 
expected to appear fully equipped and armed, when 
in rank and file, facing the music." 

Mr. Walsh is an American writer. It will 
be observed that the expression is the same 
as that used by Stevenson in ' The Ebb Tide,' 
a quotation from which, wherein the phrase 
is used, being printed at the last reference. 

C. P. HALE. 

" RESTORE THE HEPTARCHY " (8 th S. xii. 447, 
516). In a recent number of ' N. <fc Q.' the 
question was asked, " Who was the author of 
the saying, 'Restore the Heptarchy'"? The 
Right Hon. Richard Lalor Shiel, M.P., was 
the author. He made use of the expression 
in a speech in the House of Commons, 
19 May, 1843, on the Irish Arms Bill. He 
said : 

" Repeal the Union restore the Heptarchy. 
Thus exclaimed George Canning, and stamped on 
the floor of this house as he gave utterance to a 
comparison in absurdity, which has been often 
cited. But that exclamation may be turned to an 
account different from that to which it is applied. 
Restore the Heptarchy repeal the Union." 

Clontarf, co. Dublin, Ireland. 

"CREX" (9 th S. i. 67, 117). Herein Warwick- 
shire we have a similar word, kex, a name 
given in general to all those umbelliferous 
plants with white flowers, so common in 
ditches and hedgerows and waste places, and, 
if seen in the meadows, as much a sign of 
neglect now as in Shakespeare's time : 
The even mead, that erst brought sweetly forth 
The freckled cowslip, burnet, and green clover. 
Wanting the scythe, all uncorrected, rank, 
Conceives by idleness, and nothing teems 
But hateful docks, rough thistles, Tcecksies, burs, 
Losing both beauty and utility. 

' Henry V.' V. ii. 

Langstone, Erdington. 

A fair-sized round, yellowish plum, only 
fully ripe in November, is known in Derby- 
shire as the "winter crack." They are called 
"cracks" because with the first frost 3 the 
fruit cracks on one side, being then fully ripe, 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. IL AUG. is, w. 

x. 174, 246, 520). There is still a turning 
called Hermes Hill, nearly continuing Hermes 
Street northward ; and I fancy Dr. De 
Vanlangin's house is standing complete, only 
divided into smaller ones. It faces \vest, 
with windows quite in the style of 1750. 
Some high board schools shut out all view. 

E. L. G. 

THE BACON FAMILY (8 th S. xii. 147 ; 9 th S. 
i. 435). It appears Du Bartas wrote the name 
" Baccon "; it varied considerably in ancient 
documents, even reaching Bacoun, nor have 
we any valid authority for its origin. I 
would suggest a corruption of Bacton, a 
place-name in Norfolk. The original Bacons 
claimed relationship to the Glanvilles, and 
their foundation of Bromholm Abbey (1113), 
is described as in Bacton parish. A. HALL. 

13, Paternoster Row, E.G. 

"Two is COMPANY" (8 th S. xii. 268). The 
phrase "Two's company and three 's trum- 
pery" is cited in the Oxford dictionary as a 
proverb or proverbial saying, s. v. ' Company,' 
1, d. The authority given is "Mrs. Parr, 
' Adam and Eve,' ix. 124 " ; date 1880. 


388, 473). The following extracts from the 
Barnstaple parish register respecting a pre- 
decessor of mine in the head mastership of the 
Barnstaple Grammar School, seems to me to 
support the conjecture of F. J. P. that the 
name Dolor was given on account of " the 
dolorous state of affairs surrounding the boy's 

" Dolorosus, son of Mr. Humfrye Jeff'erte was 
baptised June the 12th 1589." 

" Mr. Humfrye Jeffert skoolem r was buried June 
14th 1589." 



MALLET FAMILY (8 th S. xii. 447; 9 th S. i. 31). 
Chauncy (ii. 115) mentions a William Mallet, 
of Horseheath, in the county of Cambridge, 
2 Henry V., as having a daughter Dionese, 
who married William de Alington of 
Botesham. M.A.OxoN. 


LAMB " (9 th S. i. 400, 491). With reference to 
the remarks of KILLIGREW on this subject, 
perhaps it may interest your correspondent 
to know that I have in my possession a copy 
(purchased for the sake of the illustrations) 
of the latest published edition of ' A Senti- 
mental Journey through France and Italy,' 
by Lawrence Sterne (London, Bliss, Sands 

& Co., 1897), in which the quotation " God 
tempers the wind " is printed in italics (vide 
p. 408) ; and that in my copy of ' The Works 
of Laurence Sterne' (London, Henry G. 
Bohn, 1865), Maria's expression, " God 
tampers the wind to the shorn lamb" is also 
italicized (vide p. 472). I need hardly call 
attention to the fact that George Herbert has 
in his ' Jacula Prudentum,' " To a close-shorn 
sheep God gives wind to measure." 

Clapham, S.W. 

Sterne was an unscrupulous poacher, and 
in this instance not only snared his bird but 
dressed it up with fresh feathers. I have not 
George Herbert's 'Jacula Prudentum,' 1640, 
but think the apothegm is "To a close-shorn 
shepe God gives wind by measure." This 
seems more appropriate, as it is riot usual, if 
at all customary, to shear lambs. Henri 
Etienne, a century and a half before Sterne, 
seems to be. the first known author of the 
sentiment. Some of the authors from whom 
Sterne levied contributions were Eabelais, 
Beroulde Sieur de Verville, Theodore Agrippa 
D'Aubigne, Bouchet's ' Evening Conferences,' 
'Les Penseesde Bruscamville,'Tabarin Gabriel 
John, and others. GEORGE WHITE. 

Ashley House, Epsom. 

"RANTER" (8 th S. xii. 386; 9 th S. i. 134, 
234). The following are extracts from the 
' Memoirs of James Lackington, the Book- 
seller,' 1794. At p. 110, speaking of Methodist 
prayer meetings : 

" It is impossible for you to form any just idea 
of these assemblies, except you had been present 
at them : one wheedles and coaxes the Divine Being 
in his addresses ; another is amourous and luscious ; 
and a third so rude and commanding that he will 
even tell the Deity that he must be a liar if he does 
not grant all they ask. In this manner will they 
work up one another's imagination until they may 
actually be said to be in a state of intoxication, 
when it often happens that some of them recollect 
a text of Scripture such as, ' Thy sins are forgiven 
thee,' or ' Go and sin no more,' and then they de- 
clare themselves to be born again, or to be sancti- 
fied, &c." 

At p. 112, speaking of Methodist love feasts, 
he says : 

" At these times the spirit is supposed to be very 
powerfully at work amongst them, and such an 
unison of sighing and f/roaniiif/ succeeds that you 
would think they had all lost their senses. In this 
frantic state, men apply to themselves such texts of 
Scripture as happen to come into their heads." 

W. B. H. 

With reference to the correspondence in 
'N. & Q.' on the application of this term, I 
beg to remark that I have come across the 
word in my copy of the delightful edition of 

9 th S. II. AUG. 13, '98.] 



'Marcus Aurelius Antonius to Himself,' by 
Gerald H. Kendall, M.A., Litt.D., &c., just 
published by Macmillan & Co., London ; and 
that the following quotation, in which the 
appellation appears, may not be uninteresting 
to MR. A. F. BOBBINS and other readers of 
'N. &Q.': 

"'Yes, but nature has given man reason, man 
can comprehend and understand what offends ! ' 
' Very good ! Ergo, you too have reason ; use your 
moral reason to move his : show him his error, ad- 
monish him. If he attends, you will amend him ; 
no need for anger you are not a ranter or a w .' " 
Vide p. 65. 

The italics are mine. 

In connexion with the matter perhaps it 
is right to call attention to the fact that 
George Long, in his translation of ' The 
Thoughts of the Emperor M. Aurelius An- 
tonius,' revised edition, George Bell & Sons, 
London, 1887, a copy of which is in my pos- 
session, has, at p. 115 : 

"For if he listens, thou wilt cure him, and there 
is no need of anger. (Neither tragic actor nor w .)" 

And in a foot-note he says : 
" This is imperfect, corrupt, or both." 

Clapham, S.W. 

TODMORDEN (9 th S. i. 21, 78, 114, 217, 272, 
417, 515). I do riot doubt that -den and -don 
are sometimes confused in place-names, but I 
have been struck with the accuracy with 
which these terminations have been kept 
distinct in this neighbourhood ; e. g., Essen- 
don is on a hill, Harpenden, Missenden, 
Gadsden, <tc., are in valleys. T. WILSON. 


OLD-TIME PUNISHMENTS (9 th S. ii. 47). In 
Mr. Christopher A. Markham's paper on 
' Ancient Punishments in Northamptonshire,' 
printed in the Northampton and Oakham 
Architectural Society's reports, a list is given 
of every village in Northamptonshire in 
which stocks, or parts of stocks, remain ; as 
well as records of these and other instruments 
of punishment gallows, pillories, cucking- 
stools, &c. in every part of the country. 


'Punishments tn the Olden Time,' by Mr. 
W. Andrews, F.R.H.S. (1881), if not an ex- 
haustive little work, contains much that is 
interesting upon this subject. 


Fair Park, Exeter. 

In 1874 a local artist showed a photo of a 
scold's bridle, presumably still remaining, 
at Sunbury. THOMAS J. JEAKES. 

WHEN NOT A PEER (9 th S. i. 488). Any of your 
readers wishing for information respecting 
the above should consult the ' Orde.r of Pre 
cedence, with Authorities and Remarks,' .by 
Charles George Young, Garter, 1851, pp. 15-19. 

507). The third volume of the " Raccolta di 
Novelle," published at Milan in 1810 by the 
Societa Tipografica de' Classici Italiani, 
contains "La Prima e la Seconda Cena alle 
quali si aggiunge una novella che ci resta 
della Terza Cena, fatta sull' accuratissima 
edizione di Livorno colla data di Londra, 
Bancker, 1793, in 8vo." 

The introduction to the " Raccolta " men- 
tions a fine original edition of the ' Prima 
Cena,' which had become rare, and of which 
it says : 

" L' Editore nella dedicatoria al Signor Giacomo 
Dawkins, Cavaliere Inglese, so sottoscrive colle 
lettere F.N.B.P.R. delle quali non saprei il signifi- 

This " dedicatoria," which is dated "Londra, 
Primo Gennaro, 1756," throws some light on 
the edition of the ' Seconda Cena ' said to have 
been published at Stamboul, and it seems 
to me not unlikely that F.N.B.P.R. and 
Ibrahim Achmet were one and the same 
person. They both dedicate their works to 
Englishmen of the same "set," and tell some- 
what similar stories about their sources of 
information. Thus F.N.B.P.R., addressing 
Dawkins, says : 

" Essendo a me riuscito di ottenere da un letterato 
Florentine la prima parte delle novelle di Anton- 
f rancesco (irazzini detto il Lasca insieme con 1' ultima 
novella dclla terza parte clie per due secoli erano 
state invano ricercate dagli amatori della Toscana 
eloquenza, fin d' allora che la seconda parte nel 1743 
fu pubblicata in Firenze colla data di Stambtil." 

Ibrahim Achmet, writing thirteen years 
earlier of his success in discovering the MSS. 
of the ' Seconda Cena,' says : 

"Tre dovrebbero essere le Cene clal nostro autore 
composte, ma il tempo divoratore di tutte le cose 
nonna tramandato a noi se non quest' una, che la 
seconda, essendo la prima intieramente perduta e 
della terza rcstandoci poco." 

According to the editor of the " Raccolta 
di Novelle," F.N.B.P.R. published his book at 
Paris in 175(5. "con la finta data di Londra," 
which is much the same procedure as that 
adopted in such matters by Ibrahim Achmet. 

F.N.B.P.U. knew all about the latter and 
his English literary friends, for in explaining 
why he finds it appropriate to dedicate his 
book to an English patron, he says : 

"Oltre di che la seconda parte di questo libro 
essendo uscita alia luce sotto gli auspicj del Signer 



Bouverie, al quale era stato destinato tutto ci6 che si 
fosse in avvenire ritrovato di queste novelle, dopo 
la di lui morte accaduta, mentre con voi e col dotto 
Signor R. Wood faceya il celebre viaggio dell' Asia ; 
a voi come suo amico ed erede delle illustri e 
letterarie imprese di si famosa societa era dovuto 
questo mis dono." 

R. Wood was the author of the folio dated 
1753 on the ruins of Baalbec and Palmyra, 
and F.N.B.P.R. further refers to him in his 
dedication as being, like his other friends 
Giacomo Stuart and Niccola Revett, patrons 
of Italian arts and literature. The two latter 
are the well-known writers on the antiquities 
of Athens. 

Probably some of your readers can supply 
notes about Bouverie and Dawkins, who are 
not mentioned in the 'Dictionary of National 
Biography,' and suggest why the three 
editions I mention of II Lasca's novels, 
printed, apparently, at Florence, Paris, and 
Leghorn, are represented on their title-pages 
as published in Constantinople and London. 

J. M. T. 

SOURCE OF QUOTATION (9 th S. ii. 7, 72). 
"Backward, turn backward." If J. A. S. 
likes to write I could get him a copy of this 
song I think. E. E. THOYTS. 

Sulhampstead, Berks. 

ii. 69). 
The line : 

The love-light in her eye 

occurs in the poem "She is not fair to outward view,'' 
by H. Coleridge (No. ccxviii. p. 207, 'Golden 
Treasury of Songs and Lyrics'). The second stanza 
runs : 

But now her looks are coy and cold, 

To mine they ne'er reply, 
And yet I cease not to behold 

The love-light in her eye. 
Her very frowns are fairer far 
Than smiles of other maidens are. 


This line occurs in 'The Irish Emigrant,' by Helen, 
Lady Dufferin (grand-daughter of Richard Brinsley 
Sheridan) : 

The corn was springing fresh and green, 

And the lark sang loud and high, 
And the red was on your cheek, Mary, 
And the love-light in your eye. 


This is apparently an imperfect reminiscence of a 
line in Lady Duffcrin's ' Lament of the Irish Emi- 
grant ' : 

And the red was on your lip, Mary, 
And the love-light in your eye. 

C. C. B. 

I think from a little poem by Hartley Coleridge, 

She was not fair to outward view 
As many maidens be, 

A version into Latin elegiacs by Shilleto will be 
found in ' Sabrinse Corolla,' p. 235, ed. 1. 


The last line of the first verse of the popular old 
song, ' The Irish Emigrant,' is 

And the love-light in your eye. 
I think the words are by either the Hon. Mrs. 
Norton or Lady Dufferin. ALFRED MOLONY. 

(9 th S. i. 509.) 
The quotation : 

Hush, hush, hush, 
I am listening for the voices 
Which I heard in days of old, 

asked for by W. B. K., is from a song entitled ' The 
Lonely Harp,' the words by the Hon. Mrs. Norton, 
music by Miss A. Cowell, dedicated to the Countess 
of Jersey. The printed music was given to me in 
1848. I shall be pleased to copy the words for 
W. B. K. if wished. J. ASTLEY. 


Calendar of Letters and State Papers relating to 
English, Affairs, preserved principally in the 
Archives of Simancas, 1580-1586. Edited by 
Martin A. S. Hume. (Stationery Office.) 
THE plot thickens as we advance through the 
wilderness of these Spanish papers. The time of 
the Armada was drawing near, and everything that 
Englishmen hold dear seemed at stake. Their 
country was never in greater peril, not even in the 
darkest hour of our death-grapple with the first 
Napoleon. Whether in this trying time Elizabeth 
and her ministers acted with that consummate 
prudence \vhich has been so often attributed to 
them by those who had but few original documents 
to guide them, it is hard to say, so very much 
depends on our ideas of what is and what is not 
lawful in the diplomacy of states. One thing these 
p,pers show without doubt is that, however 
inexcusable from the modern point of view the 
imprisonment and slaughter of Catholic mission- 
aries may have been, there was much to be said in 
favour at the time by those who were not members 
of the ancient faith. That the priests were almost 
to a man loyal, or, at least, not actively disloyal, 
is now manifest, but this could not have been clear 
to the ordinary understanding at a time when the 
black thunder-cloud of Spain overshadowed half 
the heavens. The political schemes of Mendoza are 
here in some measure exposed, though more in- 
formation probably for ever unattainable is much 
wanted. The Duke of Alencon's cause and character 
comes out much more clearly. Whatever be our 
estimate of the character of Elizabeth, we cannot 
but feel glad that the projected marriage never took 
place. The volume contains many letters of Mary, 
Queen of Scots ; but we think most of them have 
already been printed by Labanoff and others. One 
of the most curious documents in the volume is 
headed a " Statement of the Provinces of England 
and their Present Condition." It belongs to the 
year 1586. What means of information the writer 
may have possessed it is impossible to say; but it 
seems to be thoroughly truthful in intention. Under 
Yorkshire, we are told that all the gentlemen are 
Catholics or Schismatics, much devoted to the Queen 

9* s. ii. AUG. 13, '98.] NOTES AND QUERIES* 


of Scotland, except the lieutenant and six others> 
who are greatly hated. We wish we knew who the 
six were. By Schismatics are meant conformists, 
who went to church to avoid fines ; but who were 
believed to be at heart Catholic. On the other 
hand, we are told that the counties of Cambridge, 
Huntingdon, and Suffolk are full of heretics. The 
report is, on the whole, favourable to the idea that 
if a Spanish army had landed there would have 
been a general rising. We none of us can tell what, 
under other circumstances, might have come to 
pass, but our opinion is that the spy who com- 
municated the information was, in many instances, 
deluded by fanatics or interested persons. 

Pembrokeshire Antiquities. (Solva, Williams.) 
THE editor of the Pembroke County Guardian has 
for some time devoted a part of his space to 
antiquarian notes and correspondence relating to 
the county. He has condensed some of this into a 
pleasant and useful volume, and holds out to his 
readers the hope that, if no financial loss be 
incurred, a volume of the same kind may appear 
annually. Such books discharge two useful functions, 
they preserve the memory of facts of which, but for 
their intervention, all traces would be lost, and 
they stimulate readera to make researches which 
otherwise might never have been undertaken. For 
example, there is a correspondence on holy wells 
which is in itself interesting, but its chief merit 
consists in the suggestion, which seems likely to be 
followed, that a complete list of these interesting 
objects should be compiled, so far as they exist in 
Pembrokeshire. Wells are, perhaps, as a writer 
here remarks, " the oldest religious symbols we 
possess." We therefore should not let what is 
called civilization efface the rites connected with 
them from our memory. If the wells of this county 
be catalogued within a reasonable time, it will, we 
believe, be the only shire in the island, except 
Cornwall, which possesses any list of the sort that 
comes near to being exhaustive. We would remark, 
however, that all old wells with names attached 
should be noted, not those only which are known to 
have had religious or folk-lore beliefs clinging to 
them. Many wells that yet exist bear highly curious 
names, often very difficult of interpretation, others, 
now lost or forgotten, are recorded as boundary- 
marks in old charters and surveys. 

Several eminent Wslsh scholars have contributed 
to the work. Prof. Rhys has given two papers on 
the Celtic inscriptions of the county and another on 
the ancient names of Haverford. Mr. Lawes 
discourses on Ogam stones, and there are several 
folk-lore articles worthy of attention. Mr. Ferrar 
Fenton's account of Baal's House Dog is curious as 
furnishing a late instance of the master-spirit of 
evil, or one of his agents, appearing under the 
semblance of a black dog. Is this creature a parallel 
of the English Barghest? Mr. J. Phillips draws 
attention to two seemingly unrecorded proceedings 
for heresy in the reign of Henry VII. Both the 
incriminated persons abjured and were let off easily. 
The Spectator. Edited by George A. Aitken. 

Vol. VIII. (Nimmo.) 

THE present volume, the eighth, of this handsome, 
admirably printed, and scholarly edition of the 
Spectator the most attractive and serviceable yet 
printed completes the work. The portrait it sup- 

g'ies is of Zachary Pearce, the scholarly Bishop oi 
ochester, who contributed to the Spectator two 
papers, both included in the concluding volume. 

The vignette is an admirably executed view of 
Hunger-ford Stairs. In addition to the dedication and 
preliminary matter and the concluding numbers, the 
volume contains, in the shape of appendices, (1) the 
unpublished letters addressed to the Spectator, (2) 
;he advertisements from the folio edition, (3) trans- 
.ation of the mottoes, (4) corrigenda, and (5) general 
.ndex to the eight volumes. These have abundant in- 
terest, the last-named being, of course, indispensable. 
The index to Chalmers's edition of 'The British 
Essayists ' is a work the student of eighteenth-cen- 
tury literature is bound to have at his hand. The 
present index, which naturally excludes the Tatler, 
Rambler, and other works, is, so far as it extends, 
more ample. Particularly serviceable is the list 
of pseudonyms. We congratulate the publisher and 
the editor on the termination of a useful task, and 
we commend to the public this eminently desirable 
edition of our English masterpiece. 

PERHAPS because it is holiday time though the 
reason seems more than a little idle there are few 
articles of literary interest or importance in the 
August reviews and magazines. Mr. William 
Archer, none the less, in the Fortnightly, introduces 
us, under the title 'A Shropshire Poet,' to Mr. 
A. E. Housman, a writer of marked originality of 
thought and power of expression, with whom we 
hope to form a closer acquaintance. In dealing 
with ' The Two Byrons ' Mr. Walter Sichel points 
to a good many slips and oversights in Mr. Henley's 
edition of Byron. Mr. William Sharp deals in a 
spirit of high appreciation with Edward Burne- 
Jpnes, and includes many agreeable personal remi- 
niscences. It is something of a surprise to hear that 
Burne-Jones thought of devoting himself to litera- 
ture, but met with faint encouragement from 
Rossetti and absolute dissuasion from Morris. Mr. 
Malcolm Morris, writing on ' The Prevention of 
Consumption,' has much to say of high interest, 
and supplies some startling advice. The number is 
excellent. In the Nineteenth Century the most 
spirited articles are controversial. Not at all 
suited to our columns is Mr. W. H. Mallock's 
answer to Mr. Herbert Spencer. It is, however, a 
sufficiently vigorous piece of writing, which may be 
commended to those interested in the subject of 
sociology. It is a good specimen, moreover, of the 
manner in which a literary or philosophical 
discussion ought to be conducted. Not less 
vigorous than Mr. Mallock is Dr. Josiah Oldfield 
in answering Sir Henry Thompson on the subject of 
vegetarianism. Miss Gertrude Tuckwell gives a 
harrowing description of the sufferings of the 
women engaged in the Potteries, and shows how 
little in the way of remedial legislation has yet 
been accomplished. Mrs. Hugh Bell puts in a 
readable and important ' Plea for the Better 
Teaching of Manners.' Mr. F. Wedmore depicts, 
in a few bright pages, ' The Theatrical Position ' ; 
the Warden of Merton deals with ' The University 
of Oxford in 1898 ' ; and Miss Elizabeth L. Banks 
gives a startling account of 'American "Yellow 
Journalism."' incidents of the war just ending 
and descriptions of the newly-acquired American 
possessions constitute the bulk of the Century, 
which gives some striking pictures of recent feats. 
' The Seven Wonders of the World ' is, however, 
still continued, supplying an account of the statue 
of Zeus, at Olympia, with an imaginary design of 
the goa, gigantic in size, seated, and receiving 
oblation and homage. Continued, also, is the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. * s. it A, is, 

series of ' Heroes of Peace,' illustrated by many 
representations of rescues on the deep. Englishmen 
will read with interest the account of the Arctic 
monument named after Tennyson by Dr. Kane. 
The paper has a view of the remarkable monument 
itself and portraits of Dr. Kane and his ancestors or 
relatives. ' The Trumpet in Camp and Battle ' is 
an article of a very unfamiliar kind. Gilbert Stuart's 
portrait of Nancy Pennington and the reproduction 
of Sir William Beechey's 'Brother and Sister' are 
excellent. The war articles have .also abundant 
interest. The frontispiece to the Pall Modi consists 
of an excellent photogravure of ' The Knight and 
Donor' of Hugo Van der Goes. A specially inter- 
esting paper is that of E. M. J. on the royal plate 
at Windsor Castle. Among the objects illustrated 
is the gold tiger's head, formerly in the possession 
of Tippoo Sahib. A capital account is given of the 
lovely Chateau of Chantilly, illustrated with many 
fine views and portraits. The Hon. Mrs. Boyle 
describes ' The Old House at Huntercombe and its 
Garden.' 'A Cots wold Village' depicts a sweet 
rural spot on the river Coin. ' The Heart of Modern 
Lapland,' and ' The Ship: Her Story,' part ii., are to 
be commended. Scribner's, the coyer of which once 
more offers a remarkable illustration of printing in 
colours, bears the title of a fiction number. It lias 
a good many stories, but it contains also a consider- 
able number of articles on war topics, including a 
continuation of Capt. Mahan's ' John Paul Jones in 
the Revolution,' and a second of the ' Story of the 
Revolution.' Among the stories is one of Mr. 
Kenneth Grahame's child tales entitled ' A Saga of 
the Seas.' Special attention is attracted by the 
coloured illustrations to a poem entitled ' The Sea is 
His.' These appear to be a complete novelty in their 
class.' Fights for the Flag,' by the Rev. W. H. 
Fitchett are continued in the Cornhill, the latest 
depicting Marlborough at Blenheim. ' Sir John 
Moore in '98,' by Canon Stavely, is described as a 
' Forgotten Page of History.' Dr. John Tod hunter 
has a paper on ' Reading a Dictionary.' ' The 
'Retreat from Moscow is an abridgment or an 
analysis of the experiences, during that disastrous 
campaign, of Sergeant Bourgogne, one of the Old 
Guard. It gives a graphic account of disasters and 
suffering. 1 he ' Etchingham Letters ' are continued, 
and some uncomfortable experiences of amateur 
farming are narrated by Mr. A. L. Stevenson. 
Macmulan's has an account, by Mr. H. C. Mac- 
dowall, of Jules Michelet, a man whose reputation, 
once high, is now on the wane. ' The Story of the 
Uganda Mutiny 'is told .by Major Mockler-Ferry- 
rnan. Mr. David Hannay deals with the new and 
critical edition of ' Don Quixote ' in Spanish, the 
first part of which has been issued by Messrs. 
Constable. Mr. Thomas Baty supplies an import- 
ant paper on ' The Basis of International Law.' 
' The Shepherds of Olympus ' repays perusal. In 
Temple Bar is an important study of 'The O'Don- 
nells in Spain,' a description, not particularly signi- 
ficant, of Lourdes, and articles on Thomas Carew 
and Endymion Porter, to which the student of 
seventeenth-century literature may turn. ' An 
Attractive Pessimist,' is the name bestowed on 
Pierre Loti. ' My Cigar ' deals with the cultivation 
of tobacco in Cuba. In the Gentleman',? the most 
important paper is on John Wilson Croker. There 
is also a good account of ' Chamfort,' by Prof. H. 
Attwell. In a different ri^e, but no 'less to be 
commended, are ' The Brain-Power of Plants' and 
' The Tudor Garden.' The contents of the English 

Illustrated are principally fiction, though one or two 
are of a different class. Such arc ' Faces in Ivory,' 
'Mary Moser, a Forgotten Royal Academician,' 
' In the Public Eye,' and Mr. Shorter's interesting 
'In My Library.' Miss A. Warner gives, in Lonr/- 
man'ft, a graphic description of ' Locusts.' Mr. 
Stanley Lane-Poole has a specially interesting paper 
on ' The Myth of the Soldan.' ' Traits and 
Humours of an Old- Word Book' is concerned with 
' The New Academy of Complements.' Mr. Lang 
is entertaining as ever in 'At the Sign of the Ship.' 
Chapman's is made up of fiction, most of it suffi- 
ciently readable. 

THE Journal of the Ex-Libris Society has a con- 
tinuation of the 'British Trophy Book-Plates ' of 
the editor, with illustrations, one of thorn repro- 
ducing a curious instance of canting heraldry. The 
writer of ' Odd Volumes and their Book-plates ' is 
hurt at the strictures that have been passed upon him 
in a genealogical publication. A quaint boolt-plate 
of Miss Ellen Terry, designed by her son, is given. 

WHAT appears to be the penultimate part of 
Cassell's Gazetteer reaches us, and extends from 
Wick to Wolyerhampton. Among the spots of 
interest described are Winchester, Winchelsea, 
Windermere, Windsor, Winterton, and Wolsingham. 

WE have received from the publishers, Gower, 
Limited, Maldon, a perfect copy of Mr. Fitch's 
excellent and useful Maldon and the River Black- 
water, recently noticed in our columns. We are 
glad to see it has reached a third edition. 

UNDER the title ' Imperial Africa,' Major Mockler- 
Ferryman will issue an important work in three 
volumes, dealing with the British possessions in 
West, East, and South Africa. The first volume, 
sub-entitled ' British West Africa,' will be pub- 
lished in a few days by the Imperial Press, Limited. 
It will contain a large amount of hitherto unpub- 
lished information, much of it derived from the 
personal experience of the author in the Dark Con- 
tinent, and will be illustrated by coloured maps and 
engravings from photographs. 


We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rule. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. Correspond- 
ents who repeat queries are requested to head the 
second communication " Duplicate." 

ASPIRANT (" Woman's Suffrage"). The subject is 
not suited to our columns. You may consult 
Hansard's 'Debates.' 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to 
"The Editor of 'Notes and Queries '"Advertise- 
ments and Business Letters to "The Publisher" 
at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print ; and to this rule we can make no exception. 

9s.iLAr.5W,'88.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. -No. 34. 

NOTES: 'The Basset Table,' 141 Scott's Heroines, 142 
The Swallow's Song. 143 East Barsbam Manor House 
Shropshire Names "Big an' bug," 144 Mayfair Union 
Sir K. Digby Sisters of Same Name "Angels on horse- 
back "'Little Billee' A Felicitous Misprint Anthony 
Clerke, 145 Lion Epitaph Dr. Iron- Beard The Leek 
"Queen's English" Tennyson and Scott, 146 Hair- 
powder, 147. 

QUERIES : " Chloris, farewell ! " " Dutfm " - Gilbert 
Cooper Custis Licence to Crenellate Dean Swift : Mrs. 
Whiteway, 147 Portrait by Lely Richmond Park Brent- 
ford Ilev. W. Carter " Holophusikon" English Agents 
in Poland H. Ireland " He's got the bullet" Quotation 
" Chian "The Kennet " Ordo " Sheffield " Per- 
form'd" Boots, 148 Vesey " Huckler " Morris's Coffee- 
House H. Qrys Maddalena Doui Rev. R. Carter 
"High Commissioner of the Church" De Lamballe 
Reference " Horseman's Beds" Palmistry, 149. 

RKPLIES :-Chintz Gowns Church Tradition, 150 Anne 
Bronte- Gloves at Fairs, 151 Dental Colleges Continental 
Notes and Queries 'Bicycles in Thunderstorms "To 
Chi-ike" "Fret" Curious Christian Name Rev. G. 
Lewis African Names Moon through Coloured Glass- 
Morning, Io2 Church of Scotland Eyre Family Gale 
Through-stoneHeraldry" Hamish,' 1 153' The Bridal 
of Triermain ' A scetic Battle-axes " Neither " St. 
Mary Matfelon " Fond " "The Hem psheres" "Broach- 
ing the admiral" Kingston-on-Thames, 154 Junius " A 
crow to pluck " St. Paul Field-Names Tobacco Bridget 
Cheynell. 155 Ploughing Chelsea Low Latin Claret, 
156 SirW. B. Rush Puddledock Devil's Dam Sweating- 
pits French Cardinal Count St. Germain X Rays, 157 
Church at Silchester Patches Bertolini's Hotel Loch- 
winnoch " Anigosanthus " Soleby, 158 " Tit-tat-to " 
Regent Square Author Wanted, 159. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Baring-Gould's ' Lives of the Saints' 
' Dublin- Printed Books ' ' Ivauhoe ' ' Mediaeval Ser- 
vices in England.' 



THE authorship of this " eclogue " is ques- 
tionable, and having been corrected for 
ascribing it to Lady Mary Wortley Montagu 
rather than to Pope,* I desire after a careful 
investigation to offer the result. 

First taking the evidences which point to 
Lady Mary as the author. The lines quoted 
by me were taken from an illustration in 
'Nares's Glossary,' and there attributed to 
Lady Mary, both in the original edition of 
1822 and in that of 1888 by Halliwell and 
Wright, who, therefore, may be thought to 
endorse that authorship. 

'The Basset Table' was first printed in 
1716 by J. Roberts, in a little volume called 
'Court Poems' (Brit. Mus. 164 m. 43). It 
contains three of the ultimately six 'Town 
Eclogues,' viz., 'The Basset Table,' 'The 
Drawing-Room,' and ' The Toilet.' The bio- 
grapher of Lady Mary in ' Diet. Nat. Biog.' 
says that it was a piratical publication, and 
although the reason for this brand is not 
given, Roberts's account of his possession of 
the poems has much the appearance of in- 

See ante, p. 50, ' Gentleman Porter.' 

vention. He professes them " Published faith- 
fully as they were found in a pocket-book 
taken up in Westminster Hall the last day of 
the Lord Winton's trial."* In his "Advertise- 
ment" he amusingly, if not convincingly, 
relates his inquiry as to the author. At the 
St. James's Coffee-House the poems "were 
attributed by the general voice to a lady of 
quality" (Lady Mary). At Button's "the 
poetical jury" returned a verdict that Gay 
was the author. Then he, Roberts, chose as 
umpire "a gentleman of distinguished merit 
who lives not far from Chelsea " (who would 
this be?), and his reply was, "Sir, depend upon 
it these lines could come from no other hand 
than the judicious translator of Homer " 
(i, e., Pope). Here may be said to commence 
the question of authorship of at least ' The 
Basset Table,' which yet remains open. 

In 1747 were published "Six Town Eclogues, 
with some other Poems, By the R k Hon. L 
M. W. M."t The eclogues are : (1) 'Roxana ; 
or, theDrawing-Room,'(2) 'St. James's Coffee- 
House,' (3) ' The Tete-a-Tete,' (4) ' The Bassette 
Table,' (5) 'The Toilette,' (6) 'The Small Pox.' 
They are assigned to six consecutive days 
of the week (Monday, Tuesday, &c.), thus 
leaving the impression of a series by one 
author, viz., Lady Mary. The editor's name 
does not appear, but he is said to have been 
no one less than Horace Wai pole, J and if so, 
his position as a contemporary man of fashion 
and of letters, well acquainted with Lady 
Mary, and endowed with peculiar inquisitive- 
ness, gives considerable weight to his scarcely 
disguised ascription of the six eclogues to 
Lady Mary. 

In 1803 James Dallaway published "by 
permission from her genuine papers " ' The 
Works of the Rt. Hon. Lady Mary Wortley 
Montagu,' professing that in the edition no 
letter, essay, or poem finds place, the original 
manuscript of which was not at that time in 
the possession of her grandson the Marquis of 
Bute. ' The Basset Table ' is one of the six 
'Town Eclogues,' which he repeats are printed 
from Lady Mary's original MSS. 

In 1837 Lord Wharncliffe, Lady Mary's 
great-grandson, edited her works, he being 

* Lord Wintoun, a Scotch Jacobite, who was 
condemned for high treason, but escaped from the 

t Brit. Mus. 11,631 g. 10. 

J W. Moy Thomas, in his editions (1861 and 
1893) of Lord Wharncliffe's collection of Lady Mary's 
' Works,' has a note (vol. ii. p. 432) to the effect that 
the book of 1747 was published by Horace Walpole, 
" apparently without any authority." And Walpole 
in his ' Letters ' (Cunningham ed. ii. 99) writes, 
24 November, 1747, " I have lately had Lady Mary 
Wortley's 'Eclogues' published." 



11. Ato. 20, t 

dissatisfied with Dallaway's treatment of the 
MSS., which in many cases had not been 
strictly followed. But Lord Wharncliffe 
again presents ' The Basset Table 'the MS. 
of which was, presumably, before him as 
the work of his ancestress. 

W. Moy Thomas in 1861, and again in 1893, 
re-edited Lord Wham cliffe's collection, "with 
additions and corrections from the original 
manuscripts." In his preface (p. iv) Mr. 
Thomas claims that "the writings of Lady 
Mary, of which the manuscripts are still 
existing among the Wortley papers, are now 
for the first time printed faithfully from the 
originals"; and (p. viii) he "acknowledges 
his obligations to the Earl of Harrowby* for 
affording him the opportunity of publishing 
an exact text of Lady Mary's writings, no 
less than for the facilities accorded him for ex- 
amining the large mass of the Wortley papers 
at Sandon." This editor again, without any 
limitation, presents ' The Basset Table ' as 
Lady Mary's composition. And if it were 
not so, it may here be asked, how could the 
MS. have been found by Dallaway, Lord 
Wharncliffe, and W. Moy Thomas with the 
other originals, and by them taken and pub- 
lished as her genuine work ? 

Now what is the case for the authorship of 
Pope 1 It seems to rest entirely on the state- 
ment of Warburton in his collection of 'Pope's 
Works ' (1751), vol. vi. p. 56. Referring to 'The 
Basset Table,' he says : " Only this of all the 
' Town Eclogues ' was Mr. Pope's, and is here 
presented from a copy corrected by his own 
hand." This opinion of the Rev. Wm. War- 
burton afterwards Bishop as the intimate 
friend of the poet during his later years of 
life (who bequeathed to him a considerable 
interest in his works), has naturally had 
weight. And if this " copy " were in Pope's 
handwriting (as well as the corrections thus 
represented), the fair deduction might be that 
the particular eclogue in question was his 
composition. But so much not being said, 
there is room for the surmise that the paper 
was literally " a copy " of Lady Mary's poem 
which had been in Pope's possession. This, 
too, is very probable, for it is known that 
Lady Mary's intimacy with Pope led her 
sometimes to submit her writings to him. 
Joseph Warton, in his edition of Pope (1797), 
has this note (ii. 332) : 

" Lady M. W. Montagu would sometimes show a 
copy of her verses to Pope, and he would make some 
little alteration. ' No,' said she, ' Pope, no touching ! 

* The present Earl of Harrowby is great-grandson 
of the Countess of Bute who was daughter of Lady 
Ma~ry Wortley Montagu. 

For then whatever is good for anything will pass 
for yours, and the rest for mine.' " 

Thus Warburton's discovered copy of 'The 
Basset Table ' may well have been the lady's 
work amended by the master- hand ; the 
quest- :>n, however, might be set at rest were 
we assured of the handwriting of the 

The editors of Pope have been Dodsley (1748 
and 1 782), t Warburton (1751), Dr. SamuelJohn- 
son (1779), Gilbert Wakefield (1794), Warton 
(1797), Bowles (1806), Gary (1853), Rossetti 
(1873), and Croker (Murray pub. 1882). Their 
acceptance of ' The Basset Table ' as his work 
seems to stand or fall on Warburton's con- 
clusion. And as, according to Dallaway, the 
six ' Town Eclogues ' were written by Lady 
Mary " as a parody on the pastorals of Pope," 
a clever imitation of the master may possioly 
have misled his editor Warburton. 

A patient investigation inclines me to think 
it more probable that ' The Basset Table ' was 
written Iby Lady Mary than by Pope, whose 
fame, it may be thought, would suffer little 
by the absence of this "eclogue" from his 
collected works. W. L. RUTTON. 

27, Elgin Avenue, W. 


I DO not know if the following curious cir- 
cumstance in connexion with Sir Walter 
Scott's writings has ever been pointed out. 
Scarcely any of his heroines, whether in his 
prose or verse romances, has a mother living. 
Including the works in which there may be 
said to be two heroines, e.g., 'Marmion,' 
'Waverley,' 'Guy Mannering,' 'Ivanhoe,' 
'The Pirate,' and, remembering dear Mysie 
Happer, I must add ' The Monastery,' Scott 
has altogether forty heroines or- thereabouts. 
Of these I cannot think of more than four 
whose mothers are living during the progress 

* Pope, in a letter (October, 1717) to Lady Mary, 
refers in adulatory terms to her eclogues, " which 
lie enclosed in a monument of red Turkey, writte i 
in my fairest hand.' W. Moy Thomas in his edition 
(i. 432), quoting this letter, adds: "This copy in 
Pope's early print hand and bound in ' red Turkey ' 
is still existing among the Wortley manuscripts. T." 
It would assist our decision to know which of the 
eclogues if not the six are thus enshrined in "red 
Turkey." Certainly this witness to Pope's possession 
of Lady Mary s compositions strengthens the argu- 
ment above attempted. 

t Dodsley's ' Collection of Poems ' includes Lady 
Mary s as well as Pope's ; and he has a note (1782 ed.') 
to the effect that of the ' Six Town Eclogues ' four 
were written by Lady Mary, one, viz., ' The Basset 
lable,' by Pope (here he quotes Warburton), and 
one, viz., 'The Toilet,' by Gay. This opinion was 
expressed prior to Dallaway's examination of Lady 
Marys papers. 

9 th S. II. AUG. 20, '98.] 



of the story, namely, Margaret of Branksome, 
Metelill, Mary Avenel, and poor Lucy 
Ashton, whose "dour carline" of a mother 
both she and her father could well have 
spared. Even the Lady of Avenel dies before 
the story is finished. It is true that there 
are others whose mothers come into the story 
more or less, but they take little or no part 
in the action with their daughters ; such, for 
instance, are the mother of Lucy Bertram, 
and Lady Campbell, the mother of that 
bright little sunbeam Annot Lyle. In ' The 
Bridal of Triermain ' we do not see Guendo- 
len and her daughter together, as Guendolen 
has departed this life before Gyneth appears 
on the scene. On the other hand, Scott's 
heroines have in a great many instances 
a father living : Hose Bradwardine, Julia 
Mannering (we near of Col. Mannering's wife, 
but we are not actually introduced to her), 
Lucy Bertram, Isabella Wardour, Di Vernon, 
Annot Lyle above mentioned, Jeanie and 
Effie Deans, Lucy Ashton, Rebecca, Catherine 
Seyton, Amy Robsart, Minna and Brenda 
Troil, Margaret Ramsay, Alice Bridgenorth 
and her namesake Alice Lee, Catherine 
Glover, Anne of Geierstein, Ellen Douglas, 
Matilda of Rokeby, Metelill. I ought to add 
Eveline Berenger, whose father, however, is 
slain in battle in the early part of the story. 
In some instances Scott's heroines have 
neither father nor mother, but only more 
distant relations, living ; for example, Flora 
Mac Ivor, Rowena (who appears to have no 
blood relations living : the same may be 
said of Eivir or Gunnar), Edith Bellenden, 
Lilias Redgauntlet (" Green Mantle "), Isabelle 
de Croye, Clara Mowbray, Edith Planta- 
genet, and Edith of Lorn. In fact, the only 
mothers of heroines who may be said really 
to take a place and act their part amongst 
Scott's dramatis personce are the Lady of 
Branksome, Jutta (the mother of Metelill), 
Lady Ashton, and, in a lesser degree, the 
Lady of Avenel. 

I can hardly suppose that this was entirely 
accidental. Scott must have had a reason 
for it. He could scarcely have had a personal 
motive, as he himself had an "excellent 
mother " (Lockhart's phrase). "The good old 
lady," as Scott himself calls her, not long 
before she died was talking to some friends 
about 'The Bride of Lammermoor,' then 
recently published, and pointing out where 
the romance differed from the real story. 
See Lockhart's 'Life of Scott,' December, 1819. 

Scott occasionally introduces us to very ill- 
conditioned mothers besides Lady Ashton ; 
for instance, Lady Glenallan, "a rudas wife," 
as Maggie Mucklebackit calls her ; Elspat 

MacTavish, the Highland widow ; and Meg 
Murdockson, the mother of Madge Wildfire. 
These, however, are not the mothers of his 
heroines, as Lady Glenallan and Elspat Mac- 
Tavish are the mothers of Lord Glenallan and 
Hamish Bean MacTavish respectively ; and 
Madge Wildfire is not a "heroine" in the 
usual acceptation of the term. 

If I have fallen into any errors in the above, 
will some one kindly point them out ? 

A verj' intelligent and well-informed lady, 
herself an authoress, to whom I have sub- 
mitted the above note, and who has given me 
permission to quote her remarks, says : 

"The point you take is a good one. The only 
answer I can suggest is that the suppression of 
mothers was almost a necessity of fiction. Accord- 
ing to our ancestors' notions, a right-minded young 
lady would walk in everything by the guidance 01 
her mother, supposing her mother to be reasonably 
good and sensible : hence the daughter could hardly 
act with the independence often necessary for work- 
ing out the story. Jane Austen \vas personally a 
devoted daughter ; but her heroines, quiet as their 
lives are, are practically without mothers, or have 
silly ones." 

Ropley, Alresford, Hants. 

THE SWALLOW'S SONG. In her 'Scottish 
Song,' p. 33, ed. 1874, Mrs. Carlyle substitutes 
" gowdspink " for Progne in Minstrel Burne's 
tender and picturesque ' Leader Haughs and 
Yarrow.' Burne, thinking of one of the leading 
features in the landscape he is carefully depict- 
ing, thus introduces the wood-notes wild of the 
vale : 

A mile below, wha lists to ride 
Will hear the mavis singing ; 
Into Saint Leonard's banks she '11 bide, 
Sweet birks her head o'erhinging. 

The lint-white loud, and Progne proud, 
With tuneful throats and narrow, 

Into Saint Leonard's banks they sing, 
As sweetly as in Yarrow. 

Mrs. Carlyle writes : 

" We have here used the word gowdspink, instead 
of Progne, as being more in keepingwith the simplicity 
of the song ; and, at any rate, Progne is inappro- 
priate, as the swallow never sings." 

It is disappointing and harassing to find an 
editor deliberately tampering with the poet's 
text, especially with the frank avowal, as 
here, that the editorial knowledge and dis- 
crimination are superior to those that guided 
the author's selection of terms and references. 
At the utmost, would it not have been suffi- 
cient to explain or protest in a foot-note, 
having given the text intact ? At any rate, 
the editor, in order to be consistent, should 
have changed Philomel in the next stanza to 
something more simple and appropriate. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. IL A. 20, i. 

" Nightingale " or " nightertale " would have 
been simpler, and "cushie-doo" would have 
been more appropriate, as the question re- 
garding the singing of the nightingale in Scot- 
land is one that at the best is still sub jiidice. 
But are the editor's reasons for changing the 
text adequate and defensible in themselves 1 
If Burne chose to speak of the swallow as 
" Progne," he was surely quite entitled to do 
so, for men arid poets in his day said and sang 
many things that were even more complex 
and pedantic than this utterance of his. 
Further, as a minstrel, much in the open air 
and finding companionship among the beasts 
and birds that he encountered in his wander- 
ings, he would not fail to note the song of the 
swallow. In spring and early summer the 
period in which the fancy of youth " lightly 
turns to thoughts of love" the swallow is 
too deeply absorbed in affairs to devote much 
of his energy to song. But like the lint- 
white, whom Minstrel Buriie fitly links with 
him in verse, he sings later in the year, and 
is particularly tuneful from July onwards. 
Minstrel Burne would hear him on the eaves 
of farm-steadings, on wayside fences coigns 
of vantage on both of which he spends many 
consecutive minutes of his autumn day and 
he would be struck with the sweetness and 
richness of his measures. We have all given 
ourselves up too readily to the fascination of 
Gray's " Swallow twittering from the straw- 
built shed," which, while delightful in itself, 
is, perhaps, prone to make us overlook alto- 
gether the bird's undoubted gift of song. The 
swallow's voice is not powerful and may 
readily pass unnoticed, but it is full, engaging, 
and pathetic. It seems to speak of summer 
departed ; and yet, as Minstrel Burne sug- 
gests, the bird is probably " proud," for it has 
accomplished its task, and it is on the point 
of starting for a brighter clime. Apart, 
however, from sentiment and theory, there 
can be no question that the swallow sings a 
considerable song, and that at a time when 
the majority of other birds are silent. 

Helensburgh, N.B. 

now in a ruinous condition, is situated on the 
banks of the Stiffkey, about three miles from 
Fakenham, and is supposed to have been 
built by Sir Henry Fermor in the reign of 
Henry VII. It is one of the richest examples 
of ornamental brickwork now in existence. 
It is about five miles distant from Walsing- 
ham Priory. 

Henry VIII. came to East Barsham in 
1511, and thence walked a distance of five 

mile barefooted to Walsingham in order to 
implore the tenderness of Our Lady of Wal- 
singham, and to beseech her powerful patron- 
age for his infant son by Catherine of Aragon, 
following the example of David, as recorded 
in ib> book of Samuel. The infant prince, 
however, died when only seven weeks old. 
According to Hepworth Dixon, on the birth 
of the infant "a stone seemed rolled away, a 
yoke seemed lifted from all necks " (' History 
of Two Queens,' vol. iii. p. 115). 

The gateway at East Barsham forms the 
frontispiece of the ' Mansions of England in 
the Olden Time,' by Joseph Nash, 1839. In 
the engraving are represented the arms of 
England, supported by a dragon and a grey- 
hound collared, and in the corners the port- 
cullis, the badge of the house of Tudor. 
Beneath is an angel holding a shield, on 
which are some arms quartered, and in the 
spandrels of the doorway below two shields 
impaling shields of arms, but it is impossible 
to decipher any of them. In the foreground 
the artist has represented a cavalier on horse- 
back, richly dressed, with a hawk upon his 
gloved hand, and a couple of dogs in a leash. 
The manor house was once the abode of the 

SHROPSHIRE NAMES. In a district of Shrop- 
shire lying from north-east to south-east of 
the Wrekin, about seven miles long by three 
miles broad, there is a group of place-names 
interesting by reason of identity of termina- 
tion. They are Hadley, Ketley, Priorslee, 
Randlee, Lawley, Malinslee, Dawley, Langley, 
Brandlee, Portley, Doseley, Stirchley, Made- 
ley, Broseley, Willey, Linley. There are 
but few other names in this district so 
ancient perhaps only Arlescott, Horsehay, 
Hinkshay, Charleshay. Most others are 
distinctly modern Pool Hill, Stone Row, 
Iron Bridge, Old Park. Perhaps it would be 
difficult to find another district so small with 
so many instances of identical terminations. 
To the south-east of this group there is 
another, but not so large, of place-names 
ending in -ton. H. H. 

" BIG AN' BUG." I never hear these words 
in conjunction except from the lips of those 
"Darby born an' Darby bred." They are used 
mostly when speaking of a person who by 
some stroke of fortune has been raised above 
the common lot, and has assumed " airs " in 
consequence : " Hey 's booth big an' bug ! " 
Big is great or high, and bug is conceited or 
proud. "Hey's as feig as bull beyf, an' as 
prewd as a dog wi' tow teels ! " 



9* s. ii. AUG. 20, 



Philanthropists are occasionally deficient in 
a sense of humour, and their mistakes at 
times give occasion to the enemy to blas- 
pheme. Can the Bishop of Marlborough, the 
president, Lady Wimborne, and other dis- 
tinguished supporters of the benevolent insti- 
tution known as the May fair Union (Blue 
Lamp Branch) be aware that " Blue Lamp 
Hotel" is a slang synonym for a police 
station? JOHN HEBB. 

2, Canonbury Mansions. 

SIR KENELM DIGBY. The 'Diet, of Nat. 
Biog.,' vol. xv. p. 62, says : 

" Digby promised to make a further donation to 
the Bodleian, but never did so, although he gave 
Laud many Arabic manuscripts to send to the 
university or St. John's College Library, of which 
nothing more was heard." 

Some one has put opposite the last words 
in a library copy, " They are the 36 Digby Or 

Badlesmere, the second baron, who died in 
1338 without issue, left as heirs four sisters. 
The eldest and the youngest are both stated 
to have borne the name of Margaret (Archceo- 
lorfia Cantiana, xiii. 410). In Courthope's 
edition of Nicolas's ' Historic Peerage ' the 
names of these four sisters are given as Mar- 
gery, Maud, Elizabeth, and Margaret. 

N. M. & A. 

expression used in a letter rather more than 
a century old with regard to the acting of 
Mrs. Yates on a special occasion : " She 
certainly played like an angel on horseback." 
I do not find it in the ' H.E.D.,' 'The Dialect 
Dictionary,' or, ' The Dictionary of Slang,' and 
I have searched without result the indexes to 
' N. & Q.' No one to whom I have applied 
knows it in any other sense than that of 
oysters rolled in bacon and served on toast. 
The phrase seems generally expressive of 
superlative excellence. KILLIGREW. 

[We have occasionally, but rarely, heard the 
phrase used as in this case, as a species of 
mock-heroical commendation. ] 

This ballad was first published in a little 
gossiping book called 'Sand and Canvass,' 
published in 1849, by Samuel Bevan, who 
was foreign agent for Lieut. Waghorn, the 
originator of the Overland Route. Bevan 
who by all accounts was, as Mr. Gilbert 

a very genial wag 

Who loved a quaint conceit- 

met Thackeray in Paris, and apparently took 
down the ballad from his own lips. The 
version of the ballad in Mr. Bevan's book 
differs from the version in the collected 
edition of Thackeray's poems and ballads, 
and it is probable that the ballad underwent 
considerable modifications in the course of 
time. JOHN HEBB. 

Canonbury Mansions, N. 


T H StaveKws euSeis ; ovfj.avTra.pos rjcrOa Koptvva. 
So the words are always printed, with a full 
stop at the end of the line : 

Sleepest thou imceasingly ? Yet before, Corinna, 
thou wert not so. 

J.e., not given to sleep, not iVi'aAea, as one 
commentator would add. The words are 
possibly those of a divine visitant. Mr. 
Farnell, however, in his ' Greek Lyric Poets,' 
p. ( 253, places a mark of interrogation after 
Ko'pti/va. He has no note upon the point, and 
the semicolon is, in all probability, a mere 
misprint, attracted by the semicolon in the 
middle of the line. But, taking his punctua- 
tion, we get a beautiful and moving line 
addressed to Corinna, either by herself or 
another, as an epitaph : 

Sleepest thou unceasingly ? Yet wert thou not once 
Corinna ? 


In the transcripts of the Stationers' Regis- 
ters is an entry under the year 1561 : 

" Recevyd of Anthonye Clerke for his fyne and 
for his quarterages which he was behynde for xvj 
yeres the vj of maye xx 8 ." 

Upon this entry Prof. Arber very properly 
argues that previous to the incorporation of 
the Company of Stationers in 1556 there 
existed a voluntary association or brother- 
hood of printers, bookbinders, publishers, 
and the like, of which association or brother- 
hood the Company of Stationers was only 
the more formal and legally recognized 
authority continued under royal charter ; 
and this Prof. Arber dates back to 1545. 

Having lately discovered the said Anthony 
Clerke in a somewhat curious position a few 
years earlier, it has occurred to me that the 
columns of ' N. & Q.' may well undertake to 
make a note of the circumstance. 

Used as waste in the binding of an old 
book, I find a perfect document, viz., a writ 
issued to the Sheriffs of London, 20 July, 32 
Henry VIII. (1540), for the arrest of "John 
Clerke taillour, Anthony Clerke stacioner, 
Laurence Strynger, and Edward Blunt tail- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. IL AUG. 20, w. 

lour, for greviously wounding Williar 
Lordyng." The endorsement records tha 
the defendants were admitted to bail, them 
selves in twenty marks each, and four sure 
ties for each defendant in ten marks each. 

What the eventual result of this charg 
may have been I have not attempted t 
investigate ; but by this document we dis 
tinctly carry back "Anthony Clerke, sta 
cioner," five years anterior to Prof. Arber' 
date. W. H. ALLNUTT. 


LION. I think we may safely set down 
this interesting name as being of ancien 
Egyptian origin. Some works on the alphabe 
say that the hieroglyphic for L was a lion 
More strictly, it was a lioness, as is easil; 
seen by observing the hieroglyphic figure 
the neck is smooth, and there is no mane 
Champollion, 'Diet. Egyptien,' 1841, p. 114 
gives labo, labai, a lioness, written in Coptic 
characters. Peyron's ' Coptic Dictionary, 
p. 78, gives laboi, a lioness. Brugsch, 'Grarn- 
maire Demotique,' 1855, p. 23, gives labai, a 
lioness, in Coptic characters, but, in trans- 
literating into Roman type, gives the form as 
LA WAI. This suggests that the Gk. Aenui/a, 
a lioness, was formed from LAWAI by adding 
the common fern, suffix -i', for the purpose 
of declension. Perhaps the form Xeuv was 
suggested by labo (above). The curious 
genitive Aeoi/ros may have been due to 
association with present participles in -wv. 
The Hebrew forms lebi, Idbly, are also of 
Egyptian origin, as Prellwitz suggests. 


to a friend for the following epitaph on a 
tablet on the north wall of Harefield Church : 

" W m Ashby of Breakspears Esq. erected this to 
the memory of his faithfull servant Robert Mossen- 
dew, who departed this life February the 5 th 1744 
Aged 60. 

In frost & snow, thro' hail & rain, 
He scour' d the woods & rul'd the plain; 
The steady pointer leads the way, 
Stands at the Scent, then springs the prey, 
The timorous birds from stubble rise, 
With pinions stretched, divide the skys, 
The scatter'd Lead pursues the Sight, 
And Death in thunder stops their flight. 
His spaniel of true English kind, 
Who's gratitude inflam'd his mind, 
This Servant in an honest way 
In all his actions copy'd Tray." 


Frazer in his ' Golden Bough ' (vol. i. p. 249) 
mentions Dr. Iron-Beard as a mythical figure 
of folk-lore, like ^Esculapius of ancient Greek 

mythology, a physician who pretended to 
restore the slain man-god, or king of the 
wood, in springtime to life again. With 
regard to the German prototype of this " Dr. 
Iron-Beard," viz., " Eisenbart," it may be 
worth while recording that the celebrated 
students' song on "Dr. Eisenbart," known 
and sung since 1745, does not refer to a 
mythical person, but to an eminent physician 
and surgeon, Andreas Eisenbart, who lived 
from 1661 till 1727, as a tombstone over his 
grave at Miinden tells us. Soon after his 
death a humorous and famous song, applied 
to his significant name, appears to have arisen 
among students, the first stanza of which runs 
as follows : 

Ich bin der Dr. Eisenbart, 
Kurir' die Leut' nach meiner Art, 
Kami machen dass die Blinden yehn, 
Und dass die Lahmen ivieder sehn. 

It was evidently a mock song against itine- 
rant quack doctors and charlatans of the 
time, and has been adopted as a comic song 
in France as well, " Je suis le Docteur Isem- 
hert " ('S. Volkstumliche Lieder,' ed. Bohme, 
1895). H. KREBS. 


THE WELSH LEEK. The following letter 
appeared in the Daily Mail of 28 February : 

"What is the national emblem of Wales? The 
eek, undoubtedly. But surely not the obnoxious 
jdible leek. There is in Wales I have seen it 
lowhere else a beautiful pink flower which grows 
n great profusion on the sea coast. Its name is 
3eninen-y-M6r (the sea leek), Ceninen being the 
Welsh for leek. How the table leek came to be 
/ailed Ceninen I cannot even conjecture, but that 
he sea leek is and was the emblem of Wales there 
an be little doubt. Did St. David live in what we 
aow call Pembrokeshire, no flower would be more 
amiliar and probably more loved by him than Y 
}eninen-y-M6r, which grows so plentifully on the 
ugged, storm-beaten rocks of St. David's Head." 


"THE QUEEN'S ENGLISH." I had a great 
hock recently when I found in my Times, in 
he first leading article, upon the war, two of 
he most atrocious specimens of servants' 
all English I have ever seen in any news- 
ape r. On p. 11 I found the following : 
Whether the Spanish ships were ever full 
p with coal." Lower down in the same 
olumn I found : " If the Spanish people do 
ot understand that much." If these things 
e done in the green tree, what shall be done 

the dry ? X. Y. Z. 

TENNYSON AND SCOTT. In the July number 
f Longman's appear some ' Reminiscences of 
Few Days spent at a. Country House with 

II. AUG. 20, '98.] 



Mr. Gladstone,' by the Hon. Mrs. Oldfield, 
who states that on one occasion, when dis- 
cussing hymnology, Mr. Gladstone said he 
considered Scott's hymn on the Day of 
Judgment the finest in the English lan- 
guage, and that he had repeated it to 
Tennyson, who had never heard it before. 
This hymn is at the end of ' The Lay of the 
Last Minstrel,' and it seems incredible that a 
Poet Laureate should not have been familiar 
with this well-known poem of Sir Walter 
Scott. E. G. A. 

HAIR-POWDER. The following note is of 
interest in marking the turning-point when 
the fashion of using hair-powder began to 
cease : 

" The noblemen and gentlemen who agreed to the 
Duke of Bedford's cropping proposal, a few days ago, 
at Woburn Abbey, when a general cropping and 
combing out of hair took place, were Lords William 
Russell, Villers, Paget, Sir H. Featherstone, Mr. 
Lambton, Mr. Ant. Lee, Mr. R. Lee, Mr. Trevers, 
Mr. Button, Mr. Day, and Mr. Vernon. They 
entered into an engagement to forfeit a sum of 
money if any of them wore their hair tied or powdered 
within a certain period. Many noblemen and 
gentlemen in the county of Bedford have since 
Followed the example. It has become general with 
the gentry in Hampshire, and the ladies have left 
off wearing powder." London Chronicle. 26 Sept., 


Salterton, Devon. 

WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be addressed to 
them direct. _ 

Where is to be found the authoritative text 
of this poem of Edmund Waller? The poem 
itself appears in the Percy Folio MS., ii. 22, 
which was written about 1650. A. 

"DUTFIN." This word is in use in East 
Suffolk for a bridle with blinkers. Query 
etymology? A. L. MAYHEW. 


GILBERT COOPER. Who was Gilbert Cooper? 
In a volume of ' Vocal Poetry ; or, a Select 
Collection of English Songs,' 1810, edited by 
John Aikin, M.D., he is given as the author 
of the song in which occur the well-known 
lines (often referred to in ' N. & Q.') : 
And when with envy tune transported 

Shall think to rob us of our joys, 
You'll in your girls again be courted, 
And I '11 go wooing in my boys. 

There is this foot-note to the lyric : " This 

pleasing delineation of conjugal and domestic 
felicity was first given by the author as ' from 
the ancient British.' Although this title 
was manifestly only a poetic fiction, or rather 
a stroke of satire, Dr. Percy was strangely 
induced by it to insert the piece" among his 
' Reliques of Ancient Poetry.' " There was a 
John Gilbert Cooper (1723-1769) who contri- 
buted to Dodsley's ' Museum,' 1746, in which, 
I believe, the above poem first appeared, 
under the name of " Philaretes." He also con- 
tributed to the Gentleman's Magazine. Is it 
true that this J. G. Cooper wrote the famous 
lines in question ? S. J. A. F. 

[In Bartlett's ' Familiar Quotations ' the verse is 
assigned to Bishop Percy.] 

CUSTIS. Was Edmund, son of Charles 
Custis, of Trinity College, Dublin. 1790, aged 
sixteen, a decendant of Edmund Custis, of 
.Rotterdam, 1668 ? A. C. H. 

LICENCE TO CRENELLATE. Will any of your 
correspondents who may have a list of 
licences to crenellate issued by Edward II. 
kindly favour me with a copy of one issued 
to Sir Richard Le Brun in 1307 to "crenel- 
late his house in Drumbog," Drumburgh, in 
Cumberland ? I am anxious to have an 
exact copy of the same. 


way was Mrs. Whiteway related to Dean 
Swift? She is frequently referred to in 
the life and writings of Dean Swift. The 
Earl of Orrery, in his 'Remarks on the Life 
and Writings of Dr. Jonathan Swift,' in 
letter xi., reproduces a letter from her dated 
Dublin, 22 November, 1742. He styles her 
one of his (Swift's) relations. Her nephew 
(according to note d, p. 61, ' Closing Years of 
Dean Swift's Life,' by W. R. Wilde, 1849) was 
a very distinguished surgeon in Dublin about 
the middle of the last century, and Swift 
bequeathed him 100. I was led to make 
inquiries about the name Whiteway while 
seeking information about William White- 
way Sirr, about whom I asked a question 
in ' N. & Q.,' since which time I discovered his 
career set out in 'Lieutenants' Certificates, 
1795,' vol. xix. (Navy Board), and his death 
recorded in the half-pay book. I have, how- 
ever, not discovered why he was named 
Whiteway. John Folliott was colonel of a 
regiment of foot in Ireland, to which Joseph 
Sirr was appointed adjutant 21 November, 
1747 ('Home Office Military Entry Book,' 
vol. xxii.). Folliott Whiteway was appointed 
captain-lieutenant 6th Foot, 30 October, 1776. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. n. AUG. 20, 

PORTRAIT BY LELY. Sir Peter Lely painted 
a portrait of John Hervey, Esq., then of Ick- 
worth, which has been engraved. Can the 
original be traced ? This Mr. Hervey married 
the daughter of Lord Kidbroke, and it may 
have descended to some connexion of the 
Wriothesley family. A. H. 

RICHMOND PARK. Did George III. give 
Lord Somerville a house in this park? If 
not Lord Somerville, who is the Lord S 
who is said to have been given the house by 
George III. ? K T. 

BRENTFORD. What is the origin of the 
saying " There can't be two kings of Brent- 
ford " 1 Probably about the beginning of this 
century there was a man named Smith living 
there, who was called, I understand, the King 
of Brentford ; also it seems that the then 
king, driving through Brentford, was hooted 
by the populace, who after this were known 
as " Brentford blackguards." Can this have 
given rise to the saying ? A. C. 

[See 1 st S. iv. 369; 2 nd S. viii. 362. See also 
Buckingham's ' Rehearsal,' Act II. sc. ii. and Act V. 
sc. i.] 

REV. WALTER CARTER, rector of Stourmouth, 
Kent, 1629-37, when he died. Further par- 
ticulars as to parentage, wife, &c., would be 
very acceptable. ARTHUR HUSSEY. 

Wingham, Kent. 

Where can I find the best account of this 
museum arid its migrations 1 


years of the seventeenth century Patrick 
Gordon was the English agent in Poland, 
residing at Danzig. He was succeeded in 
1627 by his nephew, Francis Gordon, at a 
salary of 1501. The latter was employed 
occasionally as an ambassador to England, 
notably in connexion with the proposed mar- 
riage of the Princess Elizabeth, daughter of 
the ex-Queen of Bohemia, and Vladislas VII. 
of Poland, in 1636. What became of Francis 
Gordon ; and who succeeded him ? Did he 
have issue? T. M. B. 

RICHARD IRELAND, head master of West- 
minster School, 1598-1610. When and where 
did he die 1 G. F. R. B. 

"HE'S GOT THE BULLET." This is said in 
Derbyshire of workmen who get instant dis- 
missal from their employment. The phrase 
is striking, at all events. Is it common ? 

[The phrase is well known among'London workmen.] 

QUOTATION WANTED. An engraving illus- 
trating the ' Merry Wives of Windsor ' has an 
inscription in quotation marks : 

Wouklst have a friend ? 
Wouldst know what friend is best? 
Have God thy friend, 
Who passeth all the rest. 

J. H. W. 

" CHIAN."- 

O better the Chian uncherish'd 
Had died ere a note or device 
Of battle was fashion'd, than perish'd 
This only line written by Christ. 

From ' Songs of the Sierras,' by Joaquin Miller, 
in poem called ' Charity.' Will any one in- 
form me of the meaning of "Chian"? The only 
explanation I can get is that " Chian " means 
earth from Chios ; but that does not make 
sense of the verse. P. A. 

[The " Chian" stands for Homer.] 

THE KENNET. Pope speaks of 

The Kennet swift, for silver eels renowned. 
Where does the line occur ? S. 

"ORDO." On visiting the ruins of Clon- 
macnoise in King's Co., Ireland, some years 
ago, I saw a number of headstones of the six- 
teenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries, 
on which the Latin word " ordo " headed the 
inscription. At the present time the word 
seems to mean a church register or clerical 
manual, and I should very much like to know 
its exact meaning when used on the old Catholic 
headstones. Perhaps some of your readers 
can supply this information. 


SHEFFIELD, YORKSHIRE. Is it true that in 
the British Museum, under the above title, 
there are some charters or deeds clearly re- 
lating to Sheffield or Soeffelde, a large, now 
forgotten manor in the parish of Burghfield, 
Berkshire ? I have many old field-names of 
the latter manor, so I can identify the deeds 
if any doubt remains. E. E. THOYTS. 

" PERFORM'D." In the copy of a will dated 
in the year 1747 I find the bequest of "my 
best scarlet Camblet Bedstead and Bed all 
perform'd." What is the meaning of the last 
word so used ? As the copy is certified to be 
a true copy of the original will, there is no 
doubt as to the correctness of the transcrip- 

BOOTS AND SANDALS. I am anxious to know 
within what period (1) boots and (2) sandals 
were introduced generally among the poorer 
classes of Europe. Are there any references 
on the subject ? W. J. SIMPSON. 

9 th S. II. AUG. 20, '98.] 



BETH VESEY. Can any one supply the precise 
dates of the death of these well-known per- 
sons 1 He was a member of "The Club" 
from April, 1773, and she was a conspicuous 
leader of society. Vesey died, it would seem, 
in June, 1785. His widow is said to have 
survived until 1791. W. P. COURTNEY. 

Reform Club. 

"HUCKLER" A DANCE. Assheton, in his 
1 Journal (ed. 1845, p. 45), describes " a maske 
of noblemen, knights, gentlemen, and courtiers, 
affore the king, in the middle round, in the 
garden," followed by "dancing the buckler, 
Tom Bedlo, and the Cowp Justice of Peace." 
Is anything further known of this dance, or 
of the origin of the name ? 


70, Banbury Road, Oxford. 

Morris's Coffee- House in London 1 K. K. 

HENRY GRYS. Henry Grys was elected 
from Westminister School to Trinity College, 
Cambridge, in 1573. I shall be greatly obliged 
if any correspondent of ' N. & Q.' can give me 
particulars concerning Grys. G. F. II. B. 

MADDALENA DONI. Where is there a full 
account of Maddalena Doni? INQUIS. 

REV. ROBERT CARTER. Rector of Stour- 
mouth, 1637-45. The parishioners in March, 
1640, sent a long petition against him to Parlia- 
ment, as recorded in ' Proceedings in Kent, 
1640' (Camden Society, 1861). But he pro- 
bably was not removed, as on 7 August, 1646, 
administration to the goods of Robert Carter, 
clerk, of Stourmouth, was granted to his 
brother Henry Carter. Any further informa- 
tion would be acceptable. ARTHUR HUSSEY. 

Wingham, Kent. 

What is the origin and what are the duties of 
the " High Commissioner of the Church " in 
Edinburgh ? I allude to the office held this 

Past year by Lord Leven and Melville, 
erhaps I have not given the title of office 
correctly. I should be greatly obliged by any 
information on the subject. I understand 
that a former Earl of Leven held this office 
during a long period of years, somewhere 
about the end of last century. 


LADY FRANCES PENNO YER. I have to thank you 
for inserting my querv relative to the 'Journal 
of Raoul Hesdin ' (9 th S. i. 348) and eliciting a 

reply confirmatory of the suspicions which I 
entertained. May I now put a similar 
question as regards the 'Journal of the 
Princess de Lamballe ' (Nicholls, 1895) 1 
The name of the authoress (or edibress) is not 
given. The book, we are told, was first 
published in 1826. She intimates that she 
was the daughter of the late Duke of Norfolk 
and Lady Mary Duncan. Who was the 
latter lady, or was there any such person? 
The Camperdown peerage wasof latercreation. 
And is there anything to show that a young 
lady answering this description was in the 
confidence of the Princess, and partially of 
Marie Antoinette herself 1 

The Princess affirms that the match 
between the future Louis XVI. and Marie 
Antoinette was the work of Madame de 
Pompadour, who unfortunately died before 
the marriage. Madame de Pompadour died 
when Marie Antoinette was eight or nine 
years old. This hardly looks like a genuine 
journal, the Princess de Lamballe being 
some years older than the Queen. 

May I add to this letter an inquiry as to 
whether there was any such person as Lady 
Frances Pennoyer in the eighteenth century, 
and if so, who she was ? Her diary is quoted 
in Mr. Cooper's ' History of the Rod,' but he 
does not state whether it was published or 
where he got it. The language is hardly what 
I should have expected at that date. M. 

[There was no such person, we are convinced, as 
Lady Frances Pennoyer. The 'History of the 
Rod' is an impudent fabrication.] 

REFERENCE SOUGHT. Can any reader of 
' N. & Q.' give me the reference for a quota- 
tion from Goethe to the following effect : " I 
work without relaxation at making a nobler 
creature of myself"? W. H. C. 

" HORSEMAN'S BEDS." What are, or were, 
these ] The only instance of the word that we 
have in the material for the ' Historical English 
Dictionary ' is in a (partly second-hand) quo- 
tation from Petty 's 'Political Anatomy of 
Ireland ' (ed. 1691, p. 107) : 

" As to these town-lands, plough-lands, colus, 

greevcs horseman's beds, &c., they are at this day 

manifestly unequal." 


70, Banbury Road, Oxford. 

or any other reader versed in Oriental mat- 
ters tell me of some book or article where I 
shall find described the principles of fortune- 
telling by the hand as practised in the East ? 
I understand that there is a considerable 
divergence from palmistry as it exists in 
Europe. C. J. PEARCE. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. p* s. IL AUG. ao, i. 


(9 th S. ii. 89.) 

IN 1700, by 11 & 12 Will. III. c. 10, it 
was enacted that from and after 29 Sept., 

1701, not only "all wrought silks of the 

manufacture of Persia, China, or East 
India," but "all calicoes, painted, dyed, 
printed, or stained there, which are or shall 
be imported into this kingdom, shall not 
be worn or otherwise used within this king- 
dom," &c. This was the first blow against 
the wearing of chintzes or printed calicoes ; 
but it was not absolutely prohibitive, the 
avowed object of the statute being " the more 
effectual employing the poor, by encouraging 
the manufactures of this kingdom." It meant 
that ladies having worn out the Indian chintz 
apparel in their possession and use prior to 
29 Sept., 1701, would have to be content with 
home-made stuffs for the next twenty-one 
years, as it befell in the sequel. The silk and 
woollen weavers had been hostile from the 
outset to the use of printed calicoes, whether 
of Oriental or domestic manufacture. During 
December, 1719, the Houses of Parliament 
were inundated with petitions against these 
stuffs; and on 23 Marcn, 1721, the royal assent 
was given to an Act (7 Geo. I., st. 1, c. 7) 
" to preserve and encourage the woollen and silk 
manufactures of this kingdom, and for more effectual 
employing the poor, by prohibiting the use and wear 
of all printed, painted, stained, or dyed callicoes in 
apparel, houshold stuff, furniture, and otherwise," 

after Christmas Day, 1722. In the preamble 
it is asserted that " the wearing and using " 
of the fabrics in question 

" does manifestly tend to the great detriment of the 
woollen and silk manufactures of this kingdom, and 
if not effectually prevented, may be the utter ruin 
and destruction of the said manufactures and of 
many thousands of your majesty's subjects and 
their families whose livelihoods do intirely depend 

Calicoes dyed all blue were, for some occult 
reason, exempted by the final section from 
the provisions of the Act, the penalties for 
contravening which were 201. for the vendor 
and 5l. for the wearer (not the weaver, as by 
an awkward misprint it appears in McCul- 
loch's ' Commercial Dictionary,' 1869, p. 239) ; 
a fine of 201. was incurred also by any one 
who used the forbidden material for beds, 
chairs, &c. This "embargo" to use your 
correspondent's expressive term lasted for 
better than fourteen years, that is, until 
24 March, 1736, when the royal assent was 
given to the Act 9 Geo. II., c. 4, which so far 
modified the amazing statute of 1721 as to 
permit, without "any penalty or forfeiture 

whatsoever," "the wearing or using any 

sort of stuff made of linen yarn and cotton 
wooll manufactured and printed or painted 
with any colour or colours within the king- 
dom of Great Britain, provided that the warp 
thereof be intirely linen yarn." Even so, 
ladies could not be said to wear calico prints, 
properly so called, the fabric being half linen 
and half cotton. Thirty-eight years had yet 
to elapse ere they might appear in the 
unadulterated stuff, for it was not until 1774 
that the statute 14 Geo. III. c. 72 declared it 
lawful "to use or wear any new-manufac- 
tured stuffs, wholly made of cotton spun in 
Great Britain, when printed, stained, painted, 
or dyed with any colour or colours." It is 
curious to notice that by section 3 of this Act 
the said stuffs were deprived of the name 
calico, "which stands for foreign callicoes," 
the excise officer being specially directed to 
stamp such fabrics "British manufactory" 
instead of "Callico" as heretofore. I have 
not succeeded in ascertaining when it became 
again lawful to wear the printed calicoes of 
Oriental manufacture. F. ADAMS. 

106A, Albany Road, Camberwell. 

A CHURCH TRADITION (9 th S. i. 428 ii. 58). 
The reference to York and Lichfield cathe- 
drals as supporting the whimsical theory of a 
deviation of the line of a chancel from that of 
the nave being symbolic of the Atonement is 
not a happy one. I have before me three 
plans of York Minster : (1) Brown's ' Guide 
to York Minster' (much superior to the 
general run of such handbooks); (2) the 25-inch 
Ordnance Map of York, which, knowing the 
methods of the Ordnance Survey, I take 
to be infallible ; and (3) the exquisite map 
in Isbister & Co.'s " Cathedral Series," by the 
Very Rev. A. P. Pury Cust, D.D., Dean of 
York ; and all three show that no such 
deviation exists, but that nave and choir 
have precisely the same orientation. 

Of Lichfield Cathedral I have the clear and 
beautifully drawn map in Bell's " Cathedral 
Series" by B. A. Clifton, showing a sligho 
deflection of the choir to the north, which by 
careful measurement with a vernier pro tractor 
is found to be only one degree of a circle, a 
deviation so minute that it is absurd to 
consider it as an intentional symbolic 

Mr. B. A. Clifton's account of the piece- 
meal rebuilding of the cathedral, by which it 
gradually took the place of the Norman 
cathedral first the choir, then the south 
transept, next the north, and last, at a 
later period, the nave makes it appear how 
likely a slight deviation was, under such 

9 th S. II. AUG. 20, '98.] 



difficult building conditions, to be expected. 
Surely, if the ancient church builders in- 
tended to symbolize the Atonement in the 
way suggested, they would have made the 
change of orientation very much more pro- 

I have during the last fourteen years 
obtained the orientation of nearly 400 ancient 
churches from the Ordnance maps, but have 
never found any variations in the line of the 
chancel but such trifling ones as may be 
fairly attributed to careless setting out when 
a chancel was rebuilt at a period subsequent 
to the building of the original church. 

In Brandons 'Parish Churches' plans of 
over sixty notable old churches are given, 
minutely measured and drawn by the archi- 
tectural experts the Brandon brothers. 
They note every speciality of each church, 
but in no case does any deviation appear 
between the orientation of the chancel and 
that of the nave. 

In some of Brandon's churches the chancel 
is shown more or less non-central with the 
nave, but in all cases the same orientation is 
preserved. G. WATSON. 

Penrith, Cumberland. 

ANNE BRONTE (8 th S. xii. 403, 471). I 
am indebted to MR. MOORE SMITH for his 
interesting reply to my article at the first 
reference. Miss Firth's diary conclusively 
settles the date of Anne Bronte's birth, but 
leaves two other equally important points in 
her history still subjudice. First, with regard 
to her name, or the spelling of it. MR. MOORE 
SMITH is "sure" that she was christened 
" Anne." But the evidence of the baptismal 
register is against his sureness. But, he 
argues, "the entry which gives 'Annie' is 
an error of transcription." On whose part? 
Either on Mr. Morgan's or Mr. Jolly s, or 
perhaps on mine. As for myself, I take the 
spelling as it lies before me in the copy of 
the entry made by Mr. Jolly with painstaking 
accuracy, while Mr. Morgan must surely be 
credited with knowing the difference between 
the two forms of the name. Miss Firth's 
testimony, of course, goes for nothing, not- 
withstanding the fact that she stood as Anne's 
godmother, for she invariably spells the name 
"Ann," though, curiously enough, it creates a 
triple difficulty similar to that mooted in my 
article. Then with reference to the date of 
Mr. Bronte's removal to Haworth. Mrs. 
Gaskell distinctly says that it occurred on 
25 February, while Miss Firth's diary states 
that to be the date of his licence to Haworth. 
Of course, a licence does not necessarily mean 
an immediate removal, but I am still inclined 

to believe that Mr. Bronte himself left 
Thornton on that date, though his family 
only did so some time between 5 April and 
12 May the dates of Miss Firth's absence 
in Scarborough. Mr. Morgan's presence at 
Thornton, in addition to Mrs. GaskelFs 
statement, inclines me to this belief. And, 
furthermore, Miss Firth's curious phrase, 
"Took leave of Mr. Bronte's before leaving 
home " (5 April), in the light of MR. MOORE 
SMITH'S own explanation "an abbreviation 
for Mr. Bronte's family " confirms my view, 
or rather Mrs. GaskelFs statement. I fully 
admit the value of Miss Firth's diary as local 
and contemporary evidence, which must out- 
weigh that of any mere outsider ; but for all 
that, Mrs. Gaskell's testimony cannot be 
lightly set aside. Her intimacy with the 
Brontes precluded culpable errors of fact. 
But as I am a seeker after truth, not an 
obstinate adherent to inaccuracy (if such 
there be), I shall not sulk if MR. MOORE SMITH 
can change my views. May I express the 
hope, in conclusion, that Miss Firth's diary 
may soon see the light ? J. B. S. 


In the -English Illustrated Magazine for 
August last there appeared a process picture 
from a photograph of Anne Bronte's gravestone 
in the churchyard of St. Mary's, Scarborough. 
Nothing but the stone itself appeared on the 
plate, so that the inscription as recorded by 
J. B. S. could be distinctly seen. 


West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

GLOVES AT FAIRS (9 th S. i. 188, 375, 492). 
My impression (written in Bechuanaland) 
that the carrying of the glove at Lammas 
Fair, in Exeter, died out with the death of 
my friend good old " Joey " Wingfield, the 
noted wrestler and poacher of this city, a few 
years ago, was incorrect. It is still continued, 
and I witnessed the ancient ceremony this 
morning (19 July). The simple procession 
started from Exe Bridge at 11.30 A.M., the old 
proclamation written on vellum, and dating 
from certainly so long ago as A.D. 1322, being 
first read. Preceded by a side drum and a 
fife, the huge glove, hoisted upon a pole some 
fifteen feet high, was carried right through 
the main thoroughfare of this city. The pole 
is of considerable antiquity and is painted, 
striped something after the fashion of a 
barber's pole. The old glove is about eighteen 
inches high, made of leather, and pipe-clayed 
annually for the display. Under it were tied 
garlands of flowers. Held aloft, the glove 
was thus carried to the site of the old East 
Gate at the other end of the city, where the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* s. n. A. 20, 

proclamation was again read. Then the little 
cortege returned to the front of our ancient 
Guildhall, where the proclamation was duly 
read a third time, after which we all took off 
our hats whilst ' God save the Queen ' was 
rendered as a solo on the fife. Three hearty 
cheers followed, and then the glove, its 

garlands, and the pole were solemnly hoisted 
y a cord to the top of the Guildhall's pro- 
jecting Queen Elizabethan portico. There it 
was secured to the battlements, at a bevel, 
leaning over the grand old Roman thorough- 
fare, and there it will remain until noon on 
Friday next (22 July), when the (now quite 
obsolete) fair will close. According to 
tradition, however, Lammas Fair commences 
to-morrow (20 July). HARRY HEMS. 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

DENTAL COLLEGES (8 th S. xii. 508 ; 9 th S. i. 98). 
The Baltimore Dental College may be the oldest 
in the world, but Philadelphia has the most 
appropriately named place for a society of 
extractors, viz., Dental Hall. The same city 
rejoices in the suggestive name of the 
Medical Aid and Funeral Supply Company ! 



i. 28). Since my inquiry in January I have 
had a letter from the editor of De Navorscher. 
His address is No. 3, Oude Kerkstr., Utrecht. 
He informs me that articles are inserted in 
Dutch, English, French, or German. 


350). The cases of a train, one of the safest 
places in thunderstorms, and a cycle, one of 
the most dangerous, are totally dissimilar. A 
conductor to protect the cycle-rider might be 
a fork -like branch of copper ribbon, fastened 
to the middle of the handle, where lamps are 
placed, and spreading on each side of his 
head. E. L. GARBETT. 

" To CHI-IKE " : " CHI-IKE " (9 th S. i. 425 ; ii. 
53). Is this anything more than the struggle 
of orthography to deal with the cockney 
pronunciation of cheek ? ST. SWITHIN. 

" FRET " (8 th S. xii. 386, 491 ; 9 th S. i. 333). 
Clare, in his 'Shepherd's Calendar,' p. 26, 
speaks of " icicles, that fret at noon." 


West Haddon, Northamptonshire. 

CURIOUS CHRISTIAN NAME (9 th S. i. 446 ; ii. 
57). Erica is clearly the feminine of Erik, 
but it is possible that it may somewhere have 
been given in ignorance of this fact. Readers 
of Crabbe will remember the gardener's wife 

who insisted on her daughter being christened 
Lonicera (honeysuckle), in spite of the 
parson's protest. T. WILSON. 


In tracing families I have met with 
Rimelion as a feminine baptismal name ; it 
runs in such Kentish alliances as Round, 
Amherst, &c. Can it be paralleled elsewhere ? 

A. H. 

THE REV. GEORGE LEWIS (9 th S. ii. 9). A 
clergyman of this name was appointed 
chaplain of St. Mary's, Fort St. George, by 
the Honourable East India Company in 1692, 
in succession to the Rev. J. Evans (afterwards 
Bishop of Bangor). He returned to England 
in 1714. FRANK PENNY, LL.M. 

Fort St, George. 

NOUNCED (9 th S. i. 466 ; ii. 52, 96). I am in a 
position to state that Lord Napier of Magdala 
has the accent on the "dal," i.e., that he is 
Lord Napier of Magdala. 



328, 377, 393 ; ii. 13). To the list of writers 
who have fallen into the common error should 
be added Dickens, who, in describing the 
nocturnal visit of Jasper and Durdles to the 
Cathedral, writes : 

" Here, the moonlight is so very bright again that 
the colours of the nearest stained-glass window are 
thrown upon their faces. The appearance of the 

unconscious Durdles is ghastly enough, with a 

purple band across his face, and a yellow splash 
upon his brow."' Edwin Drood,' oh. xii. 



MORNING (9 th S. ii. 105). I think it possible 
that Henrysoun uses nicht in the sense of 
darkness, i.e., the darkness of the preceding 
night. The hour expressed by the phrase 
"betuix midday and nicht," i.e., between 
darkness and noon, would vary according to 
the time of year. At the period of the equi- 
noxes it would mean 9 A.M., or thereabout". 
The poet would not be particular to half an 
hour, or even more. The statement that some 
of Henry soun's pieces were given as Chaucer's 
is incorrect. Only one of his pieces is in 
question, and it never was really given as 
Chaucer's. It was written as a sort of supple- 
ment to Chaucer's 'Troilus,' and on this ac- 
count Thynne included it as such in his 
collection of Chaucer's works. But it has yet 
to be proved that Thynne believed it to be 
Chaucer's, for had he done so he would hardly 
have retained in it so many forms and phrases 
that are obviously of Scottish origin. Any 

9 th S. II. AUG. 20, '98.] 



reader who cares to consult my edition o 
certain ' Chaucerian Pieces ' will find, on reflec 
tion, that Thynne must have known perfectly 
well that many of the pieces in his volume 
were not Chaucer's. If not, why did he men 
tion some of these authors by name 1 


The line which puzzles ME. EASTON present, 
an example of hysteron proteron, a figure 
employed here by Henryson in aid of rime 
perhaps also of alliteration. Morning is a spac 
of time between night and midday. Reac 
mentally, " In ane mornyng, betuix nicht anc 
midday," and the obscurity vanishes. 


106A, Albany Road, Camberwell. 

BUSH (8 th S. xii. 148, 237, 433, 511; 9 th S. i 
174). The two following extracts may prove 
interesting and illustrative of this subject. 
The former is from the ' Ecclesiastical History 
of Scotland,' by George Grub, LL.D.: 

"The regent [i.e., the Earl of Arran] sent the 
fiery cross through the kingdom, and advanced 
against the English with a numerous army, 
accompanied by a body of priests and monks who 
marched under a white banner bearing an emble- 
matic figure of the afflicted Church. They met at 
Pinkie on the 9th of September [1547], and the 
Scots were defeated with great slaughter." Vol. ii. 
chap. xxx. p. 30. 

The other extract is from ' The Monastery,' 
and is a comment upon it : 

"The Catholic clergy were deeply interested in 
that national quarrel, the principal object of which 
was to prevent the union of the infant Queen Mary 
with the son of the heretical Henry VIII. The 
monks had called out their vassals under an experi- 
enced leader. Many of themselves had taken arms, 
and marched to the field, under a banner repre- 
senting a female, supposed to personify the Scottish 
Church, kneeling in the attitude of prayer with 
the legend AfflictttapOMat ne dbliviacar is." Chap, ii. 

The author observes in the next paragraph 
that in the "dolorous slaughter of Pinkie, 
among ten thousand men of low and high 
degree, Simon Glendinning, of the Tower of 
Glendearg, bit the dust." 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

S. xi. 383, 435 ; xii. 75, 461). W. I. R. V. may 
be interested in knowing that a branch of the 
family of Eyre, bearing arms somewhat dif- 
ferent from those he mentions in his foot-note 
on p. 462, were living in Dorset in the seven- 
teenth century. 

I have in my possession a halfpenny token, 
which in the last edition of Boyne's ' Seven- 
teenth Century Tokens,' vol. i. p. 178 (No. 66), 

is described as follows : "(Obverse) DORCHESTER 
1667 = SIMON EYRE. (Reverse) three quatre- 
foil leaves and a boot, filling the field." 

The following is the note I there made on 
the subject : 

" The device on the reverse is no doubt intended 
for a representation of the armorial bearings of a 
branch of the family of Eyre, for which see 
Edmondson's ' Complete Body of Heraldry,' ed. 

Simon Eyre, son of Rob. Eyre, of Osming- 
ton, yeoman, was apprenticed apothecary, 

Hutchins (' History of Dorset,' ii. 397) says 
that some years ago there was picked up in 
the school garden of Holy Trinity, Dorches- 
ter, a signet ring with " Simon Eyre " on it, 
and round it " Dorchester 1657." 

J. S. UDAL. 

GALE (5 th S. ii. 368). Free-miner is said to 
be a man who has worked a year and a day 
underground within the Forest of Dean, and is 
then entitled to take up certain land, which 
is locally termed a gale. Is this so, and is it 
generally recognized ? H. MORPHYN. 

THROUGH-STONE (8 th S. xii. 487; 9 th S. i. 9, 
210). In the discussion about this term it is 
surprising that one obvious possibility as to 
derivation has not been mooted, so far as I have 
seen. In Scottish (or is it "Scotch"?) dykes 
that is, dry stone walls there are two or more 
courses of bond stones, reaching right through 
the dyke from face to face. Now there is but 
one local name for such a stone, and that is 
" through-stone." H. J. MOULE. 


HERALDRY (9 th S. i. 188). The baronets of 
England and Ireland by their patents are 
to " bear, either in a canton in their coat of 
arms, or in an escutcheon, at their pleasure, 
the arms of Ulster, to wit, a hand gules or a . 
aloody hand in a field argent." The distinc- 
tion is purely armorial, and the option of 
rearing the arms of Ulster on a canton or 
upon an escutcheon in the coat of arms was 
given only in reference to the possible de- 
scription of heraldic charges which might 
ender the one mode of displaying the added 
Dearing more convenient than the other. 
Chat this is the true construction of the 
ordinance is evident from the practice, which 
las always obtained, of placing the Ulster 
rms either in canton or in an escutcheon on 
u chief, or in the body of the coat of arms 
C. G. Young, York Herald, on Baronets). 

THE NAME " HAMISH " (9 th S. i. 386, 437). 
"he responsibility of having introduced this 



name into English fiction seems to belong not 
so much to Mr. Black as to the late Mrs. Henry 
Wood. In her story ' The Channings ' one of 
the principal characters has "Hamish" for 
his name. EDWARD H. MARSHALL, M.A. 
[Scott has "Hamish"; see ante, p. 143.] 

MAIN' (9 th S. i. 404). The G in "Gyneth" is 
hard, as in " Geraint " and all Celtic names. 

C. C. B. 

ASCETIC (9 th S. i. 227, 418). The connexion 
of this word with the Russian skeet is only true 
in the sense that both are derivatives of the 
Greek ao-Kew. Skeet, originally a hermitag3, 
is an apocopated form of ao-K^rjjptov. See 
Stanley, 'Lectures on the Eastern Church,' 
p. 117. A. SMYTHE PALMER. 

South Woodford. 

BATTLE-AXES AND ROMANS (9 th S. i. 269, 432). 
The lange barthen appears to have been our 
"poleaxe," halberd, or partisan. So the root 
barte or barthe, as quoted, is related to Sanskrit 
kart, krit, "to cut or divide," by the well- 
known equation of Tc and p ; we thus get the 
verb " to part," Latin partior, partiri ; and 
the late \j&ivt\ partizare. Compare the coulter 
or cutter and the axe. In the same way it 
can be shown that the animal pard or panther 
may be brought into the same connexion from 
TTfpdv, " to ravage," Latin perdo, our perdition ; 
if so, we must separate Parthian from Persian 
ethnically, because the Fars, in Farsistan, is 
supposed to be connected with vir, virilis. 


13, Paternoster Row, E.G. 

The best account of the Romans in England 
or rather of them as citizens, soldiers, &c. 
I found in a curious book by White Kennett, 
dated, I think, in the last century. 


SYNTAX OP "NEITHER" (9 th S. i. 24). A 
very great English writer uses the plural 
verb both after the pronoun neither and 
after the "conjunctional pair" : 

" Neither Virgil nor Homer were deficient in any 
of the former beauties." 

"Both writ with wonderful facility and clearness: 
neither were great inventors.'' Dryden, preface 
prefixed to the ' Fables.' 


ST. MARY MATFELON (8 th S. xii. 202, 255, 
276, 466). In the London Argils of 30 Oct., 
1897, p. 3, aub 'The Story of the City Guilds. 
VI. The Clothworkers' Company,' the follow- 
ing appears : 

"There is reason to believe that they [the Fullers] 
were located at this early period, [i. e. temp. 

Edw. IV.] in Whitechapel, and that their presence 
there accounts for the designation of the parish in 
the old ecclesiastical records as ' Villa Beatse Marias 
de Matfellon ' matfellon being the herb commonly 
known as ' fuller's teasel,' which was grown exten- 
sively in the locality for the purpose of trade." 

C. H. C. 

South Hackney. 

" FOND " (9 th S. i. 365; ii. 34). In some parts 
of the north of England a young woman who 
is unduly desirous to " keep company " with 
a young man is said to be " fellow-fond." 

W. C. B. 

"THE HEMPSHERES" (9 th S. i. 327, 431). As 
the Western hemisphere was booming in the 
time of Elizabeth, AYEAHR'S guess is, or course, 
a very good one, and he has forestalled me in 
it. Whether hemp was ever grown at Brighton 
for any purpose I do not know. It was 
grown by every well-to-do peasant in my 
village in Burgundy when I was a boy for 
the clothing of himself and household. I 
believe there are still sheets of homespun, 
and hanks of unspun, hemp in the house I 
was born in, together with the spinning-wheel 
and winder. The men's shirts were supple- 
mented with a Gladstonian collar of linen 
no front, that was hidden by the " blouse." 
The women in the winter held spinning 
" bees " in the cellars. THOMAS J. JEAKES. 

"BROACHING THE ADMIRAL" (9 th S. i. 128, 271, 
350). The accepted nautical expression is 
not " tapping," but " broaching " a barrel of 
rum (or other spirit) when the hogshead, 
cask, or puncheon is bored and drunk from 
at one and the same time. If this is done 
surreptitiously by "Jack," the theft is 
termed " sucking the monkey." 


S.S. Doune Castle, East Coast of Africa. 

A reference to Pettigrew's 'Life of Nelson,' 
ii. 537, will show that the two stories are not 
contradictory. The body, originally deposited 
in a leaguer, was put into a leaden coffin upon 
its arrival in England, but before the final 
arrangements for burial. 



KINGSTON-ON-THAMES (9 th S. i. 475 ; ii. 4). 
I quoted the popular derivation from "stone " 
without the least belief, as I always thought 
it was King's town. The place might be 
called a temporary capital between Win- 
chester and London. It did not enjoy the 
distinction quite long enough to produce an 
almshouse like St; Cross, the aboriginal union 
workhouse of England. E. L. GARBETT. 

9s. ii. AUG. 20, '98.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


JUNIUS (7 th S. xi. 104, 133). Reference i 
made to an edition of the ' Letters of Juniua 
dated 1806. There were two editions of that 
date, viz., one issued by Vernor, Hood & 
Sharpe, another by Almon and Sir Richard 
Phillips, both in two volumes. Will MR. 
OROOKE kindly explain which is the edition 
to which he refers ? A. H. 

"A CROW TO PLUCK WITH" (9 th S. i. 367, 
438). A fairly full explanation of this phrase 
will be found in Dr. E. C. Brewer's ' Diction- 
ary of Phrase and Fable.' The meaning would 
seem to express the sense of being displeased 
with another, and hence having ground 
for complaint. Dr. Brewer quotes from 
Ho well's proverbs (1659) the following, "I 
have a goose to pluck with you," in a similar 
sense. Chaucer, we learn, has the phrase 
"Pull a finch," but the meaning here has 
reference to cheating or filching. Both 
Shakespeare in 'Comedy of Errors,' III. i., and 
Butler in 'Hudibras,' pt. ii. 2, use variants of 
the phrase. The saying seems to run on all 
fours with the expression " I have a bone to 
pick with you " ; but the latter is of the two 
the more frequently used nowadays. 

C. P. HALE. 

When seeing this quotation in ' N. & Q.,' I 
thought some one would surely refer us to the 
'Comedy of Errors,' ^vhere Shakespeare's use 
of the words explains what is meant (Act III. 
sc. i.) : 

Dro. E. I pray thee, let me in. 

Dro. S. [within]. Ay, when fowls have no feathers 

and fish have no fin. 

Ant. E. Well, I '11 break in ; go, borrow me a crow. 
Dro. E, A crow without feather ? Master, mean 

you so ? 
For a fish without a fin, there 's a fowl without a 

feather : 

If a crow help us in, sirrah, we'll pluck a crow 

Which means evidently that a quarrel will 
ensue between the contending parties. 

E. A. C. 

CHURCHES OF ST. PAUL (9 th S. i. 488). 
Surely the basilica of St. Paul, outside the 
walls of Rome, must have kept its name from 
its foundation in Constantino's time. 

E. L. G. 

FIELD-NAMES (9 th S. ii. 86). " Intacks " 
occurs among the field-names of Notting- 
hamshire recorded by Mr. Andrews. In the 
north-western part of Lincolnshire an " in- 
take " formerly signified land taken in from 
an open field or common. In the manor 
records of Scotter for the year 1629 there is 
an entry stating that Richard Huggit sur- 

rendered land within that manor to Thomas 
Stothard in a place known as "Le Long 
Intackes." The word is also in use to denote 
land reclaimed from a tidal river ; thus there 
was a field in the parish of Winteringham 
called " The Intake, which had teen taken 
from the Humber. I have heard that nearly 
the whole of it has been washed away by the 
tide in recent years. " Intake " was in use, and 
probably is still, in this latter sense in York- 
shire. In a survey of the lands of the Abbey 
of Selby taken in 1540 mention is made of 
"One lytle close called Seller Intak over- 
flowed with water all wynter " (' Monasticon 
Angl.,' vol. iii. p. 505, col. 2). At Bubwith in 
the same county there was in 1765 a place 
named " The Intak " (' N. & Q ' 7 th S. xii. 504). 
In Kent the parallel word "innings" is 
used to indicate reclaimed land. Mr. Robert 
Furley, in his 'Outline of the History of 
Romney Marsh,' which appeared in the 
Archceologia Cantiana, vol. xiii., says : " One 
of the earliest 'innings' of Walland Marsh, 
after the Norman Conquest, appears to have 
taken place between 1162 and 1170, and it 
has been ever since called 'Becket's Innings,' 
as this archbishop has the credit of promoting 

TOBACCO IN ENGLAND (9 th S. ii. 86). In a 
review of " Brief Lives, chiefly of Contempo- 
raries. Set down by John Aubrey between 
the Years 1669 and 1696. Edited from the 
Author's MSS. by Andrew Clark," the Athe- 
naeum, 30 July, talces occasion to quote from 
the work in question the following : 

"I have heard my grandfather Lyte say that one 
pipe was handed from man to man round the table. 
They had first silver pipes ; the ordinary sort made 
use of a walnutshell and a straw." 

S. J. A. F. 

She was the daughter of John Egioke, of 
Egioke, co. Worcester, by Anna, daughter of 
Nicholas Huband, of Ipsley (pedigree entered 
in College of Arms). Her brother was Sir 
Francis Egioke, Knt. She married, firstly, 
John Cheynell, M.D. (1605), by whom she had 
the well-known Francis Cheynell (baptized 

6 July, 1608, at St. Mary's, pxford), and Martha, 

who married Campion. She married, 

secondly (as his second wife), in January, 
1617/8 (only two months before his death), 
Robert Abbot, Bishop of Salisbury. Her 
will, in which she describes herself as his 
widow, and then "sick in body,' is dated 

7 August, 1635 (sic\ though not proved in 
the C.P.C. till 26 February, 1646/7. In the 
probate act she is described as of Pet worth, 
Sussex, where, probably, she was buned. It 


NOTES AND QUERIES. p* s. IL A. 20, t 

John Warner, Bishop of Rochester, married 
a person named Bridget, it could not have 
been this lady. G. E. C. 

(9 th S. ii. 108). Two of the most famous 
temples in Pekin are dedicated to the Sky 
and Agriculture respectively. They stand 
near one another on the southern side of the 
capital, and, with the parks that surround 
them, cover a very wide expanse of land. 
The Temple of the Sky is a circular edifice, 
approached by a long flight of marble steps, 
and surmounted by two roofs that project 
considerably over the Avails of the temple. 
The fane dedicated to Agriculture is not so 
large, but it has three roofs, one above the 
other, and is chiefly remarkable for the 
number of pilasters, beautifully carved, with 
which it is adorned. Near this latter temple 
lies the field where the emperor used to go 
to guide the plough of ivory and gold once a 
year, invoking Heaven's blessing the while 
upon the crops. The custom, however, is no 
longer observed ; it was given up after Pekin 
had been profaned by the triumphant entry 
of the Anglo-French army in I860. 



This ceremony (of a ritual and conventional 
character) is described, with an illustration, 
in a common book Miss Corner's 'China and 
India,' p. 92. 



A full account of "the opening of the 
ploughing season at Pekin, the capital of 
the empire, by the emperor in person," will 
be found in Gray's 'China' (1878), ii. 186-8, 
in which the object is thus stated : 

"When this great festival has inaugurated the 
agricultural year, the first duty of Chinese farmers 
is to follow the good example which their rulers 
have set before them by putting their own hands to 
the plough." 


Salterton, Devon. 

CHELSEA (9 th S. i. 264). With reference to 
the derivation of the name Chelsea, the fol- 
lowing paragraph appeared in the London 
Argus for 19 March, in an article dealing with 
the history of Chelsea : 

"The origin of Chelsea, both as a name and 
a place, is very remote, so much so that no 
one can trace it right back. In the Domesday 
Survey it is spoken of as Chelchea, and Mr. Alfred 
Beavor, in his ' Memorials of Old Chelsea,' would 
have us believe that this is none other than the 
Cealchythe where Anglican synods were held in 
the period of the Mercian supremacy. Cealchythe, 

in the tongue of our Saxon fathers, would mean a 
small haven walled in, either naturally or artifici- 
ally, by chalk. Mr. Beavor points to the remains 
of a causeway at Chelsea leading to a suggested 
ford, and built partly of chalk, but beyond that he 
has not much to say in proof of his theory, and the 
most favourable verdict that can be given in the 
circumstances is one of not proven." 

Timbs in his 'Curiosities of London' (1867, 
p. 89) says that Chelsea "lies about fifteen 
feet above the river," and, according to Nor- 
den, is named from its strand, 

"like the chesel (ceosel or cesel) which the sea 
casteth up of sand and pebble-stories, thereof called 
Chesehey, briefly Chelsey, as is Chelsey (Selsey) in 
Sussex. In a Saxon charter, however, it is written 
CecdchyHe ; in Domesday, Cerechede and ChaJced ; 
and Sir Thomas More wrote it Chehhith, though it 
began to be written Chelsey in the sixteenth cen- 
tury. The Rev. J. Blunt derives the name from 
Cealc, chalk, and Hi/d, or Hythe, a harbour, adding 
that this Hythe was used for landing chalk, and so 
had given a name to the place." 

.C. H. C. 
South Hackney. 

PERIOD (9") S. ii. 108). MR. THORNTON may 
confirm his suspicion that "rostrum was 
applied to a man's nose" by referring to 
Smith's ' Latin-English Dictionary,' where 
examples of this meaning are given from " PI. 
Men. i. i. 13 ; Petr. 75, 10." His suspicion 
will be further strengthened if he looks out 
the word in Riddell and White. 





bos piger ; optat arare. 

Ox is slow, not horse. F. J. CANDY. 


CLARET AND VIN-DE-GRAVE (8 th S. xii. 485, 
512 ; 9 th S. i. 52). G. P. R. James, in his 
' The Brigand ; or, Corse de Leon,' chap. ii. 
(p. 17 of " The Parlour Library " edition of 
Thomas Hodgson, London, circa 1857), mentions 
"Avignon claret," with the note, "The fhdt 
time I ever find the word claret used, it is 
applied to the wine of Avignon "; and, 
chap. xliv. (p. 424), a second note is added : 
" The first wine that I find called claret is 
the wine of Avignon, very different from that 
to which we now give the name." With 
respect to gravel-grown grave, I remember to 
have met with a humorously appreciative 
notice of a light white wine with a gun-flint 
flavour : " Un petit vin blanc avec un gout de 
pierre-a-fusil." THOMAS J. JEAKES. 

Littre may be right in saying that there is 
no locality bearing the name of Grave in the 

bos ; piger optat errare 

9* s. ii. AUG. 20, 



Gironde, and there is no doubt that the name 
is derived from the gravelly soil on which the 
vines grow, but there are three passages in 
Rabelais which do not seem to support the 
contention that there was no vine-growing 
district known as Grave : 

1. "Certain nombre de tonneaulx de vin de 

Grave, d'Orleans, de Beaulne, de Myrevaulx," &c. 
'Pant.,' iii. 52. 

2. " tin grand vignoble de toutes especes de vignes, 

comme Phalerne, Malvoisie Beaune, Mirevaux, 

Orleans Anjou, Grave." 'Pant.,' v. 34. 

3. "C'est vin de Grave." 'Pant,,' v. 43. 

In the last passage Jannet reads "vin de 
Grece" but in the fifth book the text is uncer- 
tain and the word occurs in connexion with 
Beaune and Mirevaux, so that the proper 
reading is almost certainly Grave. 

13A, Margaret Street, W. 

488, 498). He was the eldest son of William 
Rush, of Lambeth, and Mary, daugh- 
ter of George Smith, of London, his wife. 
He inherited the estate at Royden in Suffolk 
which was afterwards sold to Admiral Sir 
Hyde Parker, and after his death resold, and 
the mansion (which had cost the preceding 
Mr. Rush 30,000/.) pulled down. Sir William 
then removed to Wimbledon, where he resided 
for the last thirty years of his life. He 
wedded, 10 April, 1782, Laura, daughter of 
Cremer Carter, of Southwark, by whom (who 
died 14 November, 1822) he had six daughters. 
Knighted 19 June, 1800. For further parti- 
culars of the family see Burke's ' Commoners 
and Gentry.' JOHN RADCLIFFE. 

PUDDLEDOCK (9 th S. i. 329, 478). There is a 
large wood with a cottage or two near and 
a farm, about three and a half miles south of 
Warley in Essex, which is so named. 


Warley Barracks. 

THE DEVIL'S DAM (8 th S. iv. 442 ; v. 442 ; 
vi. 44, 284 ; vii. 203 ; viii. 25 ; 9 th S. ii. 45). In 
my first contribution to 'N. & Q.' on this 
subject I did not reveal the whole legend 
concerning Lilith ; but when I referred to 
the lines of Butler it was necessary to tell 
more of the story. Lilith was both the 
mother and the paramour of Asmodeiis. 
When Asmodeiis (or Asmodai, as he is some- 
times called) changed himself into the like- 
ness of Solomon, and became a devil incarnate, 
he had still the same perverse inclination. 
Isaac DTsraeli tells the story of him and 
Solomon, in the article entitled 'Rabbinical 
Stories,' in the ' Curiosities of Literature.' 
It has been said in ' N. & Q.' that Shakspeare 

by "Devil's dam" may not have meant 
mother of the devil. But that he did use 
dam as mother is proved conclusively by the 
following words of Prospero in ' The Tempest ': 

Thou poisonous slave, got by the devil himself 

Upon thy wicked dam. 

There is an equally conclusive passage in 
' King John.' But I quoted that once before. 


This involves a misconception, for Lilith is 
merely a feminine form of layil, night : read 
layiloth and cf. Assyrian lilati, evening, Arabic 
leu, Syriac lail ; all from Sanskrit lal, to 
sport, so lalita, lilata, beautiful, loving ; 
Greek XaAew, Eng. lullaby. Night is the 
time for cool enjoyment in tropical countries, 
and we have the idea preserved in the song 
"Lovely night, they nave called thee dark 
and drear," &c. Isaiah, taken literally, reads 
" Night [i. e. darkness] shall settle there and 
find herself a resting-place." See also chap. Ix. 
verse 2 : " Darkness shall cover the earth, and 
gross darkness the peoples." A. HALL. 

SWEATING-PITS IN IRELAND (9 th S. ii. 107). 
An excellent description of one of these, 
entitled 'An Ancient Irish Hot- Air Bath or 
Sweat-house on the Island of Rathlin,' by 
Rev. W. B. Mulcahy, is to be found in the 
Journal of the Society of Antiquaries 
(Ireland), vol. i. (1891), pp. 589-90. Examples 
are also described as existing at Innismurry, 
vol. i. (1890), p. 165, and near Eglish, vol. iv. 
(1894), p. 180. W r . B. GERISH. 

FRENCH CARDINAL (9 th S. ii. 48). The 
'Encyclopaedia Britannica,' v. 96, mentions 
various cardinals whose ages at the time of 
their creation ranged from twenty-three years 
down to eight. 



COUNT ST. GERMAIN (9 th S. ii. 128). A life 
of the Count St. Germain is included in 
Wraxall's ' Remarkable Adventurers,' 2 vols. 


ANTICIPATION OF X RAYS (9 th S. ii. 106). 
In the ' Tarikhu-s Sind,' by Mir Muhammad 
M'asum, written A.D. 1600, there is an account 
of the application of the X rays to surgical 
purposes. Wandering about the country 
near Ghuzni, an exiled prince meets a man 
carrying "hukka tubes." He is astonished 
to find that the man's interior economy is 
visible as long as the hukka tubes are carried 
on his head. He buys the tubes and takes 
them to Ghuzni. The king of that place is 
ill, having inadvertently swallowed two 


NOTES AND QUERIES. L9< s. n. AUG. 20, m 

small water-snakes. By placing the bundle 
of hukka stems on the patient's head, the 
exiled prince ascertains the location of the 
snakes, and after that their removal is a 
simple matter. A translation of the passage 
from the original Persian may be found in 
Elliot's ' History of India by its own His- 
torians,' vol. i. p. 221. S. WHEELER. 

101). In connexion with MR. ST. CLAIR 
BADDELEY'S very interesting paper about the 
church (?) floor at Silchester, he and others 
of your readers may be reminded of the dis- 
covery of a tessellated floor, partly like it, a 
hundred years ago. This floor seems not to 
have received of late the attention which it 
deserves. It is at Frampton, near Dorchester, 
but is covered up out of sight. It is 21 ft. 
square, and has pagan inscriptions. On the 
south side it is extended into a semicircular 
apse. In the middle of the straight side of 

this is the 

It is needless to go into 

further description, because there is a folio 
monograph on the subject, entitled " Figures 
of Mosaic Pavements discovered near Framp- 
ton, in Dorsetshire. Sold by J. White, &c. 
1808." How is it that tessellated floors abound 
in the south, while there are none along the 
Wall that there are almost no Roman in- 
scribed stones in the south-west and hundreds 
in the north ? H. J. MOULE. 


On this interesting subject some corre- 
spondence took place in the Church Times, 16 
and 23 December, 1892, q.v. W. C. B. 

PATCHES (9 th S. i. 347; ii. 73). ST. S WITHIN 
remarks that patches are called mouches in 
France. During my recent visit to Zululand, 
I found the one small patch worn around the 
waist (about the size of one's hand) by the 
practically naked Zulu people is called a 
nimichie. HARRY HEMS. 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

(9 th S. ii. 106). When I was a boy, in the 
forties, it was one of my holiday treats to 
dine with my father at Bertolini's, which had 
been a bachelor haunt of his. The savoury 
dishes of ravioli and other Italian confections 
which Madame Bertolini would on such occa- 
sions prepare with her own fair hands for 
my behoof still linger in my memory. 

Though a reference to the London direc- 
tories of forty or fifty years ago will show 
that MR. HEBB is correct in his statement 
that Bertolini's was No. 34, St. Martin's 
Street, it was a tradition of the house that it 

had been formerly occupied by Sir Isaac 
Newton, and it was probably on the strength 
of this tradition that it bore the alternative 
designation of " Newton's Hotel." It was in 
communicating some old reminiscences of the 
place to Mr. Austin Dobson that I mentioned 
that the identity of Bertolini's with Newton's 
house was amongst my boyish recollections, 
and I therefore take this opportunity of say- 
ing that for the statement in the Sketch of 
22 June I must be held answerable, and of 
expressing my regret that my incapacity to 
distinguish between tradition and fact should 
have led to a slight deviation from accuracy. 

45, Pall Mall, S.W. 


26, 115). I have notes of two definitions of 
the name : (1) From St. Winnoc, or Winning 
an Irish evangelist reputed to have landed 
in Ayrshire in 715, and to have founded a 
church at Kilwinning, where four hundred 
years afterwards a splendid abbey was built, 
dedicated to SS. Winning and Mary. An old 
chapel near the town of Lochwinnoch was 
dedicated to the saint. Lochwinnoch is about 
nine miles from Kilwinning, and before the 
present spelling was finally adopted the name 
was written in about forty different ways. In 
1158 it was spelt Lochynoc, and to this day 
is locally pronounced Lochinyoch. (2) The 
latter part might be the genitive innich of the 
Celtic innis, an island. There is a small 
island in the loch. 


" ANIGOSANTHUS " (9 th S. ii. 7, 99). I note 
that Johnson's ' Gardening Dictionary,' 
edited by Wright and Dewar, gives avoiyw, 
to expand, as the derivation of the first part 
of the word. Such a derivation accords well 
with the habit of the flower, and seems to be 
much more probable than that given by MR. 
LYNN. W. B. 

SOLEBY, co. LEICESTER (9 th S. ii. 89). Pro- 
bably the Soleby mentioned by S. will be 
Shoby, given in Speed's map, 1676, as 
Shouldby, in East Goscote hundred, about 
four miles and a half north-west of Melton 
Mowbray. Due west of the same place is 

This is probably Sileby, near Mount Sorrel. 
I also see a name Sywoldeby in the 'Calendar 
of Leicestershire Wills ' now being issued by 
the British Record Society ; but this may be 
only an old form of spelling of Sileby. 

- E. A. FRY. 

17'2j Edmund Street, Birmingham. 

* s. ii. AUG. 20, '98.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


" TIT-TAT-TO " (9 th S. ii. 26, 118). This game 
was familiar to me in Hull about 1856 ; but 
we called it "tip-tap-to," to sounding as 
toe. There was a rhyme used at the finish, 
which I remember very imperfectly, some- 
thing like this : 


Three jolly butchers all in a row ; 
Tip one put, 
Tip one in, 

Tip one into hat crown (?) 

W. C. B. 

NEIGHBOURHOOD (9 th S. ii. 85). I think 
MR. JOHN HEBB'S note would be much more 
valuable if he would complete it by informing 
us what has now become of all the privileges 
he mentions, and whether the Act is still in 
force; in fact, bring his information up to 
the present time. RALPH THOMAS. 

ii. 69). 

La mort est le baiser de Dieu. 

This was originally a Jewish conception from 
Deuteronomy xxxiv., where the Hebrew is ^g 7JJ, ad 
o.s 1 , which is rendered "at the word of" in the R.V. 
Jeremy Taylor, in reference to the Jewish version, 
has : " Moses died with the kisses of the Lord's 
mouth, so the Chaldee paraphrase " ('H. L.,' ch. iii., 
sect. vi. vol. iii. p. 332, Eden). He refers to this also 
in ' Serm.' vii., where there is reference in the note 
to Buxtorf s ' Lex. Hebr. et Chald.' for the autho- 
rities (viii. p. 421); so too in 'Serm.' xi. : "Or 

whether by an apoplexy, or by the kisses of His 

mouth" (p. 534). A contemporary writer, Henry 
Ley Montagu, Earl of Manchester, has : "The Jews 
say of Moses that his soule was sucked out of his 
mouth with a kisse" (' Con tempi. Mort. et Immor- 
talitatis,' 1655, p. 190). ED. MARSHALL, F.S.A. 


The Lives of the Saints. By the Rev. S. Baring- 
Gould, M. A. Vol. XVI. (Nimmo.) 
THOUGH issued as an appendix, the sixteenth volume 
of Mr. Baring-Gould's new edition of ' The Lives of 
the Saints,' completing the work, is, in one respect 
at least, the most important of all. It consists of 
matter not comprised in the previous edition, and 
includes an all-important introductory essay on the 
Celtic Church and its saints, in which the author 
has not feared to cross swords with writers of 
authority so established as Green and Freeman. 
With warmth and enthusiasm Mr. Baring-Gould 
points to the fact that for nearly half the time that 
has elapsed since the birtli of Christ the Celtic 
Church, " unadulterated by foreign influences, was 

the dominant Church in Wales." So-called 

Celtic saints are numerous so numerous as to have 
perplexed the Bollandists in the compilation of the 
4 Acta Sanctorum.' No fewer than 3,300 saints were, 
it is said, ruled over by Bishop Gerald of Mayo, 
while the Isle of Bardsey is stated to have contained 
the bones of over 20,000. The difficulties expe- 

rienced by the Bollandists had, Mr. Baring-Gould 
points out, a philological origin. " Saint " was then 
used in the Celtic Church much in the sense that 
" religious " is now generally employed, and signified 
no more than that the saint was " the head of the 
religious tribe." No question of moral fitness or 

conduct as ecclesiastical chiefs " entered into the 
matter. A curious abuse, resembling the nepotism 
with which successive Popes were charged, was that 
the headship of a religious settlement, being reserved 
to noble and princely families, was often used as a 
means of providing for "a princely bastard." A 
" very discreditable origin is [thus] given a good 
many Celtic saints." On the influence of Irish 
"evangelists" and on the point that Wales and Corn- 
wall were Christian before Augustine was born 
Mr. Baring-Gould has much to say, and he shares 
the opinions of Haddan as to the part played by the 
Churches of St. Patrick and St. Cotumba as " centres 
of religious life and knowledge in Europe." Much 
that is of importance and interest is said concerning 
the absence of all trace of a vernacular liturgy, the 
Eucharistic act of consecration, &c. ; and the Celtic 
Church is defended from the arraignment of Gildas, 
who is described as "a violent, scurrilous writer, 
who took a delight, like an ill bird, in fouling his 
own nest." The Celt is commended for his en- 
thusiasm in religion ; and the responsibility for 
Calvinism in Scotland and Nonconformity in Wales 
is to some extent charged against the Latin 
Church, which had trodden out independent Celtic 

In the Celtic and English calendar Mr. Baring- 
Gould is no less outspoken than he has previously 
shown himself. After giving some startling asser- 
tions concerning St. Wilgis he says, " This is a fair 
specimen of the stuff that fills the ' Lives ' of the 
Irish saints." Here is a second passage similar in 
spirit : " When Gwladys was in a fair way to 
become a mother, four lamps shone miraculously 
every night, one in each corner of her chamber. 
This is merely a hagiographer's way of saying that 
she liked to keep a light burning in her room at 
night." Much interesting matter concerning Ar- 
thurian legend is found under headings such as 
St. Constantine, son of Cador, Duke of Cornwall, a 
reputed cousin of King Arthur, and St. Geraint, 
the King of Devon, and the husband of "Enid the 
fair." A chapter of much importance is supplied on 
"Brittany, its Princes and Saints," in which its 
colonization from Britain is illustrated. Succeed- 
ing it come the pedigrees of saintly families, 
followed again by a Celtic and English calendar of 
saints proper to the Welsh, Cornish, Scottish, Irish, 
Breton, and English people. The volume concludes 
with an index of saints, and one of subjects covering 
the sixteen volumes. We congratulate Mr. Baring- 
Gould on the completion of his labours, and com- 
mend to our readers a work which for the variety 
and extent of the information it supplies, and for 
the vivacity with which that information is com- 
municated, has won warm recognition, and is in its 
present shape more helpful and serviceable than 
before. The illustrations to the last volume consist 
principally of maps, by which others than students 
of hagiography may profit. 

Catalogue of Early Dublin - Printed Books. By 

E. R. McC. Dix. - Part I. 1601-1625. (Dublin, 

O'Donoghue ; London, Dobell.) ' 

A COMPLETE list of early Dublin-printed works 

would be a boon to the bibliographer. Such, how- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9* 8. n. AUG. -20, t 

ever, we are not yet to expect. A fine and per- 
fect copy of the Book of Common Prayer of King 
Edward VI., printed at Dublin in 1551 by Humfrey 
Powell, is in the library of Trinity College, Dublin. 
This work, which is a verbal reprint of Whit- 
church's edition of 1549, is said by Cotton to be the 
first book printed in Dublin. Powell claims in the 
colophon to be printer "to the Kynges Maieste." 
Mr. Dix does not go back so early as this, his 
scheme confining him to the seventeenth-century 
press. Very few are the books dealt with in the 

S-esent instalment. As regards books advocating 
oman Catholic principles, the danger of printing 
them in Ireland was too great, and theologians 
preferred to issue their works from the presses 
of Douai, Louvain, or Paris, though some, it is 
assumed, were printed in Dublin surreptitiously. 
Most of them were probably destroyed. Printing 
in Dublin, and, indeed, in Ireland, appears to have 
been in the seventeenth century at a very low ebb, 
contrasting strangely with the position taken by 
the Irish MSS. of long before. Mention is made of 
an edition of St. Jerome's ' Lives of the Saints,' 
printed by Faber in 1475, which is said to have been 
issued from Cashel, in Ireland. This Mr. C. W. 
Dugan, in an introduction to the work before us, 
holds " not improbable." Further information will 
be necessary before it is received. The list of 
books, broadsides, &c., supplied is not large. Mr. 
Dix, the compiler, will be glad of additions. We 
welcome the work as a beginning. 

Ivanhoe. By Sir Walter Scott. Edited by Andrew 

Lang. (Ninnno.) 

' IVANHOE,' now first added to the large-type 
" Border Edition" of the " Waverley Novels," will 
always be a favourite with the general reader. 
The opening chapters breathe the very atmosphere 
of romance, and the entire action up to the seizure 
of Front de Bceuf's castle, the death of its owner, 
and the supposed slaughter of Athelstau is one of 
the most spirited records of adventure. Reading 
it yet once more, one cannot but be sensible of these 
merits. One admires, moreover, the manner in 
which, while slaying character after character, 
Scott in this, as in other of his romances, never 
allows hurt to come to any in whom it is possible 
to feel an interest. The fat and beef-fed Ttnights 
are knocked on the head, but Scott leaves his other 
victims nameless and obscure, and even spares 
Bracy, for whom the smallest modicum of sympathy 
is demanded. Twelve admirably executed illustra- 
tions by M. Lalauze accompany the volume. 

Notes on Medieval Services in England. By Chr. 

Wordsworth, M.A. (Baker.) 

MR. WORDSWORTH in this volume has gathered a 
spieileyium of his occasional writings on matters of 
liturgical interest from the antiquary's point of 
view. His ' Notes ' embrace an inquiry as to the 
time of the various services in cathedral and parish 
churches in olden days, an account of some old 
customs and ceremonies once prevalent in the 
Lincoln diocese, and an index to the calendar of 
Lincoln use. These researches reveal a curious 
medley of multitudinous functions interspersed 
with revelling and drinking and scenes of utter 
irreverence within the very precincts of the sacred 
buildings. In Wells statutes had to be enacted to 
forbid buying and^ling, games and spectacles, in 
the nave pi th^ -w^ch. ^ evensong has begun 
before the' entry '01 the Dean in Lincoln choir, he 

strikes the desk and makes the service recommence 
for his behoof. Other matter of interest will be 
found in the comments on Shakspeare's " evening 
mass" (p. 45), and in the long dissertation on 
piscinas, aumbries, and altars (pp. 209-58). 

A f ~w slips call for correction. " Hearse," 0. Eng. 
herce, is mistakenly connected with Lat. ericitix, a 
hedgehog (p. 156). Scissor, a tailor, a " cutter-out," 
is surely more correct than cissor, the form to which 
Mr. Wordsworth seems to give the preference, 
though our "scissors," as he justly observes, lies 
quite aloof from it (p. 131). And why should Mr. 
Wordsworth indulge in such a pedantic bit of affec- 
tation as to date his book upon the " Feast of SS. 
Philip and Jacob "? If he must be learned, why not 
Ya'aqOb at once ? 

MR. E. M. DEY writes from St. Louis, U.S.A. : 
"I am pleased to note the deserved recognition by 
Ids ahna mater of R. M. Spence, M.A., the Univer- 
sity of Aberdeen having conferred on him the degree 
of D.D. on 21 July. It will occasion no surprise to 
those who have for many years read ' N. & Q.' to 
learn that his Shakespearean studies are mentioned 
by the University as having come under its favour- 
able notice. The scene of the Rev. Dr. Spence's 
labours is a quiet little country parish at Fordoun, 
N.B., where, in the seventy-second year of his age 
and the forty-eighth year of his ministry in the 
Church of Scotland, he continues to reside. Of 
him it may be said 

He ne'er had changed nor wished to change his 

for the Doctor has resolutely declined overtures of 
removal to more prominent spheres. The church 
belongs to the thirteenth century, and, with the 
Manse of Arbuthnott, is picturesquely situated in 
a deeply wooded vale with a bright stream running 

We ourselves also congratulate Dr. Spence on his 
new and well-deserved honours. 


We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rule. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer aud 
such address as he wishes to appear. Correspond- 
ents who repeat queries are requested to head the 
second communication " Duplicate." 

GENERAL P. MAXWELL ("Mending or Ending"). 
The illustration from the ' Heart of Midlothian ' 
which you give appeared in the original query. 
See 8 th S. v. 487. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to 
"The Editor of 'Notes and Queries '"Advertise- 
ments and Business Letters to "The Publisher" 
at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E. C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return 
communications which, for any reason, we do not 
print ; and to this rule we can make no exception. 

9 th S. II. AUG. 27, '98. ] 




CONTENTS.-No. 35. 

NOTES : Arnaldo da Vilanova, 161 M.P.s in the ' Diet. 
Nat. Biog.,' 162 The Skelts, 163 Seeing-glass^Looking- 
glass Tyburn Executions Bradshaw's Railway Guide' 
Good Friday Custom, 164 " Responsible Government" 
Sedan Chairs Rape, a County Division Robert, Lord 
Brooke Bentham's Unfulfilled Prophecy, 165 " Alarm- 
ist" Driukwater Zachary Macaulay, 166. 

QUERIES : Sakesper Keats and Hampstead Spenser 
" Squab " Princess Bagration Trade Routes " Rider " 
The Virgin of Bressau, 167 Foot-lift Banausic Cecil 
W. Ewing S. Andrea delle Fratte Read and Reade 
Ecclesiastical Hat Trimmings Pollard Money Sir W. 
Gordon Peter the German, 168 " Neck-handkerchief " 
FitzStephen Dean Barker Samplers Kleanoradi Toledo 
Map of Nottinghamshire Gambold Faggots to burn 
Heretics, 169. 

REPLIES: The Letters of Junius, 169 Wild Forest Bulls 
Hocktide Customs, 171 Syntax of a Preface Scott on 
Grimm's ' Popular Stories,' 112 Todmorden Manor 
House, Clapton, "Charme" A Church Tradition A 
Noble Card-sharper W. Martin Musical, 173 Gordon 
Family Old-time Punishments Newton's House, 174 
Battle of the Nile Cardinal Rossi Bibliography of Rye 
House Plot Autographs, 175 "Dewy-feathered" St. 
Fursey Sir R. Hotham " Sumer is y-cumen in" Gale 
Oldest Parish Register, 176 Dictionary of English Pro- 
verbs "Hounds" Odin 'Three Jovial Huntsmen' 
Penny-Farthing Street Entrance into Churchyards. 177 
"Who sups with the devil," &c. Master Smith's 
' Cyclopaedia of Names,' 178. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Gairdner's 'Life and Reign of 
Richard the Third ' Lowndes's ' Montaigne ' Dasent's 
Acts of the Privy Council,' Vol. XVII. Andrews's 
' Literary Byways' Marriott's ' Bacon or Shakespeare?' 
Rait's ' Kiugis Quair.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


THERE would appear to be unnecessary 
vagueness regarding, not the date at which 
this influential personage may truly be said 
to have " flourished," but with respect to his 
achievements, and even his nationality. I 
have found him described as a Sicilian, a Nea- 
politan, and a Majorcan. If we turn to Prof. 
Skeat's ' Chaucer,' vol. v. p. 432, note 1428, we 
shall notice tha.t to him Arnaldo appears to 
have been a Frenchman. Of course, I am 
treading on delicate ground in venturing 
to suggest how it should have come into 
the latter's precise and trained mind that 
Arnaldo was a Frenchman. Nevertheless, I 
will hazard the conjecture that Arnaldo's re- 
markable connexion with Avignon in the 
time of the "Babylonian exile" of the Papacy, 
causing his name to appear very frequently 
in the French form of " Villeneuve," may 
have given rise to the idea that he belonged 
to Villeneuve-les-Avignon. I may be going 
too far in even suggesting this ; nevertheless 
Prof. Skeat and others describe Arnaldo as 
" a French physician," " theologian, astrologer, 
and alchemist": and there are, of course, 
in France several towns called Villeneuve. 

But there are likewise places in Spain called 

" Villanova," and in the thirteenth and four- 
teenth centuries Spain was at least as import- 
ant a land in the eyes of the politician and 
philosopher as France, which, by the way, 
did not include anything like what it includes 
nowadays. Hence there is good ground for 
deliberation before one writes Arnaldo down 
a Frenchman. The connexion between these 
two countries, however, was extremely close ; 
moreover it was not confined to politics or to 
royal relationships. From the earlier great 
days of Toledo and Cordova, the lines of 
intellectual migration had lain via Mont- 
pellier to Paris, fortunately regardless of 
mere national divisions arid languages. 

As matter of fact (although the actual 
birthplace of Arnaldo, remains undecided) 
the philosopher was no Frenchman, Neapo- 
litan, or Sicilian, but a Catalonian. He was 
the spiritual mentor of the royal family of 
Aragon, a Franciscan fanatic saturated with 
the visionary prophetic doctrines of the 
Abbot Joachim of Flora, a professor of medi- 
cine, full of the wisdom of the Arabs ; like- 
wise, as might be expected of his times, an 
alchemist and astrologer, much after the 
manner of his senior contemporary Michael 
Scot. In one of his numerous treatises, 
dedicated to Robert the Wise of Naples, he 
writes : 

Yeu, Arnaut de Vilanova, 
Doctor en leys et en decrets, 
Kt en siensa de strolomia, 
Et en 1'art de Medecina, 
Et en la santa tenlogia, 

which forms a properly impressive and com- 
prehensive description of himself. Never- 
theless, this treatise is upon the sub- 
ject of surveying. He also wrote other 
treatises upon the manufacture of wines, 
palmistry, &c., and was a translator from 
both Hebrew and Arabic. In consequence 
of all these diverse and illuminative accom- 
plishments he shone as a lay-star of the first 
magnitude just before the earliest dawn of 
the Renaissance. Theologically he may be 
described as a prophet of Antichrist and 
the apostle of the poor. 

His theological doctrines brought him, 
during the last years of his life, into acute 
conflict with the Dominicans, and the friars 
of this Order in Catalonia and elsewhere de- 
nounced him, but he eluded their persecution. 
The theologians of Paris, however, laid hands 
on him in 1300, while he was engaged in the 
sacred duties of ambassador from King 
James II. of Aragon to Philip le Bel ; and a 
volume which Arnaldo had laid before the 
University of Paris was accordingly burned. 
He presently appealed to Philip's great 


NOTES AND QUERIES. to* s. 11. Am*, 27, 

enemy, Boniface VIII., to whom he was 
accordingly sent. That Pontiff pardoned 
him, although he disapproved of his book, 
and made him his physician : a matter not 
forgotten by King Philip when later on he 
brought charges of heresy against Boniface. 
Nevertheless the Pope and the patronage of 
the house of Aragon preserved Arnaldo's life. 
Details of his embassies to the courts of Paris 
and Avignon will be found ably related by 
my illustrious acquaintance Mr. Henry 
Charles Lea in vol. iii. of his ' History of the 
Inquisition.' His name appears attached to 
the last codicil of the will of Peter III. of 
Aragon in 1283 ; while in 1309 we find him at 
Avignon once more, ambassador to Clement V. 
from James II. of Aragon, as the fearless 
advocate of the persecuted spiritual Fran- 

He is believed to have perished during yet 
another journey by sea to Avignon. This 
was before February, 1311, 

"for Clement mourned his loss, and issued a bull 
announcing that Arnaldo had been his physician, 
and had promised him a most useful book which he 
had written [possibly ' De Regimine Sanitatis ' ?*]. 
He had died without fulfilling his intention, and 
now Clement summoned any one possessing the 
precious volume to deliver it to him.' 

The friendship of Robert the Wise," as 
Count of Provence, of the royal family of 
Aragon, and of Clement V., at any rate 
availed to safeguard Arnaldo's life on land. 
After Clement's decease in 1314 the Domini- 
cans, under Bernardo de Puycerda, burned 
Arnaldo's spiritualistic writings as well as 
several of his friends and converts, a task 
which was naturally encouraged by John 
XXII., in spite of his friend and patron King 
Robert. In the voluminous correspondence, 
still unpublished, between the Court of that 
Pontiff and the King of Naples, I have come 
upon another and later Arnaldo de Vilanova, 
who may have been a son of the philo- 
sophic theologian, or, otherwise, Joachitic 

In conclusion, at however low an estimate 
we may value the numerous extant tracts and 
treatises of Arnaldo, we may respectfully pause 
in forming our judgment of a man bold enough, 
as he was, to tell his master, James II. of 
Aragon, that the inquisitors were a diabolical 
pest trafficking in offices, and abandoned to 
lust and avarice, whom no one dared to con- 

R. S. cum expositione Magistri Arnaldi de Villa 
Nova. Venice, 1480. 

* C*. 'A. di Villanova,' by M. Pelayo, Madrid, 


THE following small corrections and addi- 
tions may be made to notices in vols. 1. to Iii. 

Sir Edward Sackville, fourth Earl of Dorset, 
did not represent co. Sussex in 1G14, but in 
1621-2 only. 

Sir Richard Sackville (d. 1566). His 
Parliamentary honours are not given quite 
accurately. He sat for Arundel, 1529-36 ; 
Chichester, 1547-52 ; Portsmouth, April-May, 
1554 ; was returned by both Kent and Sussex 
in 1559, but preferred Sussex, which he also 
represented from 1563 till death. 

Sir Ralph Sadler, the diplomatist, was M.P. 
co. Hertford, 1542-4 ; Preston, 1545-7 ; co. 
Hertford, March, 1553, 1559, 1563-7, 1571, 
1572-83, 1584-5, and 1586-7. 

Francis St. John, eldest son of Chief Justice 
Oliver St. John, was M.P. for Tewkesbury, 
1654-5 ; Peterborough, 1656-8, 1659, 1660 till 
void, 1678-9, 1679-81, and 1681. 

George St. Lo, Commissioner of the Navy, 
represented Weymouth and Melcombe Regis 
1701-2 and 1702-5. 

Sir Thomas Salisbury, the poet, was not 
"M.P. for Denbighshire from 25 March, 1640, 
until his death," but only in the Short Parlia- 
ment of April-May, 1640. 

Sir Edward Saunders, Chief Justice, did not 
sit for Lostwithiel in 1547, but only for 
Coventry, 1542-4, and Saltash in March, 1553. 

Richard Savage, fourth Earl Rivers. 
Besides representing Wigan in 1681, he sat 
for Liverpool in 1689 and 1690, until his 
succession to the peerage. 

Sir William Saville, third Baronet of Thorn- 
hill, was M.P. for Old Sarum in the Long 
Parliament from February, 1641, until dis- 
abled in September, 1642. 

Sir Henry Saville, the scholar, represented 
Bossiney in 1588-9, and Dunwich in 1593. 

Sir John Saville, afterwards first Baron 
Saville of Pontefract. In addition to the 
Parliamentary honours assigned to him, he 
was returned for Yorkshire to the Parliament 

John, second Viscount Scudamore, was 
M.P. for Hereford, 1673-8, and co. Hereford, 
1678-9, 1679-81, and 1681. 

Thomas Seckford, senior, was M.P. for 
Orford (not Oxford) in 1554-5, 1555, 1558, 
1559 ; Ipswich, 1563-7 ; Suffolk, 1571 ; and 
Bridgnorth, 1572, till his decease in 1575. 
The Thomas Seckford who represented 
Ipswich in 1572-83 is expressly styled "Junior," 
and would therefore be the son, this being 
apparently his sole return to Parliament. 

Sir John Seymour, father to the first Duke 
of Somerset, represented Heytesbury 1529-36. 

9<" s. ii. AUC, 27, 



Sir Edward Seymour, the Speaker, described 
as "entering the House as member for 
Gloucester, 1661," should read " for Hindon," 
for which he sat 1661-8. His other returns 
were : co. Devon, 1678-9 ; Totness, 1679-81 ; 
Exeter, 1689-90, 1690-5 ; Totness, 1695-8 ; 
Exeter and Totness (preferred Exeter), 1 698- 
1700 ; Exeter, 1700-1, 1701-2, 1702-5, and 1705 
until decease in 1708. 

Sir Francis Seymour, afterwards Lord 
Seymour of Trowbridge, sat for Marlborough 
in the Long Parliament, not Wilts. 

Sir Thomas Seymour, afterwards Lord 
Seymour of Sudley, was M.P. for Wilts 1545- 

Sir William Sharington (died 1553) was 
M.P. for Heytesbury, 1545-7 ; Bramber, 1547- 
1552 ; and Wilts from January to April, 1552. 
Sir Robert Sheffield, Speaker, was M.P. for 
London in 1495, 1496-7, and 1502, and probably 
for co. Lincoln in 1511-12 and 1514-15. 

Sir William Shelley, Justice of the C.P., 
1527-49. "In 1523 he is erroneously said to 
have been returned to Parliament for 
London." This is not an error. He repre- 
sented London in the Parliament of that 
year, but not afterwards. 

Sir Thomas Shirley of Wiston(died 1612). 
" He was elected M.P. for Sussex in 1572, and 
again in 1592, while he sat for Steyning in 
1584, 1601, and 1603." This is wrong as to 
1584, to which Parliament he was returned 
for Sussex, the M.P. for Steyning being his 
son of the same name. 

Sir Cloudesley Shovell was first returned 
for Rochester in 1695, not 1698. 

Sir Bartholomew Shower, Recorder of 
London, was M.P. for Exeter, 1698, 1700-1, 
and 1701 until decease. 

Robert Shute, Justice of the Queen's Bench, 
sat for Cambridge in two Parliaments, 1571 
and 1572-83. 

Sir Henry Sidney, the Lord Deputy, was 
returned for Brackley, 1547-52 ; co. Kent, 
March, 1553, 1563-7, 1571, and 1572-83. 

Henry Sidney, Lord Romney. In addition 
to his return for Bramber in 1679-81, he 
represented Tamworth in 1689, until created 
a peer in the same year. 

Sir John Skeffington, afterwards second 
Viscount Massereene, represented Down, 
Antrim, and Armagh in Richard Cromwell's 
Parliament, 1659. He was fourth baronet, not 
fifth, succeeding his cousin Sir William, 
third baronet, in April, 1652. His father, Sir 
Richard Skeffington, who was M.P. for Staf- 
fordshire in the Long Parliament, died 
June, 1647, and so did not survive to inherit 
the baronetcy. He had been knighted in 
1624, The baronetages and accepted autho- 

rities are all wrong in the succession to this 
aaronetcy, by inserting one baronet too many. 

Major-General Philip Skippon, by a clerical 
rror, is said to have represented Lyme in the 
two Parliaments of 1654 and 1656. -It should 
be Lynn, i.e., Lynn Regis. 

Sir Henry Slingsby (beheaded 1658) was 
M.P. for Knaresborough in 1625, as well as in 
the two Parliaments of 1640. W. D. PINK. 

Leigh, Lancashire. 

HAMILTON'S interesting note appeared in 
7 th S. x. 343, I intended to point out that he 
was in error in stating that Skelt " started " 
the idea of the Juvenile Theatre. As there is 
no collection of his prints accessible to the 
genei'al public, this is a mistake that any one 
is likely to make. In my note on West's prints 
for the Juvenile Theatre (4 th S. xii. 463*) I 
say, " Among those who destroyed the busi- 
ness and did a good trade, Skelt of the 
Minories, I should say, was foremost." 
Instead of being satisfied with simply correct- 
ing MR. HAMILTON'S statement at the time, I 
wanted to write an article dealing with all 
the Skelts; but years have gone by, and now 
that it is too late, I do what I ought to 
have done before. I say too late because 
I find the statement that Skelt started the 
idea has got into a biographical dictionary. 

There were four Skelts. M. (I believe 
Matthew) first started. He took another into 
partnership, and their prints are published 
by M. & M. Skelt. Then one of these M.s 
left, and the prints again appear as published 
by M. Skelt. This M. took a B. (Benjamin, 
I believe) into partnership, and their prints 
are published by M. & B. Skelt; then M. goes 
out and the prints are published by B. alone, 
who, I presume, " burst up " like the explo- 
sion in ' The Miller and his Men '; but then we 
have some salvage from the general wreck 
published by " E. Skelt " without any address. 
As neither books nor prints are dated, it took 
me several years before I was able to evolve 
these facts. E. Skelt is said to have died 
about 1890 in a good situation. It is clear 
that he never had sufficient capital to carry 
on the print business, as very few prints bear 
his name. 

When the Skelts were sold up I do not 
know, but W. Webb had Skelt's plates in 
' Aladdin,' and sold them with Skelt's name 
taken out and his own inserted ; but whereas 
Skelt printed from the copper-plates, Webb 
had them put on, and printed from, the stone, 
a very inferior thing. These 'remarks refer 

* See also S"> S, ii, 63 ; th S. i. 90, 454, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. p* s. n. AUG. 27, i 

to Skelt's halfpenny series. The penny 
plates that bore the Skelts' names were either 
Lloyd's or some other publisher's, as Straker's 
or Park's. Bad as Skelt's were, Webb's own 
were far worse. It is needless to say that to 
get at all these details requires a pretty 
extensive collection, which I have ; in fact, 
I have collected since- 1 was a boy, and 
have probably five thousand distinct prints 
from copper-plates printed between 1811 and 
1850, and as many duplicates. Of the^kelts' 
alone I have about one thousand different 
prints. The collection is almost complete. 
Much of it was originally collected by Capt. 
Frederick Hodgetts I may say regardless of 
expense. A fourpenny book of the play of 
' Guy Fawkes ' cost him nearly 5l. to obtain. 
But the Captain was one of those who left no 
stone unturned when they had set their minds 
on a thing. He is not only known as an author 
of popular books, but is the inventor of the 
"Hoagetts patent safety ship," which will 
revolutionize shipbuilding if adopted. 

The Skelts are reputed to have been of 
Hebrew faith- one is said to have been 
originally a shoemaker, and eventually to 
have died in Stepney workhouse. Nothing 
now seems to be known of them, any more 
than of all the others who published " Scenes 
and Characters." The earliest I have is by W. 
West, dated 26 February, 1811. I don't think 
Skelt came on the scene until about 1840. 
There are many collectors of the Skelts' prints, 
but I am told that nobody collects W. West's, 
simply because there are none to be bought. 
One would like to know the forenames of the 
other " M." and the " E." Skelt, or, in fact, to 
have any information. EALPH THOMAS. 

lowing is an extract from the will of a 
Lincolnshire farmer dated 1 August, 1796 : 

"Item I also give to my wife the bed she now 
lieth on, one ovel [sic] table, one Tea table, one 
Round table, three round backed chairs, one spindle 
chair, my chiney [sic) and Tea table, Silver spoons, 
one Baril [sic] warming pan, and a Seeing Glass and 


sadly in error in saying (ante, p. 129) that 
Governor Wall was hanged at Tyburn on 28 
January, 1802. The last execution at Tyburn 
took place on Friday, 7 November, 1783, in 
the person of John Austin, convicted on the 
preceding Saturday of robbing John Spicer 
and cutting and wounding him in a cruel 
manner. In Walford's ' Old and New London ' 
it is erroneously said that " the last criminal 
executed here was one Ryland, who was 

hung [s?'c]for forgery in 1783." William Ryland 
was executed on 29 August, two months 
before the date of Austin's conviction, and 
many a poor wretch made the fatal pilgrim- 
age to Tyburn in the interval, hanging by 
wholesale being the rule in those days. The 
long procession westward had been attended 
by such disgraceful scenes that the authorities 
resolved to hang criminals henceforth outside 
Newgate prison, straight from the condemned 
cell. Accordingly, on 3 December, 1783, the 
Recorder ordered the erection of a scaffold in 
front of the gaol, of which a notice and de- 
scriptive engraving appear in the Gentleman's 
Magazine for the same month ; and on the 
10th the new hanging-place was inaugurated 
by the execution of ten malefactors. 


'Annals of our Time, 1837-71,' contains the 
following obituary notice : 

" September 8, 1853. Died at Christiania, sud- 
denly, from an attack of cholera, Mr. Bradshaw, the 
projector of the popular railway guide." 

There must be some slight error about this, 
for there can hardly be two gentlemen who 
can claim to be the originator of this guide. 

The Manchester Guardian of Thursday, 
7 July, tells us, under the heading of " The 

" A large congregation witnessed last evening, in 
the Wesleyan Church, Higher Broughton, the unveil- 
ing of two memorial windows. One of the windows, 
representing the scene of our Lord's Ascension, has 
been erected by Mrs. Kay, of Birkdale, Southport, 
in remembrance of her husband Mr. Robert Diggles 
Kay, who was for a long period a member of the 
Higher Broughton Wesleyan Church. Mr. Kay was 
the originator and first editor of ' Bradshaw's Rail- 
way Guide,' a work which has grown from 6 pages to 
400, and from needing no index has now an index 
occupying itself over 40 pages." 

The subject of the larger of the two 
windows, which is in the transept on the 
western side, is the Ascension. At the 
foot is the following inscription : 

" To the glory of God and in memory of Robert 
Diggles Kay, originator and first editor of 'Br?<i- 
shaw'; born April 8, 1810; died October 8, 1897. 
' In te, Domine, speravi.' This window was erected 
July 6, 1898, by his trustees, Sarah Kay, his widow, 
and Edmund Crayston, his friend, being part of a 
large bequest to this church. Mr. Kay was for 
about twenty years a regular attendant at this 
place of worship." 


30, Rusholme Grove, Rusholme, Manchester. 

GOOD FRIDAY CUSTOM. The following 
from the Standard of 9 April may be worth 
reprinting in ' N. & Q.': 

"In the churchyard of St. Bartholomew the Great, 
West Smithiield, yesterday, 21 poor widows residing 

9 th S. II. AUG. 27, '98.] 



in the parish, in pursuance of an old custom, each 
picked up a sixpenny piece which had been laid on 
one of the tombstones. A few years ago, when there 
was a danger that the custom would lapse, Mr. J. W. 
Butterworth, of Fleet Street, invested a sum suffi- 
cient to ensure its continuance. Yesterday the 
ceremony took place shortly after eleven o'clock, by 
which time the 21 widows, one 87 years of age and 
several over 80, were ranged in a semicircle round 
the tombstone. Some of them had considerable 
difficulty in stooping to pick up the sixpence, and 
Mr. B. Turner, the churchwarden, who presided, 
offered to hand the money to them, but they made 
it a point of honour to pick up the money themselves. 
A hot cross bun was also given to each. This year 
Mrs. Jarrett, of Harrogate, again sent a sum of 
money sufficient to give each of the widows half-a- 
crown. She also presented each with a shawl 
which she had knitted." 


to Mr. Egerton (' History of Colonial Policy,' 
p. 304), this phrase, now so common, was 
first used in 1829. In that year it occurs in a 
petition from Upper Canada presented to 
Parliament. ISAAC TAYLOR. 

Athenceum of 23 July (p. 133) a reviewer of 
' Audubon and his Journals ' writes : 

"Sedan chairs seem to have lingered long in 
Edinburgh, for on March 4th, 1827, he speaks of 
being trundled in one to church to hear Sydney 
Smith preach." 

The chairs were probably used in Edinburgh 
at a later date, and they were certainly 
fashionable in other Scottish centres at least 
thirty years after Audubon listened to" the 
witty Edinburgh divine. From forty to 
fifty years ago it was quite common to find 
ladies of distinction, in certain provincial 
centres of Scotland, conveyed to evening 
parties in sedan chairs. For an important 
function there used to be, in small communi- 
ties, keen competition to secure the one avail- 
able chair. THOMAS BAYNE. 

Helensburgh, N.B. 

indebted to the evening press for much useful 
information, political and otherwise, but it 
is open to doubt whether the following 
extract from the Echo of 26 July is of any 
use to anybody : 

" In Sussex there exists a land division peculiar 
to that county, viz., rapes. Sussex is divided into 
six rapes, Hastings, Pevensey, Lewes, Bramber, 
Arundel, and Chichestcr. The name is said to 
signify land divided by a rope.' 

If the sub-editor of the Echo had had Prof. 
Skeat's 'Concise Etymological Dictionary' by 
his side, he might have saved himself from 
the promulgation of such a ridiculous origin 
as he has ventured on, and would have 

informed his readers that the word is Scandi- 
navian, from the Icelandic kreppen, a district, 
the probable origin being a share. 

Canonbury Mansions, N. 

ROBERT, LORD BROOKE. On a recent visit 
to St. Mary's Church, Warwick, I looked, but 
in vain, for some monumental record or in- 
scription to the memory of this Parliamen- 
tarian general, who fell when besieging 
Lichfield Close in 1643. Sir Walter Scott has 
alluded to him in a well-known passage in 
' Marrnion,' arid a note (canto vi. stanza 36) on 
the passage adds that Sir John Gill, as he is 
always persistently called, instead of Gell, of 
Hopton, was associated with Lord Brooke in 
the siege. Dr. Smith, in one of his sermons, 
vol. i. 185, thus refers to his death : " Immedi- 
ately after which he was shot in the forehead 
by a deaf and dumb man." He had held a 
command under the Earl of Essex at the 
battle of Edgehill in the preceding year, 1642, 
and was no doubt a rising ana important 
man amongst the Parliamentarians. At 
the time of his death he was aged thirty- 
four. One of his sons, who succeeded to 
the title, was, it is curious to note, one 
of the six Commissioners appointed by the 
House of Lords to negotiate the return of 
Charles II., in company with six members of 
the House of Commons. 

There is an engraved portrait of Lord 
Brooke in Lodge's ' Portraits,' said to be from 
the original picture at Warwick Castle, but 
no painter's name is given. His breastplate 
is also preserved at the same place. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

PHECY. Jeremy Bentham in 1793 addressed 
a pamphlet, with the title ' Emancipate your 
Colonies,' to the French National Convention. 
This pamphlet was again issued in 1829, with 
a postscript to this effect : 

" In regard to Australia, it is in my eyes prepon- 
derantly probable that, long before this century is 
at an end, the settlements in that vast and distant 
country will, all of them, have emancipated them- 
selves, changing the government from a dependency 
on the English monarchy into a representative 

This unfulfilled prophecy of the old Utili- 
tarian philosopher would form an excellent 
text for a Quarterly fieview article giving an 
historical survey of British colonial policy 
from the days of Canning to the days of 
Chamberlain. As, however, all political 
references are strictly tabooed in the impar- 
tial pages of ' N. & Q.,' it will be sufficient 
commentary here on the prediction to point 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. n. AUG. 27, 

out that, although failing of fulfilment, it 
was still very shrewdly devised. Bentham 
clearly foresaw the rise of these Southern 
colonies into a young and flourishing nation 
within a period of six or seven decades, and 
this forecast is fully verified. But what even 
old Jeremy's penetrating sagacity could not 
foresee as even remotely possible was the 
imminence of that mighty, silent revolution 
in English colonial policy that has brought 
about, as this nineteenth century is drawing 
to a close, not the severance from the Mother- 
land of her seven Australian daughters, but 
their federation into one nation, bound by 
unbreakable ties of loyalty to her from whom 
they sprang. DAVID BLAIR. 

Armadale, Melbourne. 

" ALARMIST," Apparently this word was 
invented by ii. B. Sheridan. John Taylor, in 
' Records of my Life,' 1832, says, vol. i. p. 119 : 

"I ventured to suggest, not as a politician, but 
as an alarmist, to use my old friend Sheridan's 
word," &c. ; 
and again in vol. ii. p. 233 : 

" However, as I really was an alarmist, to use 
Mr. (Sheridan's word." 

S. J. A. F. 

[The earliest use chronicled in the 'H.E.D.' is by 
Sydney Smith in 1802.] 

the leaves of Dr. Palmer's ' Folk-Etymology ' 
for another word, my attention is arrested 
by the following (p. 528) : " Drinkwater, a 
surname, is stated by Camden to be a cor- 
ruption of the local name Demventivater 
('Remaines,' 1637, p. 122)." Dr. Palmer 
makes no comment, evidently approving. I 
dissent. Why should Drinkwater be ques- 
tioned any more than Boileau or Bevilacqua? 
Boileau speaks for itself, and Bevilacqua is a 
surname which I have occasionally met with 
in my Italian reading. Probably all three 
were originally sobriquets for abstainers from 
alcoholic liquor, as the French surname 
Boivin may have been a sobriquet for wine- 
tippler. May not a Norman form of this last 
name be the original of our Bevan ? I have 
been told that Trinkwasser is a German 
family name. F. ADAMS. 

ZACHARY MACAULAY. It is not generally 
known that Zachary Macau lay, the aboli- 
tionist, founder of the once celebrated Clap- 
ham sect and father of Lord Macaulay, is 
buried in the disused burial-ground belonging 
to the church of St. George the Martyr, 
Bloomsbury, at the rear of the Foundling 
Hospital, which is now maintained as an 
open space by the St. Pan eras Vestry, The 

fact is duly chronicled in the 'Diet. Nat. 
Biog.,' but the place of interment is loosely 
described as "the now disused ground at 
Mecklenburgh Square." It would be more 
accurate to say the ground is at the rear of 
Brunswick Square. Sir George Trevelyan 
does not appear to have been aware of the 
fact, as in his 'Life of Lord Macaulay' he 
says : 

"His [Z. M.'s] tomb has for many years been cut 
off from the body of the nave [of Westminster 
Abbey] by an iron railing equally meaningless and 
unsightly ; which withdraws from the eyes of his 
fellow-countrymen an epitaph at least as provoca- 
tive to patriotism as those of the innumerable 
military and naval heroes of the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries who fell in wars the very objects 
of which are now for the most part forgotten or re- 
membered only to be regretted. 'Life and Letters 
of Macaulay,' ii. 3. 

Sir James Stephen speaks of Zachary 
Macaulay's tomb in Westminster Abbey in 
the following passage : 

"Of Mr. Macaulay no memorial has been made 
public, excepting that which has been engraved on 
his tomb in Westminster Abbey by some eulogist 
less skilful than affectionate." ' Essays in Eccle- 
siastical Biography,' p. 545. 

The monument in Westminster Abbey is a 

cenotaph, as the inscription on the flat stone 

in the burial - ground of St. George the 

Martyr, which is as follows, clearly shows : 

Zachary Macaulay, 

born May, 1768, 

died May, 1838. 

A monument erected 

to his memory 

by many who loved and 

honoured him 

stands in 

Westminster Abbey. 
His remains lie beneath this stone. 

Where was Zachary Macaulay residing at 
his death, and why was he buried in the 
burial - ground of St. George the Martyr ? 
The Gentleman's Magazine for 1838 (p. 224) 
says he died in Clarges Street, but I cannot 
find any confirmation of this, and the Chris- 
tian Observer, of which he was for a long time 
the editor, is silent on the point. 

Macaulay lived from 1823 to 1831 at 50, 
Great Ormond Street; and if he had died 
there that would have accounted for his being 
buried in the burial-ground attached to the 
parish in which he died. The burial-ground 
was at first very unpopular, and it was not 
until after 1715, when Robert Nelson, the 
author of ' Fasts and Festivals,' was buried 
there, that it rose to importance. It was 
afterwards known as Nelson's burying- 
ground, Red Lyon Fields. Mrs. Gibson, 

granddaughter of Oliver Cromwell, was 
uried there with considerable pomp in 1727. 

9 th S. II. AUG. 27, '98.] 



Mr. Wheatley (' London Past and Present, 
i. 412) says that 

"Lord Macaulay, on his return from India in 
1838, took lodgings at No. 3, Clarges Street, and 
stayed there the next two years." 

Was this the house in which his father 
died 1 JOHN HEBB. 

Canonbury, N. 


WE must request correspondents desiring infor- 
mation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that the answers may be addressed to 
them direct. 

SAKESPER. Looking over Fisher's 'Forest of 
Essex ' (London, Butter worths, 1887), I noticed 
on p. 374 the name of Simon Sakesper given 
as one of the verderers of the half hundred of 
Warithani in the year 1250. Is not this the 
earliest recorded mention of any form of the 
name Shakespeare? The next earliest I 
know of, given as the earliest in Russell 
French's ' Shakespeareana Genealogica,' is in 
' N. & Q.,' l* S. ix. 122. It occurs in the Pleas 
of Rolls, 7 Edward I. (1278). 


confusion in the press anent the two buildings 
in John Street, Hampstead, namely Went- 
worth House and Lawn Bank, so intimately 
associated with the memory of poor, sensitive 
Keats, the poet. Apparently, at one time 
there existed a block of two houses called 
Wentworth Place, which afterwards became 
severally Wentworth House and Lawn Bank. 
Surely the latter is the one identified more 
particularly with the poet's fame, as the 
medallion affixed thereon testifies. Yet I 
read in a powerful daily how it was at Went- 
worth House much of the 'Hyperion' and 
nearly all of the odes were written ; also 
that in its garden the nightingale inspired 
the famous poem. Now that this house is 
doomed and its neighbour, Lawn Bank, 
threatened, it would be more than ever 
interesting to set any topographical doubts 
at rest. Will readers of 'N. & Q.' kindly 
assist me to do this ? CECIL CLARKE. 

[MR. CECIL CLARKE falls into error, as all fell 
into it who published notes on this matter until, 
after going wrong in his first edition of the ' Letters 
of Keats to F. Brawne,' Mr. Buxton Forman visited 
Lawn Bank, formerly the two houses of Wentworth 
Place, with Mr. W. Dilke (died 1885). Mr. 
W. Dilke, who was born in the same year as 
Keats, himself named the houses. He was the 
younger son of Keats's friend Mr. Charles Went- 
worth Dilke, of Chichester, and the younger brother 
of Keats's friend C. W. Dilke, the critic. Went- 

worth House had nothing whatever to do with 
Keats. The facts are fully set out in the second 
edition of Mr. Buxton Forman's book.] 

EDMUND SPENSER. In 'The Faerie Queene,' 
book iii. canto ix. stanza xx., there is a turn 
of phrase which may be an intentional 
chiasmus, a slip on the part of the poet, or 
a printer's error. In three out of four edi- 
tions including the Aldine, 5 vols. 1866 
that I have examined, the last line of the 
above-mentioned stanza stands as follows: 
And through the persant [piercing] aire shoote forth 
their azure streames. 

Should not this be : 

And through the azure aire shoote forth their per- 
sant streames ? 

It is so printed in Archdeacon Todd's one- 
volume edition of 'The Works of Edmund 

Spenser,' 1861. 

Todd, I think, is correct. 

[The reading you give, though probably right, is 
not adopted in Grosart's ' Spenser.'] 

"SQUAB." In the Child's Guardian, the 
organ of the Society for Prevention of 
Cruelty to Children, in the report of a 
case heard at Birmingham, in the course of 
the evidence it was said that "a neighbour 
saw the child lying naked on the bare boards 
of an old ' squab' in the kitchen in a terrible 
state of neglect." What is the meaning of 
" squab " 1 I cannot find it anywhere. 

D. M. R. 

I" Squab, a long seat, North" (Wright's 'Pro- 
vincial Dictionary ).] 




Bagration (1765-1812) marry ? 

TRADE ROUTES. What are the best books 
to consult on the subject of trade routes in 
the Middle Ages ? W. J. SIMPSON. 

" RIDER." " Rider, an inserted leaf ; an 
additional clause tacked to a Bill passing 
through Parliament " (Wharton's ' Law Lexi- 
con '). Why is an inserted leaf or additional 
clause called a " rider " ? H. ANDREWS. 
[Consult the ' Century Dictionary.'] 

Faustus's necromantic journeys he came to 
Bressau, where he saw 

" not many wonders, except the biazen Virgin that 
standeth on a bridge over the water, and under 
which standeth a mill like a paper-mill, which 
Virgin is made to do execution upon those dis- 
obedient town-born children that be so wild that 
their parents cannot bridle them ; which, when any 
such are found with some heinous offence, turning 
to the shame of their parents and kindred, they are 
brought to kiss the Virgin, which openeth her arms. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. n. AUG. 27, ' 

The person then to be executed kisseth her, then 
doth she close her arras together with such violence, 
that she crusheth out the breath of the party, 
breaketh his bulk, and so he dieth ; but being dead 
she openeth her arms again, and letteth the party 
fall into the mill, where he is stamped into small 
morsels, which the water carrieth away, so that no 
part is found again." 

Is there any historical basis for this grue- 
some story ? JAMES HOOPER. 


[Such " virgins " are common. See under ' Nurem- 
berg Virgin,' 4 th S. v. 35, 151, 255 ; 5 th S. ii. 209, 274 ; 
8 th S. ii. 147, 210, 311, 353; and Archceologia, xxvii. 
229-50. Is Bressau correct ? We know of no such 

FOOT-LIFT. In October, 1623, an order 
appears in the Salisbury Corporation ledger 
that a "foot-lifte" be provided forthe Mayor to 
ride to church with the judges ('An Account 
of Old and New Sarum,' 1839, p. 145). What 
is a foot-lift 1 JOHN HEBB. 

Canonbury Mansions, N. 

BANAUSIC. I read in 'Essays in Liberalism ' 
(Cassell & Co., 1897) the following passage : 

" It is the refinement of cynicism to limit your 
view of Education to the sacrifices it may demand 
at the hands of the ratepayers. It is a great mis- 
fortune that this banausic view should be held by 
men who enjoy a more commanding influence than 
the country squire." 

The italics are mine. I turn to my Liddell 
and Scott, and find "re^t/?/ /^ayavcriKjj, a 
mechanical trade." Has this word ever been 
seen before 1 ED. PHILIP BELBEN. 

Branksome Chine, Bournemouth. 

[The 'H.E.D.' gives a quotation dated 1876 from 
Grote. Our contributors generally would do well 
to consult more frequently this admirable work for 
the earlier letters of the alphabet.] 

CECIL. How do you pronounce the above 
as a Christian name 1 Is it pronounced 
" Sissle," short, i. e., as the word " thistle "; or 
is it pronounced as though written " Sessill " 
or " Sessle " ? How does Lord Salisbury pro- 
nounce his family name 1 BARBAROS. 

W. EWING. Can any of your readers give 
me information about W. Ewing ? I should 
imagine he was located in Dublin. An ivory 
relief (head in profile) of Major H. C. Sirr is 
inscribed " W. Ewing sc., 1818." It is well 
executed, and the sight measure in the 
wooden frame is 2^ in. by 2| in. 


[W. Ewing, then residing in London, exhibited 
in 1822 at the Royal Academy four ivory carvings. 
See Algernon Groves's 'Dictionary of Artists.'] 

M. E. Grant Duff's ' Recollections ' reference 
is several times made to an extraordinary 

occurrence in the church of S. Andrea delle 
Fratte, which led to the conversion to the 
Roman Church of Alphonse Ratisbonne, and 
which is annually commemorated by a special 
service. What was the occurrence, and where 
can an account of it be found 1 B. W. S. 

READE. I shall be grateful if any reader can 
give me (through these columns) the origin 
of these surnames. What part of England 
do they belong to ; and is anything known 
of any ancient families bearing these names 1 
When in Dorset some years ago, I observed 
that the names were very common in that 
county. Perhaps they are Dorset names. 

B. W. D. 

one declare the origin of the cords and 
rosettes which adorn the hats of ecclesias- 
tical dignitaries, and give a clue by which an 
observer may pick out the head-gear of arch- 
bishop, bishop, dean, and archdeacon respec- 
tively from a collection of " toppers " dis- 
played on pegs 1 ST. SWITHIN. 

[See under ' The Clerical Rosette,' 6 th S. iii. 266. 
The query remains unanswered.] 

POLLARD MONEY. What was the "pol- 
lard money," called in the margin "JSTumisma 
Pollardorum," mentioned in the 'Annals of 
Ireland,' printed at the end of " Camden's 
Britannia | publish'd by Edmund Gibson, of 

Queen's College in Oxford London 1695"? 
The passage in which mention is made of this 
money is as follows : " MCCC. The Pollard 
money was prohibited in England and Ire- 

Ryton Rectory. 

[Pollard money=clipped coins. The term was 
specially applied to counterfeits of the English 
silver penny imported into England temp. Ed. I. by 
foreign merchants.] 

AT BRUSSELS. Who was the father of this 
diplomat, who in 1775 accidentally blinded 
the Prince d'Aremberg at a "shoot" near 
Ipris ? The incident is described in Mrs. 
Atholl Forbes's 'Curiosities of a Scots 
Charta Chest.' J. M. BULLOCH. 

198, Strand. 

PETER THE GERMAN. Who were the 
parents of this king of Hungary 1 Anderson 
('Royal Genealogies,' 1736) and the 'Uni- 
versal History ' (1784) make him nephew of 
St. Stephen, the son of his sister Gisela. So 
does Mr. Baring-Gould (' Saints,' Sept. 2) ; 
but Anderson gives a William of Burgundy 
as his father ; Baring-Gould gives " the Doge 

9< h S. II. Arc. 27, 98.] 



of Venice." In 'L'Art de V.' (1784) it is said 
that Peter owed his election to the intrigues 
of Gisela, Stephen's widow, but in regard to 
parentage the book is silent. It mentions no 
son born of Doge Otton, and gives no name 
to Stephen's sister, his wife. C. S. WAED. 
Wootton St. Lawrence, Basingstoke. 

" NECK-HANDKERCHIEF." In ' Night and 
Morning,' book iii. chap. xii. p. 272 of "Kneb- 
worth Edition," Lord Lytton writes : 

" The woman opened the door, went to the other 
side of the room and sat down on an old box, and 
began darning an old neck-handkerchief." 

The novel was published in 1845, second 
edition in 1851. Is this form still in use ? 

Helensburgh, N.B. 

[It is or was more common in the West Riding 
than "neckerchief."] 

FiTzSiEPHEN FAMILY. Can any of your 
Irish readers give me any information con- 
cerning the descendants of Robert FitzStephen, 
who went to Ireland with Strongbow ? The 
smallest information will be gratefully re- 
ceived. P. A. F. S. 

1776. From a pedigree in one of the Harl. 
Soc. vols. 37-40 it appears that the dean 
married Mary Halton, and he had a son 
Alexander, a clerk. Will any reader inform 
me whether this Alexander is the same per- 
son as the Rev. Alexander Barker, whose 
marriage with jVIiss Burnham of Shirland is 
recorded in the Gentleman's Magazine for 
1789; and also as to the parentage of the 
dean's wife ? GEO. W. WRIGLEY. 

68, Southborough Road, South Hackney. 

SAMPLERS. I have a collection of these 
articles, bearing dates ranging from 1794 to 
the middle of the present century. My latest 
acquisition was picked up in the town of 
Wigan a few weeks ago, and bears, in addi- 
tion to the usual shepherd, birds, trees, &c., 
the inscription " Alice Cockburn, 1855." Has 
any reader of 'N. & Q.' anything of this 
character of a later date ? M. N. 

parents of Eleanora di Toledo, wife of the 
Grand Duke Cosimo de' Medici (he died A.D. 
1574) ? Was her mother of the blood royal of 
Spain? M. E. G. 

i-eader of ' N. & Q.' kindly direct me to a very 
early map of Nottinghamshire or a private 
survey which contains in the district between 
Styrrup and Blyth a meadow named "Ter- 

mingings"? I shall expect to find it near 
"Whitewater Common." I have consulted 
twenty-four Notts maps in my own collection 
without success. ROBERT WHITE. 

Worksop. j'^ v 

GAMBOLD. Can any one give me any parti- 
culars of the Gambold family of whom 
was Rev. John Gambold (the Moravian 
bishop), son of the Rev. William Gambold of 
Puncheston, Pembrokeshire, whose father was 
another William Gambold ? There was an 
Anne Gambold who in 1754 married Benja- 
min Millingchamp. HARFLETE. 

quests for the purpose of buying these at all 
common 1 One such was left (I speak from 
memory) by the widow of a City freeman, 
who bequeathed a tenement, the rent of 
which was to be applied for the purchase of 
faggots for the aforesaid purpose. For many 
years, I believe, the rent went into the pockets 
of the parochial clergy. It is now applied 
for the purchase of coals for the poor, " to 
warm their bodies instead of burning them," 
as it was wittily said. W. B. GERISH. 

Hoddesdon, Herts. 

(8 th S. i. 512 ; if. 57, 218, 393, 481 ; iii. 49, 111 

189, 331 ; 9 th S. ii. 155.) 
ON my presuming to offer some notions of 
Junius not acquired through 

Investigation calm, whose silent powers 
Command the world, 

for in early years I had been cautioned 
against wasting time over Junius and the 
Iron Mask, but rather my incidental im- 
pressions MR. HOLCOMBE INGLEBY (8 th S. 
iii. 331), fairly animadverting on my teme- 
rity, counselled me to be guided in this 
matter by Roscoe's, or such like, laws of 
evidence. To this I demur, because I am led 
to agree with Freeman that " lawyers' ways 
of looking at things have done no small mis- 
chief, not only to the true understanding of 
our history, but to the actual course of our 
history itself." MR. INGLEBY treated too 
lightly " the hearsay evidence of a steward " 
of Boconnoc, an exceptional man of business, 
too prosaic a votary of Mammon for romanc- 
ing, one skilled in conveyancing and dodging 
forensic quibbles, whose shrewdness was mani- 
fested in the case of the Burnham Beeches. 

The demand for picturesque sites on 
the Grenville property led him to discover 
that a good thing might be made of a 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. n. AUG. 27, 

rumour that the beeches were in danger 
from the builder. The high price he set 
upon the land astonished Mr. Fortescue (Lady 
Grenville's heir), who doubted if he could 
obtain it. " Leave that to me," said the 
steward. " London will not risk losing the 
beeches, which we shall enjoy all the same, 
at no cost, and receive a handsome sum into 
the bargain." The result justified his fore- 
thought. With regard to Boconnoc I may 
refer to a local error, inadvertently repeated 
by me, that Lord Chatham was born there. 

To me this astute steward was most com- 
municative. Among the documents entrusted 
to him by Lady Grenville, when he under- 
took the stewardship at Dropmore, was the 
sealed packet alluded to in my last, 8 th S. iii. 
189, to which he attached such importance 
that my impassive reception of the news 
piqued him. I knew my man so well for 
thirty years that I would stake my life on 
the truth of his statements respecting the 
packet and the secrecy enjoined for family 
reasons, and confidence in my unique position 
stimulated inquiry, which was answered by 
more false Juniuses than I was prepared for. 
Certainly the parallels cited by Messrs. 
Swinden and Waterhouse go far to excuse the 
hasty conjecture that Chatham and Junius 
were one ; and to propitiate my censor, to 
whom thanks are due, I follow in the ortho- 
dox wake of three law luminaries. Lord 
Chief Justice Coleridge wrote: "If Francis 
really was Junius, a scoundrel he was of the 
deepest dye." Indeed, Francis himself branded 
the identification as a "silly, malignant false- 
hood." Lord Camden, Chief Justice of Com- 
mon Pleas, said that Junius, by touching on a 
fact known only to three persons (Lord 
Camden himself, Chatham, and Temple), had 
betrayed his complicity with the nobleman 
last named. George Hardinge, Attorney- 
General, a Welsh judge, and nephew of this 
Lord Camden, heard his lordship declare that 
many things strengthened his conviction 
Judge Hardinge observed that Lord Temple 
and Junius, during almost the whole perioc 
of the letters, were bitter against Lords 
Camden and Chatham ; that collusion there 
was, for Lord Temple had not "eloquence or 
parts" enough to be the author. But the editor 
of the ' Grenville Papers ' says, on the con 
trary, " that he was capable of writing the 
letters of Junius," as proved by " some pecu 
liarities of style as well as similarity o 
thoughts and expression " preserved in evi 
dence. Now I remember, years ago, rousing 
the ire of a literary lady by saying, in jest 
that Junius must have had a female colla 
borateur to account for the acerbity anc 

.sperity more feminine than masculine. It 
was a random shot, but Richard Grenville 
married an inspired poetess, Anne Chambers, 
vho knew how to " smear the page with gall," 
and, I doubt not, wrote the C that appears on 
;he original MSS. 

That Junius favoured the Grenvilles in 
opposition to their brother-in-law Lord 
Chatham is proved by a simple test (Edinb. 
Review, xliv. 5, 6, q.v.\ He changed front 
)y lauding Chatham after the reconciliation 
with Richard Grenville, Lord Temple; and 
lis warm attachment to George Grenville, 
says Dr. Mason Good, indicates an ardent 
personal friendship, though he wrote : " I [as 
Junius] have not the honour of knowing Mr. 
Grenville personally " (an excusable fib in the 
opinion of Dr. Johnson) ; yet he warns him 
against attempting to unmask Junius, lest the 
discovery, which could do no good, might 
recoil injuriously, and says that in proper time 
Junius will declare himself. Richard Gren- 
ville was a good French scholar, and Dr. Pan- 
observed many gallicisms in Junius, who wit- 
nessed occurrences in Paris that must have 
happened when Richard Grenville was re- 
sident there, and before Sir Philip Francis 
was born. 

Not to quote further what is already known 
to Junius-hunting readers, I will proceed to 
name some competent authoritieswno confirm 
the aforesaid steward in regard to the sealed 
packet preserved at Dropmore, Lady Gren- 
ville's seat, viz., two Dukes of Buckingham, 
father and son, nephews of Lord Grenville ; 
Miss Wynne, cousin of the first duke, and 
Mrs. Rowley, his niece ; Lady Grenville ; and 
Thomas Grenville, brother of Lord Grenville, 
who declared emphatically at a dinner table 
in 1805, "I know the real Junius, but the 
secret must not transpire in my lifetime," 
and this many years before he received the 
packet from the Duke of Buckingham who 
discovered it at Stow. George Grenville died 
in 1770, and my memory, though defective at 
seventy-nine, inclines to 1870 as the year in 
which the packet was reopened. 

As the instructions for publicly revealing 
the name of Junius were disregarded, I feel 
no delicacy in repeating the statement of my 
late friend, the confidential steward, who en- 
joined no secrecy, nor did the case demand it. 
But for what family reasons did the Hon. 
George Fortescue, the grandson of George 
Grenville (ob. 1770), depart from his in- 
structions ? 

Dr. Fellowes well put it in 1827 that the 
Grenvilles (if Junius was connected with 
them) had momentous reasons for conceal- 
ment in the reign of George III. : 

9 th S II. AUG. 27, '98.] 



"Even at present, 1827, they may feel a repug 
nance in having it known that they, in the person o 
their ancestor if I may so speak, were accomplice 
in laying bare to the vulgar scorn the hypocritica 
interior of sceptred majesty, and in teaching th 
multitude to think and to speak contemptuously o 

My investigations, after learning tha 
Junius wrote privately to Lord Chatham 
establish a belief that he was no other thar 
Kichard Grenville, Earl Temple, and tha 
Lady Temple was his collaborateur anc 
amanuensis. Finis coronat ojms. In con 
elusion, let me recommend any dissentien 
to refer to vol. iii. of the ' Grenville Papers 
and compare the words have in the second anc 
fifth, and hand in the fifth line, of Junius': 
facsimile, with the same words in the first anc 
fifth lines of Lady Temple's writing, also the 
word others by both. He might also note 
their capital letters T and C in the origina; 
MSS. at the British Museum. 


WILD FOREST BULLS (9 th S. ii. 108). In Sir 
Walter Scott's fine ballad 'Cadyow Castle : 
are the following lines : 

Mightiest of all the beasts of chase 

That roam in woody Caledon, 
Crashing the forest in his race, 

The Mountain Bull comes thundering on. 

Fierce on the hunter's quivered band 
He rolls his eyes of swarthy glow, 

Spurns with black hoof and horn the sand, 
And tosses high his mane of snow. 

With regard to their colour, which is the 
point upon which MR. WALLACE wishes to be 
informed, Lesla?us, in a Latin note quoted by 
Scott, says : 

"In Caledonia olim frequens erat sylvestris 
quidani bos, nunc ver6 rarior, qui, colore candi- 
dissimo," &c. 

In the introduction Scott says : 
"There was long preserved in this forest [the 
Caledonian Forest] the breed of the Scottish wild- 
cattle, until their ferocity occasioned their being 
extirpated about forty years ago [according to the 
date of the ballad that would be, I suppose, circa 
1760]. Their appearance was beautiful, being milk- 
white, with black muzzles, horns, and hoofs. The 
bulls are described by ancient authors as having 
white manes ; but those of latter days had lost that 
peculiarity, perhaps by intermixture with the tame 

Scott adds in a note : 

" They were formerly kept in the park at Drum- 
lanng, and are still to be seen at Chillingham 
Castle, in Northumberland." 

With regard to Chillingham, Chambers, in 
his ' Concise Gazetteer,' 1895, says : 

"In the park, as at Cadzow [or Cadyow], are 
preserved a nerd of wild white cattle." 

In a note to Scott's preface to his ballad, 
dated 1833, and signed Ed. (qy. Lockhart ?), 
it is stated that 

"the breed had not been entirely extirpated. 
There remained certainly a magnificent herd of 
these cattle in Cadyow Forest within these few 

Although the description a great favourite 
with the poet Campbell (see Lockhart's ' Life 
of Scott ') of " the Mountain Bull " in Scott's 
ballad is very spirited, and worthy of Scott, 
still these wild cattle undoubtedly owe their 
chief reputation to " The Bride of Lammer- 
moor," the beginning of whose fatal love was 
" along of " her rescue by Kavenswood from 
one of these animals. In chap. v. (iv. in more 
recent editions) Scott says : 

'The bull had lost the shaggy honours of his 
mane, and the race was small and light made, in 
colour a dingy white, or rather a pale yellow, with 
black horns and hoofs." 

See also note to chap. vii. of ' Castle Dan- 
gerous,' with a painfully realistic extract from 
a letter written to Scott appended. In this 
note Scott says : 

'The wild cattle of this breed, which are now 
:>nly known in one manor in England, that of Chil- 
lingham Castle in Northumberland (the seat of the 
Earl of Tankerville), were, in the memory of man, 
still preserved in three plaaes in Scotland, namely, 
Drumlanrig, Cumbernauld, and the upper park at 
Hamilton Palace, at all of which places, except the 
ast, 1 believe, they have now been destroyed on 
account of their ferocity. But though those of 
modern days are remarkable for their white colour, 
with black muzzles, and exhibiting in a small degree 
;he black mane, about three or four inches long, by 
which the bulls in particular are distinguished, &c. 

Ropley, Hampshire. 

HOCKTIDE CUSTOMS (9 th S. ii. 26). The 
macaroni supper at Hungerford on the 
ccasion of this holiday must have been a 
modern local custom grafted on a more ancient 
>ne. It was certainly not a Saxon custom, as 
uggested in the query. I find no evidence 
hat the Saxons were acquainted with this 
talian dish, and it is certain that they usually 
tatronized much more solid ones. There is 
Iso an absence of evidence to prove that the 
Saxons kept the Hocktide holiday. The 
jopular opinion appears to have been that 
t celebrated the massacre of the Danes on 
t. Brice's Day, 13 Nov., 1002, but there are 
ifficulties in accepting this opinion. Although 
be ' Saxon Chronicle,' Florence of Worcester, 
iraeon of Durham, and some other early 
lironicles, mention the massacre, none of 
biem mentions the Hokeday. & Moreover, the 
ates do not agree. The Quindena Paschas 
usually kept on the Tuesday after the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. 19 th s. n. AUG. 27, 

second Sunday after "Easter Day. Some 
authorities favour the opinion that it cele- 
brated the death of Hardicanute, which 
happened on Tuesday, 8 June, 1041, and 
released the Saxons from the oppressive rule 
of the Danes. This is thought by Strutt 
(' Sports and Pastimes ') to be the most pro- 
bable origin of the holiday. A suggestion 
has also been made that it was a remnant of 
a heathen custom, perhaps introduced into 
Britain during the period of the Roman 
occupation (Archceologia, vol. vii. p. 244). The 
holiday is referred to in some old church- 
wardens' accounts, from which it appears that 
there was no fixed formula for its celebration, 
as the customs varied in different localities. 
As an instance of local custom, there was a 
play at Coventry known as the Hock Tuesday 
play,* a description of which is given by 
Laneham in his account of the entertainment 
to Queen Elizabeth at Kenilworth. This 
play is said to have been founded on the 
massacre of the Danes, and was exhibited 
by Coventry men before the queen in July, 
1575, and appears to have been performed by 
dumb show, " whereat her Majestic laught 
well," and rewarded the players with two 
bucks and five marks in money. Another 
instance is mentioned by Bevil Higgons in 
his 'Short View of English History' (8vo. 
p. 17, c. 1734). He states that St. Brice's Eve 
was still celebrated by the Northern English 
in commemoration of the massacre of the 
Danes, the women beating brass instruments 
and singing old rhymes in praise of their 
cruel ancestors. Spelman ('Glossary,' s.v. 
'Hockday') gives some account of th'e holi- 
day, and says it was still celebrated in his 
clay. Brand (' Popular Antiquities') and Strutt 
(' Sports and Pastimes ') also give some parti- 
culars. All the accounts appear to indicate 
that the women took an active part and 
collected considerable sums for religious pur- 
poses. B. H. L. 

In the interest of accurate knowledge' 
I would invite MR. WALLACE to state the 
exact date to which the newspaper cutting 
that he has forwarded refers. Some doubl 
has been expressed from time to time as to 
the true date of Hockday ; and he could at 
least remove this doubt, even if he cannol 
solve the hitherto impenetrable mystery oi 
the origin of the name, or of the horse-plaj 
with which the day was celebrated. (See also 

* This play is not to be confounded with th( 
Mysteries on Corpus Christi acted by the Francis 
cans at Coventry, an account of which is given in 
Warton's ' Hist, of English Poetry, 'and in Malone's 
' Shakespeare/ vol. ii. pt. ii. pp. 13, 14. 

Hokeday.' 9 th S. i. 287; ii. 92 ; and 7 th S. xi. 
491, and references.) 
I subjoin a note (just received from the 

3eputy Keeper of Public Records) of an early 
instance of the word : 

"1257, Ancient Deed in P.R.O. 11 Nov., Sciant 
universi quod ego Michael filius Rogeri Buletel de 
comitatu Essex debeo Deulecresse* filio Aaron] 
Judei quatuor libras sterlingorum reddendas ei 
die del Hoke day anno regni regis Henrici filii regis 
Johannis quadragcsimo sccundo." 

Q. V. 

SYNTAX OF A PREFACE (9 th S. ii. 105). MR. 
BAYNE may be thought hypercritical of Miss 
Corelli's English. His first four examples 
ome fairly under the rule of the Latin gram- 
mar, that a noun of multitude takes, or may 
take, a verb in the plural. "These sort of 
men " is, of course, indefensible ; but it must 
be endured as an established solecism. I am 
sure that I have found it in writers of the 
seventeenth century. I have a lady friend, 
somewhat of a purist, who always says "Those 
sorts of things," etc. To the shame of my 
better judgment I must "own that it always 
sounds to me some what pedantic. A"monied" 
man (I say nothing about the spelling) is about 
as presentable as, e. g., a bearded man or a 
landed proprietor. Lastly, "helpmeet" can- 
not be thought entirely absurd, when we 
recall that for Adam there was not found an 
help meet for him. One may dislike to see it 
cast into a single word ; but this is not more 
incorrect than scarcely so incorrect as (I 
must be on my guard !) " after awhile," 
" Whatever do you mean by it 1 " and other 
such amalgamations, which we are constantly 
coming across. C. B. MOUNT. 

Great English writers have used a verb in 
the plural after "neither nor": 

Nor heaven nor earth have been at peace to-night. 
Shakspeare, ' Julius Ctesar,' II. ii. 

I have noticed also the same construction 
in Gibbon's ' Decline and Fall of the Roman 
Empire.' E. YARDLEY. 

STORIES ' (9 th S. i. 262 ; ii. 33, 93). It is true 
that only "einige Zeileii" of Scott's letter 
appear in the preface to the current edition 
of Taylor's 'Gammer Grethel,' but at the end is 
given what professes to be the complete letter. 
MR. HEELIS says that his first note " dealt 
only with Grimm's ' Kinder- und Haus- 
marchen,' " but he also speaks in that note 
of 'Gammer Grethel,' Taylor's "now scarce 
work." Hence my mention of the reprint. 

* =Gedaliah : see- J. Jacobs, ' Jews in Angevin 
England '(1893), p. 36P. 

9 th S. II. AUG. 27, '98.] 



I did not confuse this reprint with Mrs. 
Hunt's translation. Both books are in Bonn's 
series. H. BAYMENT. 

Sidcup, Kent. 

TODMORDEN (9 th S. i. 24, 78, 114, 217, 272, 
417, 515 ; ii. 137). In a little book called 'A 
State of the Proceedings of the Corporation 
of the Governors of the Bounty of Queen 
Anne' (1719), by John Ecton, "Collector- 
General of the Revenue of the Tenths," this 
place-name is called (p. Ill) Todmerdine ; 
and on p. 142 the place we now call Waddes- 
don {co. Bucks) is called Waddescfcn. To 
come to more recent times, the place now 
called Harlesc?m I have seen sometimes in 
books and maps called Harlescfcm (Middlesex) ; 
and in the ' Imperial Gazetteer of England 
and Wales,' 1867, we read " Wilscfow, see Willes- 
den," which, I take it, means " Wilsdon, now 
better known as Willesden, which, therefore, 
see." There is more of a don than a dene in 
the site of both of these two places. 

w. H-N B-Y. 

MANOR HOUSE, CLAPTON (9 th S. ii. 7). If 
M. S. refers to Clapton, a suburb of London, 
the house was pulled down about twenty 
years ago, and the site is occupied bv a street 
of houses. ARTHUK HUSSEY. 

Wingham, Kent. 

" CHARME " (9 th S. i. 287). If one knew more 
of the " private correspondence " quoted by 
C. L. S. one might be better able to judge, 
but to me, and as it stands, the so-calleu 
" saying of the period " looks very much like 
a quaint and imperfect englishing of the 
advertisement, over the way, of a French 
dealer in wood, charcoal, and mineral coal. 
In which case "charme" would be simply the 
wood, in logs or billets, of the hornbeam or 
yoke elm, Carpinus betulus. 


Tower House, New Hampton. 

[" Charme, arbre de haute tige de la famille des 
amentace'es," says Littre', supporting the informa- 
tion supplied by our correspondent/] 

A CHURCH TRADITION (9 th S. i. 428 ; ii. 58, 
150). I have turned up and read the eighteen 
earlier references on this head, but find that 
not one mentions the fact that the latest 
example of a twisted plan, after all the Gothic 
ones, is the largest church ever built, St. 
Peter's of the Vatican. The twist, which 
there amounts to some feet, is well known to 
be purely a blunder by one of the several 
architects, Carlo Maderno, who finally altered 
the Greek to a Latin cross by adding the 
prolonged nave. He doubtless " knew how to 
build straight" as well as Pugin, but hurried 

and blundered about it. These irregularities 
are certainly more abundant in France than 
in England. We have none in buildings 
approaching the dignity of St. Denys near 
Paris, or St. Ouen at Bouen. 


A NOBLE CARD-SHARPER (9 th S. ii. 109). 
The reference in 'Night and Morning' (1841) 
is probably to the celebrated case Lord de 
Boos v. Gumming (action for libel resulting 
in a verdict for defendant). 



Lord de Boos, vide trial Boos v. Gumming, 
10 February, 1837. HENRY GERALD HOPE. 
Clapham, S.W. 

WILLIAM MARTIN (9 th S. ii. 100) is spoken 
of as if he were the original " Peter Parley." 
He was one of the spurious imitators (see the 
' Handbook of Fictitious Names,' 1868, p. 96). 


MUSICAL (9 th S. ii. 127). The song 'Fair 
Dorinda' is not in D'Avenant's 'Tempest' 
The device of introducing Dorinda as Mi- 
randa's sister pleased Dryden, and he was 
probably responsible for the parts allotted to 
her and her lover. Thus the words would be 
by Dryden, and the music by either Banister 
or Pelham Humphrey, not by Lock, who 
wrote the incidental portions. In neither 
Dryden nor D'Avenant have I been able to 
trace the words. There are so many Dorindas 
in Restoration poetry that it might prove a 
task to find this particular one. Playford's 
collections would almost certainly contain the 

usic. I have not access to all of these. 

Curiously enough, D'Avenant's 'Tempest' 
supplies a reference to the second inquiry, 
'Sir Simon the King.' Bitson conjectures 
that this tune is mentioned under a 
different name as far back as the year 
1575. It was first printed in Playford's 
' Musick's Becreation' (1652), and is included 
in the later editions of the ' Dancing Master,' 
and also in 'Pills to purge Melancholy.' 
Chappell, in his 'Popular Music,' gives a very 
full account and two distinct versions of the 
tune, which has appeared under various 
names (' Bound about our Coal Fire,' &c.). 

Simon himself is somewhat obscure. He is 
supposed to have been Simon Wadlow, the 
tapster at the "Devil" Tavern " Old Sym, 
the King of Skinkers," as the inscription over 
the door of the Apollo room named him. The 
exigences of the tune one of the earliest in 
compound triple time made hiin "Sir" Simon. 
D'Avenant believed this tale, and in his 'Tem- 
pest' (Act III. sc. iii.) Trincalo, rating Cali- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. n. AUG. 27, 

ban for some trickery played by Ariel, 
says : 

"Tis thou hast changed the wine then, and 
drunk it up, like a debauched fish as thou art. Let 
me see 't, I '11 taste it myself. Element ! mere ele- 
ment, as I live ! It was a cold gulp, such as this, 
which killed my famous predecessor, old Simon the 

The tune, with its roystering burden 
Says old Sir Simon the King, 
Says old Sir Simon the King, 
With his ale-dropt hose, 
And his malmsey nose, 
Sing hey ding, ding-a-ding, ding, 

was adapted to many songs of the Restora- 
tion, probably the most famous, certainly one 
of the best, being the 'Sale of Rebellious 
Household Stuff,' given in the Percy col- 

It only remains to add that no less a person 
than Squire Western preferred this tune to 
any other after dinner. 


Sefton Park, Liverpool. 

In the year 1621 or thereabouts the "Devil" 
Tavern in Fleet Street was kept by one Simon 

" a witty butt of a man, much such another as 
honest Jack Falstaff, a merry boon companion, not 
only witty himself, but the occasion of wit in others, 
quick at repartee, fond of proverbial sayings, curious 
in his wines. A good old song, set to a fine old 
tune, was written about him, and called 'Old Sir 
Simon the King.' This was the favourite old- 
fashioned ditty in which Fielding's rough and 
jovial Squire Western afterwards delighted. ' Old 
and New London,' vol. i. 40. 

A newspaper cutting in my scrap-book 
states that the song is to be found in Durfey' 
' Wit and Mirth ; or, Pills to purge Melan- 
choly ' (1719), and gives two verses as fol- 
lows : 

Drink will make a man drunk, 
And drunk will make a man dry ; 
Dry will make a man sick, 
And sick will make a man die, 
Says old Simon the King. 

Drinking will make a man quaff, 
Quaffing will make a man sing, 
Singing will make a man laugh, 
And laughing long life doth bring, 
Says old Simon the King. 


GORDON FAMILY (9 th S. ii. 128). The roya 
descent of the above family from David anc 
Malcolm, Kings of Scotland, the Emperor 
Henry III. of Germany, and Egbert, King o' 
England, through the male (Seton) and th< 
female (St. Clair) lines, is as follows : 

Seton family : Through Christina, daughte: 
of Robert, Earl of Carrick ; Isabel, daughter 
of David, Earl of Huntingdon ; Margaret, sis 

er of Edgar Atheling and wife of Malcolm 
II. of Scotland, to Henry III., Emperor of 
Germany, and Egbert, King of England. 

The St. Clair family : Through Isabel, 

Daughter of Malise, seventh Earl of Strathern ; 

gida, daughter of Alexander Comyn, second 

arl of Buchan ; Elizabeth, daughter of 

iloger de Quincey, Earl of Winchester ; Helen, 

daughter of Alan, Lord of Galloway ; and 

VTargaret, daughter of David, Earl of Hunt- 

ngdon, and then continues to Egbert, the 

same as above. JOHN RADCLIFFE. 

There is no royal descent from the marriage 
of Alexander Seton with the mother of the 
irst Earl of Huntly. What your correspond- 
ent is probably thinking of is the fact that 
Princess Annabella Stuart, the daughter of 
Tames I. (of Scotland), married the second 
Earl of Huntly, and carried on this line of 
the Gordons. Her brother, James II., of 
course, was the ancestor of the Queen. 


OLD-TIME PUNISHMENTS (9 th S.ii. 47, 137). 
The "scold's bridle" mentioned by MR. 
JEAKES must be, I think, that kept in the 
vestry of the parish church of Walton-on- 
Thames. It is said to have been given to the 
parish in 1633 by a person who " lost a valu- 
able estate through a gossiping, lying 
woman " ; and there is this accompanying 
inscription : 

Chester presents Walton with a bridle, 
To curb women's tongues that talk too idle. 


In Dyer's 'Church Lore Gleanings' (1891) 
there are two illustrations of " finger stocks 
or pillories" preserved at Littlecote Hall, 
Wiltshire, and Ashby de la Zouch, Leicester- 

Clinch and Kershaw's 'Bygone Surrey' 
contains an illustration of the "gossip's 
bridle " still existing at Walton-on-Thames. 

An old "ducking stool" belonging to the 
town of Scarborough is preserved in the 
museum there. 

Mr. Albert Hartshorne, F.S.A., in his 
' Hanging in Chains ' (1893), mentions various 
places where gibbets, or parts of gibbets, are 
preserved. H. ANDREWS. 

xii. 507 : 9 th S. i. 53). As no satisfactory 
answer has appeared to my query at the 
first reference, I went to Campden Hill 
a few days ago to see for myself what 
was the ' state of matters. Bullingham 
House was pulled down in 1895, and the 
site and its surroundings are covered by Bul- 
lingham Mansions, a large pile of buildings 

o s. ii. AUG. 27, 



let out in flats, the entrance of which is in 
Pitt Street, but one wing stretches into 
Church Street, adjoining the " Old George " 
Tavern. Apparently the only reminiscence 
in Kensington of Newton's having resided 
there is a small but excellent statue in the 
Public Library, representing the philosopher 
in a sitting posture and immersed in thought 
on the law of gravitation, with an inscription 
stating that he resided in Kensington from 
1725 to 1727, and died there in the latter 
year ; also that the statue was presented to 
the library by the sculptor, John Bell, Esq., 
in December, 1891. W. T. LYNN. 


BATTLE OF THE NILE (9 th S. ii. 127). This 
little pamphlet finds a place in Prof. Laugh- 
ton's accurate and comprehensive ' Nelson 
Bibliography,' under the heading 'Anony- 
mous,' with the note : 

" Verses written, presumably, by an Italian with 
a very imperfect knowledge of English, and worth 
noting for their exquisite absurdity." 

Delwood Croft, York. 

CARDINAL Rossi (9 th S. ii. 129). Is not 
Raphael in this query an oversight for 
Michael Angelo ? I have looked through 128 
works of Raphael, but can find no ' Last 
Judgment' such as Angelo executed in the 
Sistine Chapel. J. H. MITCHINER, F.R.A.S. 

(9 th S. i. 68, 212, 372 ; ii. 34). The following, 
headed ' Rye House,' from Pinnock's ' Guide 
to Knowledge' for 1834, may be of interest to 

" Two miles north-east from Hoddesdon is Stan- 
stead Abbots, so called from its having once belonged 
to Waltham Abbey. In this parish, near the side 
of the river Lea, and on the road from London to 
Hoddesdon, is the Rye House, originally built as a 
castle bv Andrew Ogard, agreeable to a licence from 
Henry VI. The present building has both battle- 
ments and loopholes, and was probably the gate of 
the castle which Andrew Ogard had liberty to erect, 
and, if so, is among the earliest of those brick 
buildings raised after the form of the bricks was 
changed from the ancient flat and broad to the 
modern shape. But what has brought this house 
into public notice is its being considered as the spot 
fixed on for the intended assassination of Charles II. 
in his return from Newmarket in 1683. 

" The house was at that time tenanted by one 
Rumbold, who had served in Cromwell's army : 
being once or twice at a meeting of some discon- 
tented persons, who, in the course of conversation, 
talked of many schemes for changing the govern- 
ment, and, among others, of killing the king and his 
brother as the surest, Rumbold informed them of 
the situation of Rye House, which he then in- 
habited, and of there being a moat round the house, 

way to Newmarket ; that once the coach had gone 
through without the guards attending it ; and if he 
had placed anything in the way 

coach for the shortest time. 

to have stopped the 
he could have shot 

both the king and his brother, and might have 
escaped through the grounds by a way jn which he 
could not have been followed. 

" This conversation furnished Ramsay and West 
with an opportunity of framing the most probable 
part of the evidence they gave against the persons 
who were brought to trial for a supposed intention 
to murder the king and the Duke of York, which, 
from their having fixed on this house as the scene 
of action, was called the Rye House Plot. There is 
a tradition (though the grounds of it are at this 
time unknown) that after Runibold's execution, his 
head was placed on an iron pike, still remaining on 
the top of a twisted chimney on the house, and his 
limbs on the branches of a large elm, which stood 
on the opposite side of the road, but has since been 
cut down. Rumbold was certainly not executed 
till two years after the plot ; when, being taken 

Prisoner on the defeat of the Duke of Argyle in 
cotland, he was condemned as a rebel. At his 
death he positively denied the knowledge of any 
plot ; he admitted his having mentioned now easy 
he could have killed the king and duke, but declared 
no scheme had ever been formed or agreement 
entered into to attempt their death." 

Commercial Street, Maesteg. 

In addition to the works specified in reply 
to my query, I have recently obtained two 
more. These are : 

Rye House, 1685. By Beni. Winstone n.d. (circa 
1888), 7 pp., wrapper and plan of Rye House (the 
latter reprinted from Spratt's ' True Account '). 

An Historical Guide to the Rye House and an 
Account of the Plot, together with a Description of 
the Rye House, as given upon the Trial of Lord 
Russell, Algernon Sydney, and others in 1683; also 
Guide to Places of Interest in the Locality. 
J. Teale & Co., Rye House, Hoddesdon, Herts, n.d., 
32 pp., including wrapper, illustrated. 


Hoddesdon, Herts. 

through which the king sometimes passed in his 

AUTOGRAPHS (9 th S. i. 268, 336 ; ii. 35). For 
many years i have had a good, gradually in- 
creasing collection of autograph letters ; and 
my plan is very simple, and seems to me far 
more convenient for inspection, and safer 
from the "society thief," than CLIO'S plan. 
I have ten volumes of cardboard - leaved 
albums ; each page takes two or more letters. 
I keep the volumes in a glass-fronted small 
cupboard, lying on their sides, their backs 
facing the front. On their backs are stamped 
the contents of each volume Statesmen, 
Music, Artists, Stage, Science, Authors, &c. 
At the beginning of each volume is an alpha- 
betical list of contents, with room to add 
fresh names. The letters each have a narrow 
slip, three-quarters of an inch wide, of foreign 
bank-note paper pasted down the back ; the 
under side of this slip is pasted into the book, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [9 th s. n. AUG. 27, t 

I find this answer perfectly. The letters can be 
easily read, and never get crumpled or fingered 
more than necessary. I find the slip can be 
easily pulled off the cardboard, should I wish 
to insert a better specimen or change a place, 
as the surface of the board seems to come 
with it, whilst the letters never come off. I 
find some friends care to see only one class of 
autograph, and in this way their wish can be 
at once gratified. My books were four years 
in London, and did not suffer in any way 
from "fog." I have about 3,000. 


" DEWY-FEATHERED " (9 th S. ii. 7, 116). 
With regard to ME. BAYNE'S remark that 
" the refreshing effects of dew on slumbering 
vegetation are manifest, and have been recog- 
nized from early days," perhaps I may draw 
attention to 

Ilka blade of grass keps its own clrap of dew, 
vide ' Songs,' p. 3, of James Ballantyne. And 
Lord Byron wrote : 

The starlight dews 
All silently their tears of love instil, 
Weeping themselves away, till they infuse 
Deep into nature's breast the spirit of her hues. 

But Chesterfield said : 

The dews of the evening most carefully shun ; 
Those tears of the sky for the loss of the sun. 

'Advice to a Lady in Autumn.' 
Clapham, S.W. 

ST. FURSEY (9 th S. ii. 25, 104). It might be 
added to MR. PAGET TOYNBEE'S interesting 
note under this heading that, according to 
Husenbeth ('Emblems of Saints'), this abbot 
died 16 January, A.D. 650, and that an ancient 
representation exists showing an angel de- 
fending him against the Devil. In Owen's 
' Sanctorale Catholicum ' the same day is 
given, but the year is quoted as A.D. 653. He 
is therein spoken of as a native of Munster, 
and apparently died at Latiniac (Lagny) in 
France. HARRY HEMS. 

Fair Park, Exeter. 

SIR RICHARD HOTHAM, KNT. (9 th S. i. 448 ; 
ii. 17). Reference to his will and three 
codicils, proved by his executors, William 
Hotham, of York, William Knott, the testator's 
great-nephew, and Jane Cowan, of Hotham- 
ton, or Bogrior, co. Sussex, widow, 19 April, 
1799 (P.C.C. 271 Howe), shows that there 
is no mention of any son. Rev. Amezeali 
Empson, Vicar of Scawby, co. Lincoln, named 
as an executor, predeceased the testator, who, 
22 May, 1797, is described as of Wimbledon 
Grove, co. Surrey. William Knott's mother, 
Sarah Knott, is given as of Duriington (query 
Donington ?), co. Lincoln. She had an elder 

son, John Knott, who was left an annuity of 
fifty guineas. Sir Beaumont Hotham, Knt., 
one of the Chief Barons of the Exchequer, his 
son, Col. Beaumont Hotham, and his grand- 
son, Beaumont Hotham, who was in remainder 
for the Bognor property, are referred to. Is 
anything known of a portrait of Sir Richard 
Hotham, painted in 1793 by Romney ? Who 
is its present possessor? 

Constitutional Club. 

" SUMER is Y-CUMEN IN " (9 th S. ii. 7, 109). 
Hardiman says that this air was taken 
bodily by Dr. Burney from the ancient Irish 
melody called "Samhre teacht," or "Summer 
is coming." Moore is declared to have written 
" Rich and rare were the gems she wore " to 
the melody. (See 'The Irish Melodies of 
Thomas Moore,' by Dr. Charles Villiers Stan- 
ford, 1895.) The likeness was first detected 
by Dr. Young, Bishop of Clonfert. Hardi- 
man says (1831) : 

"This sweet hymn was a tribute of grateful 
melody, offered up by our ancestors to the opening 
year, and has been sung from time immemorial by 
them at the approach of spring. To those who 
have resided among the peasantry of the southern 
and western parts of Ireland, where the national 
manners are most unadulterated, this melody is at 
this day perfectly familiar.' 

I know it is the custom to abuse Hardiman, 
just as it is the habit of English writers to 
almost ignore the claims and antiquity of 
Irish music ; but both deserve great and 
thoughtful attention. S. J. A. F. 

GALE (5 th S. ii. 368 ; 9 th S. ii. 153). Yes. 
See 'Laws of Dean Forest' or 'History of 
Dean Forest.' But "a gale" is an acreage of 
a certain seam of coal or iron, rather than 
"land " in the usual sense. D. 

OLDEST PARISH REGISTER (8 th S. xi. 108, 215; 
9 th S. ii. 35, 133). Lately I had occasion to 
make numerous extracts from the Burrell 
collections, including the volume 5697, re- 
ferred to by DR. MARSHALL ; and under Alfri-:- 
ton I have a note, " Reg. beg. 1538." This 
confirms DR. MARSHALL'S opinion that the 
entries were begun comparatively late. The 
date given by so painstaking and curious an 
inquirer as Sir W. Burrell is probably cor- 
rect ; but if any doubt remain, perhaps the 
question could be solved by an application 
to the present custodian of the register. 


Richmond, Surrey. 

Mr. G. F. Chambers, in his admirable 
'Handbook for Eastbourne ' (1886), goes eight 
better than C. H. C., for he asserts that " the 

9 th S. II. AUG. 27, '98.] 



Alfriston parish register dates from 1504, and 
is thought to be the oldest in England." 



It is doubtful if the Elsworth register is a 
true original, for the appended date, 1597, 
suggests a late transcription of the earlier 
entries ; the term "catalog 8 " seems to imply 
that the writer had several names before him 
at the time, so not true contemporaneous 
entries. It is certain that, as registers de- 
cayed, they were sometimes transcribed ver- 
batim into a newer book. A. H. 

487 ; ii. 117). George Herbert's ' Jacula Pru- 
dentum' will be found in the cheap "Chandos 
Classics" edition of his works. Q. V. 

(5 th 8. xii. 88). At the above reference MR. 

"In the 'Anecdotes' of Bowyer we are told that 
a ' hound ' of King's College, Cambridge, is an under- 
graduate not on the foundation, nearly the same as 
a ' sizar.' " 

Can an exact reference to Bowyer be sup- 
plied for the benefit of the ' Historical English 
Dictionary'? Any other information as to 
this use of the word would be of service. 

70, Banbury Road, Oxford. 

ODIN (9 th S. ii. 107). W. will find the 
descent of Queen Victoria from Odin or 
Woden given in Frederick D. Hartland's 
'Genealogical, etc., Chart of the Houses of 
Europe,' London, 1854. Also it maybe traced 
in Anderson's and Betham's 'Chronological 
Tables.' For an excellent table of descent 
from Woden through Cerclic to Egbert see 
Lappenberg's '.History of the Anglo-Saxons.' 
Respecting the divine origin, Olaus Magnus, 
in his ' History of Goths, Swedes, and Van- 
dals,' London, 1658, p. 37, states that 
"many nations, also led by this confidence, burnt 
their tings and princes when they were dead, that 
they might be made gods or go to the gods, or else 
they hanged them up solemnly in groves and woods 
by a chain of gold," &c. 


' THREE JOVIAL HUNTSMEN ' (9 th S. ii. 88, 
1 10). There is an article on the ' Three 
Jovial Huntsmen' in the Palatine Note- 
Book, i. 11-13, in which it is stated that the 
form of the old song used by Randolph 
Caldecott was the joint production of the 
late Edwin Waugh and the artist himself. 

C. W. S. 

PENNY-FARTHING STREET (9 th S. ii. 128). 
There was once, many years ago, a street of 

this name in Oxford, mentioned, unless my 
memory is at fault, in 'Peter Priggins,' a story 
of university life, by the Rev. J. F. H. Hew- 
lett. Perhaps some Oxford antiquary can 
say in what part of the city it was situated. 
I can remember a street called Cat Street, 
but this name has been altered. 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

There is a street in Salisbury so named, but 
I think in the furthest parish from the cathe- 
dral. According to the plan of this new city, in 
1220, it had not half so many churches as old 
cities of its size. One was put in the centre, 
St. Thomas of Canterbury, and four at the 
extreme corners, viz., the Cathedral, S.W., St. 
Martin's, S.E., St. Edmund's, N.E., and St. 
Paul's, N. W". The last was lately rebuilt on a 
new site, but was probably older than the 
city, being for the village of 'Fisher ton- Anger, 
or Angler. E. L. GARBETT. 

I knew Salisbury some forty-two years ago 
well, but have no recollection of a Penny- 
Farthing Street ; but herein Oxford an ancient 
street, known as Pembroke Street after the 
foundation of Pembroke College, was com- 
monly called Penny-Farthing Street a cor- 
ruption of Penyverthing Street, the name of 
a family of some note, several of whom bore 
office in the city not long after the Conquest 
(see Wood). JOHN GILBERT. 

126). The entrances to the very old church 
at Tintagel, close to King Arthur's famous 
old castle in Cornwall, have a similar arrange- 
ment to that described by MR. PEACOCK as 
occurring in the Basque provinces and the 
Danish isles to keep out cattle. In this case 
the pit is covered with parallel stones, with 
spaces between. None of my party knew 
what the arrangement was until I explained 
it to them. H. R. P. C. 

Nothing is more common in Cornwall, 
Devonshire,lHerefordshire, and North Wales 
than the gridirons (generally made of granite 
or other local materials) described under this 
entry. MR. PEACOCK will find hundreds of 
such in these districts. O. 

In some places^narrow entrances (without 
gates) are made in'_the walls of churchyards 
for the convenience of churchgoers and the 
non-admittance of cattle. For example, at 
Westham, by Pevensey, a very fat parishioner 
could hardly squeeze through. 


With slats of stone in place of bars of iron, 
the description would answer well for the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. p* s. n. AUG. 27, '9?. 

substitutes for stiles often met with in walking 
through the meadows of Cornwall, though 
the proper Cornish stile has, in addition, a 
stone or stones at higher elevation to be 
stepped over. I. C. GOULD. 


" WHO SUPS WITH THE DEVIL," &C. (9 th S. ii. 

124). This is one of our oldest proverbs. It is 
variously phrased. George Meriton's ' Praise 
of Yorkshire Ale,' third edition, 1697, p. 84, 
has, " He mun have a lang shafted speaun 
that sups kail with the devil." Dekker's 
' Batchelars Banquet ' (' Works,' ed. Grosart, 
i. 170) has, "Tush, said the young woman, it 
is an olde saying, he had need of a long spoone 
that will eate with the diuell." Kemp in the 
'Nine Days Wonder,' 1600, also calls it an 
old proverb, and gives it in practically the 
same form as in Dekker. The earliest ex- 
ample of its appearance in literature with 
which I am acquainted is in Chaucer's 
'Squire's Tale,' in Bell's 8 -vol. ed., vol. ii. 
p. 221, where it appears as: 

Therfor bihoveth him a ful long spoon 

That schal ete with a feend. 


It was hardly worth while to note Shake- 
speare's allusion to this proverb, not merely 
because he gives it in full in the ' Comedy of 
Errors ' (IV. iii. 64), but because it is used, by 
Chaucer in the 'Squire's Tale' (Globe ed., 
1. 603) : 

Bihoveth hire [i. e., her] a ful long spoon 
That shal ete with a feend. 

Marlowe has it in the ' Jew of Malta ' (III. iv., 
p. 104 of Cunningham's ed.) : " He that eats 
with the devil had need of a long spoon "; 
and for further examples of its use by Eliza- 
bethan writers see Col. Dalbiac's 'Quotations, 
p. 288. I cannot find this proverb in Hazlitt's 
collection. F. ADAMS. 

106A, Albany Road, Camberwell. 

May I point out that this proverb may be 
found in the 'Comedy of Errors,' IV. iii. 
" Dromio S. Marry, he must have along spoon 
that must eat with the devil." E. A. 


MASTER (9^ S. ii. 129). Admiral George 
Byng, first Viscount Torrington, married in 
Co vent Garden Church on 5 March, 1691 
Margaret, daughter of James Master, of Eas 
Langdon, co. Kent, by Joice his wife 
daughter of Sir Christopher Turnor, of Miltor 
Erneys, co. Bedford. The said Jaines Mastei 
was the son of Richard Master of the same 
place and Anne, daughter of Sir Jame 
Oxenden, of Dean, Knt, See Berry's ' Kent 

'edigrees,' 1830, p. 122, which goes back to 
ohn Master, 1588. JOHN RADCLIFFE. 

The Master family obtained some abbey 
ands near Dover under Henry VIII., and 
lave since spread into several branches. 

hat at Willesborough culminated in George 
Vlaster, of the Abbey, Cirencester, Gloucester- 
shire, still extant. There are two pedigrees 
;iven in Berry's ' Kentish Genealogies.' 


A pedigree of the Master family, of East 
Langdon, in Kent, and other information, are 
n Archceologia Cantiana, vol. v. Some of 
;he family are mentioned in the ' D.N.B.' 

See 'Some Notices of the Family of Master, 
of East Langdon, Kent,' &c., by Rev. George 
Streynsham Master, 1874. Margaret, eldest 
daughter of James Master, barrister-at-law, 
appears at p. 19. 


Lady Torrington was eldest daughter of 
James Master and Joyce Turnor. See a full 
pedigree in ' Some Notices of the Family of 
Master,' by Rev. G. S. Master, 1874, p. 19. 

C. D. 

102). MR. PLATT twice prints " Spalatro." I 
wish somebody who can write with authority 
would tell us whether that or "Spalato" is 
the true form. W. C. B. 


The History of the Life and Reign of Richard the 
Third. By James Gairdner, LL.D. (Cambridge, 
University Press.) 

DR. GAIRDNER'S 'History of Richard III.,' with 
the accompanying study of Perkin Warbeck, first 
saw the light a score years ago, and was duly re- 
viewed in our columns on 25 May, 1878 (5 th b. ix. 
419). That and a succeeding edition have long been 
out of print, and a new and enlarged edition is now 
given to an expectant public. The additions made 
concern principally the life of Perkin Wai'beck, on 
which a flood of new light has been poured from the 
documents at Simancas^ and elsewhere. The two 
works now reprinted fit in well with the other 
studies of Dr. Gairdner concerning the epoch, and 
supply, indeed, an animated history of the close of 
Plantagenet and the beginning of Tudor rule. As 
a portraiture of an epoch and as a study of character 
the history has won well-merited recognition, and 
is established as an authority. If as a rehabilitation 
of Richard it is but half hearted, it must in justice 
be conceded that the work is nob intended as such. 
Dr. Gairdner's aim is to establish the truth, so far 
as this can be reached, rather than maintain a thesis 
or theses, or startle the world by a display of paradox. 
His attitude is throughout judicial, and the result 
of his labours is less to disturb our conviction than 

9 th S. II. AUG. 27, '98.] 



to fortify us in it. That Richard, when he had 
established himself on the throne, ruled with a fail- 
amount of regard for the country and was a good 
way from being the worst of English monarchs, is 
accepted. The same would probably have been 
true of Macbeth had he once felt himself established 
in security. What is of most interest in Richard 
is the manner in which he clomb to the throne, and 
not that in which he occupied it. It is probable 
that others were as actively concerned as he in 
some of the murders committed. The murder of 
the two princes is, however, the crime that startled 
the consciences of Englishmen and steeped Richard 
in a species of infamy shared only by John and 
"bloody" Mary. After a careful summing up of 

authorities, Dr. Gairdner has "no doubt that 

the dreadful deed was done," which necessarily 
implies that it was done with Richard's connivance, 
and therefore, necessarily again, at his bidding. 
Not one of his tools or agents dared have committed 
an action such as this except with the knowledge 
that its commission was consonant with the wishes 
of the monarch. On Dr. Gairdner's authority we 
say, then, cadit quivxtio. The question, What was 
the share of Richard in the murder of Hastings or 
Buckingham? is of importance as a matter of literary 
or historical interest, but concerns us no more than 
that of the domestic virtues of Charles I. concerns 
his claims as a monarch. That Richard was "not 
destitute of better qualities," that he was " a good 
general in time of war " and " liberal even to the ex- 
tent of imprudence," that he " seems really to have 
studied the country's welfare," and that " he passed 
good laws, endeavoured to put an end to extortion, 
declined the free gifts offered to him by several 
towns, and declared he would rather have the 
hearts of his subjects than their money" all this 
and much more we will accept. None the less, 
against all the doubts or special pleading of a Wal- 

Sle, we hold that the Richard of Shakspeare and 
ore is the true Richard, and we will proclaim the 
monarch a man of exceptional baseness, even 
when judged by the standard of a Henry VIII., a 
Charles IX. of France, or a Ferdinand V. of Spain. 
The additions to the life of Perkin Warbeck have 
interest principally for the light they cast on the 
tortuous diplomacy of the times. 

Michel de Montaigne: a Biographical Study. By 

M. E. Lowndes. (Cambridge, University Press.) 

THE scholarly book on Montaigne of Mr. Lowndes 

is more important as a study of the writings thar 

of the man. So candid in self-avowal is the grea 

moralist, and so close attention has been paid to 

his character and writings, that further discoverie 

concerning him are scarcely to be expected. No 

thing of importance is, indeed, to be added to wha 

concerning nim can be extracted from the ponderou 

history of De Thou, the ' Letters' of Etienne Pas 

quier. and the ' Bibliotheque ' of La Croix du Main 

and Du Verdier ; or what has been said about bin 

by a series of writers from Bouhier to Villemain 

Sainte - Beuve, Bigorie de Laschamps, Payen, anc 

Bayle Saint-John. Opportunity, however, exister 1 

to show what were his relations to the thinkers o 

his day and of the days immediately succeeding 

This Mr. Lowndes has seen, and his book is a 

instructive comment on the Pyrrhonism of Mon 

taigne, on the influence he exercised directly upo 

Scarron and others, and the hostility he provoke 

in Pascal and Malebranche. It has been well sai 

that those who assisted at the movement of th 

Reformation are more interesting to the student 
of literature and life than those by whom it was 
carried out ; that Erasmus and Rabelais are greater 
len, from some standpoints at least, than Luther 
nd Calvin. Though later in date by nearly half a 
entury than either of the men named,^and though 
rofessing himself a Catholic, Montaigne is of the 
ame brood. The Pyrrhonism of which we have 
poken prevented him from taking an active share 
i the strife between the Leaguer or the Guisard 
nd the Huguenot, and he practically confines him- 
jlf, in a period of intolerable cruelty and persecu- 
on, to preaching toleration and to the expression 
f antipathy to every form of dogmatism. His 
nfluence as Mayor of Bordeaux was all on the side 
f peace and mercy, and his chief if temporary func- 
ion at Court was to serve as intermediary between 
he King of Navarre and the Duke of Guise. The 
atter was so far well disposed toward him as to 
ecure his freedom when he had been imprisoned, 
lenry of Navarre was meanwhile his friend, and 
it times his guest. Very interesting are the pages 
n which Mr. Lowndes shows the influence on suc- 
eeding thought of Montaigne. He fails, however, 
o indicate to what extent Montaigne, and after him 
)escartes, animated the sect, if so it may be called, 
)f the " Libertins." The Bible of this sect, or, as it 
ivas called, the livre cabalistique, was the 'Essais' 
)f Montaigne. Lucilio Vanini who was eight years 
>ld at the time of Montaigne's death, and whose 
,ragic and discreditable, if courageous death is 
one of the many blots on the seventeenth century 
was perhaps more directly the leader of the 
Ldbertuu ; but from Montaigne they derived 
avowedly their views. We have discovered but 
one error in Mr. Lowndes's book. At the opening 
of the tenth chapter he dates the treaty or con- 
'erence of Fleix in 1550, which is exactly thirty 
years too soon. As the election of Montaigne to 
;he mayoralty of Bordeaux was the year following 
:he treaty, Montaigne would thus appear to have 
oeen Mayor of Bordeaux when only eighteen years 
of age, instead of forty-eight. This slip is, of course, 
important. Its effect is diminished by the fact that 
those who read on cannot fail to correct it. Still, 
it must be amended in a future edition. For the 
rest, Mr. Lowndes's book is to be warmly commended 
to all who seek a knowledge of the great Renaissance 
moralist, of the influence he exercised on the 
thought of his day, and of the troublous times in 
the midst of which he dwelt. 

Acts of the Privy Council of England. New Series, 
Vol. XVII. A.D. 1588 9. Edited by John Roche 
Dasent, C.B. (Stationery Office.) 
VERY diligently and no less successfully does Mr. 
Dasent continue his task of rendering accessible 
the Acts of the Privy Council. His latest volume 
yields in no respect of interest to its predecessor, 
though from one standpoint it is less pleasant read- 
ing. The entries concerning the dispersal of the 
Spanish Armada, frequent in the previous volumes, 
are replaced by others relative to what is known 
as the "Portugal Voyage," the results of which 
were far from fulfilling the anticipations of those 
who took part in it, and to the foolish, if heroic 
escapade of the Earl of Essex. These things 
are, of course, familiar enough to the student of 
history, but acquire fresh vivacity and life as 
we read the details now supplied; Mr. Dasent 
is at some pains to vindicate the expedition 
from the charge of failure that has frequently 



s. n. AU. 27, '98. 

been brought against it, and lie compares Anthony 
Wingfield's defence with Sir Walter Raleigh's 
assertion concerning the Armada, that " in all 
their sailing round about England " they did 
not " so much as sink or take one ship, bark, 
pinnace, or cock-boat of ours, or even burn so much 
as one sheepcote on the land." Still, brave as 
our countrymen showed themselves when they 
fought on sea and on land, the results compared 
but poorly with those obtained in previous ven- 
tures. Turning to other subjects, we find a mention 
of the honoured name of Francis Beaumont. It is 
not that of the dramatist, however, but of his father 
the judge. From a curious entry concerning one 
Mathewe le Brock, who is described as aged in 
years, and should, therefore, have known better 
than to commit adultery with Mary le Vesconte, 
we learn that the penalty in Guernsey for a male 
offender was whipping. Tortures are ordered to be 
inflicted in Bridewell upon a goldsmith (name not 
given) supposed to have some knowledge concern- 
ing the robbery of the Lord Willoughby's plate. In 
cases of the seizure of French ships, those trading 
with Huguenot ports, notably La Rochelle, are 
restored at the intercession of M. de Buzenval or 
Buernvall, Ambassador from the King of Navarre. 
One is surprised to hear of a charge of assault being 

brought against Dethicke, Garter King of 

Arms. One or two entries appear of sums to be 
paid the players for performances of interludes 
before the queen. The sums of 201. or 3(V. are to be 
given to the Lord Admiral's players, the Queen's 
players, and the Children of Paul's. 

Literary Byivays. By William Andrews. (W. 

Andrews. ) 

MR. ANDREWS is an indefatigable compiler or col- 
lector of antiquarian facts and literary oddities. He 
is indeed, as the title to his latest volume shows, 
a frequenter of byways. His present work is no less 
readable and entertaining than those which have 
gone before. It deals with matters such as authors 
at work, the profits of authors, English folk-rhymes, 
&c. , and it gives an account of more than half -for- 
gotten writers and quaint or curious individuals. 
To those who read for amusement the volume may 
be commended. It may be taken up or laid down 
at any moment, and the reader will be unlucky 
indeed if he comes on a dull chapter or page. At 
the same time we should be glad of a little more 
accuracy. P. G. Hamerton wrote no such work as 
' Marmone.' A reply of Rich to Quin is misquoted, 
but this, in the interest of propriety, may be for- 
given. The Duke in ' Twelfth Night ' asks for 
excess of music, not "access." "Arm, fight, and 
conquer for fair England's sake" will not scan 
when, as in the present case, the word "fair" is 
omitted ; nor will " There are some shrewd contents 
in yon same paper " when for " yon same " " your " 
is substituted. We could point to a rather long 
array of similar omissions or lapses. No great harm 
is done, however, since ' Literary Byways ' will 
scarcely be consulted as a work or reference. 
Accuracy is none the less a point on which 
' N. & Q.' is called to insist. 

Bacon or Shakespeare? An Historical Enquiry. 

By E. Marriott. (Stock.) 

SOME care has been exercised in 'N. & Q.' to keep 
its columns free from the Bacon-Shakspeare craze. 
We venture, however, with some trepidation to 
recommend to those of our readers whom the 

pother on the subject may have disturbed this 
well-written, erudite, and closely argued pamphlet 
the work, we believe, of an elderly lady in which 
the unreasonableness of the claim put forward on 
behalf of Bacon is clearly shown. 

The Kingis Quair and the New Criticism. By 
Robert Sangster Rait. (Aberdeen, Brown Co.) 
THIS is a closely reasoned and well-written pam- 
phlet, opposing the view of Mr. J. T. T. Brown 
which would deprive King James I. of Scotland of 
the authorship of ' The Kingis Quair.' See 8 th S. x. 
187. We must leave to experts the decision of the 
question, but will commend the study of Mr. Rait's 
brochure to those interested in the subject. 

DR. T. N. BRUSHFIELD has reprinted from the 
Journal of the Chester Archaeological Society a 
strikingly readable and valuable paper on The 
Salmon Clause in the Indentures of Apprentices. 
It is interesting to learn that Dr. Brushfield regards 
the thing as a myth. 

ferred to style himself, Sir William Fraser of Lede- 
clune, Bart., whose death at the age of seventy- 
three has been announced, was a constant, if 
occasional, contributor to ' N. & Q.' He was a 
familiar figure in London society, and wrote several 
works on social or antiquarian subjects. 

WE are sorry to announce the death of the Rev. 
E. C. Leaton Blenkinsopp, M.A., a contributor 
during many years to our columns. His name 
appears early in the Fourth Series, and is retained 
until the last volume of the Eighth. 


We must call special attention to the following 
notices : 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications corre- 
spondents must observe the following rule. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. Correspond- 
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CONTENTS. -No. 36. 

NOTES : Surrey Etymologies. 181 High Holborn. 182 
Marston and Shakspeare A Wake Discontinued Waterloo 
Mr. Gladstone as Philologist, 183 Llanthony Surnames 
Tennyson on Havelock Wireless Telegraphy, 184 
Folk-lore " Cyclopaedia " False Quantities in Scott 
"Helpmate," 185 Byron on Napoleon "Boulanger" 
Keats's Epitaph on Himself Superstition in Somerset, 
186 Epitaph, 187. 

QUERIES : " Dutify " Arms Wanted" Huddle"" Coll. 
Beg. Oxon." " And now, O Father," &c. Cedar Trees- 
Brass Ladles Frantz von Mebren Sir T. Cooke's Burial- 
place St. Valentine's Farewell and Crisman, 187 "A 
brace of caps" Norfolk Folk-lore Whitehead's "Para- 
dise "New Testament Query St. Thomas of Dancastre, 
188 Sir Thomas Cotton Rev. J. Powell Herbault 
Thomas Eastgate, 189. 

REPLIES : Shakspeare and the Sea, 189 Capfc. Gibbs 
Sir Hercules Langrishe, 190 Temperate Latitudes 
Barbers, 191 ' Telegraph 'Punch The Cowslip, 192 
Memoirs of the Princess de Lamballe African Names 
Mispronounced Morning, 193 Slabs in St. Margaret's 
Churchyard " Jack-up-the-Orchard " R. Fergusson 
Duke of York's Campaign in Flanders, 194 Autographs- 
Princess Bagration Sedan Chairs Christian Names- 
Thackeray's ' Little Billee 'Bishop George Lloyd, 195 
' The drenching of a swan " Hollington Church Soleby, 
196 Child's Hymn Hair-powder Curious Christian 
Name ' Comin' thro' the Rye,' 197 " Go about " His- 
toric Stones at the Royal Exchange Stolen Relics Beards 
Source of Quotation From Holborn to the Strand, 198 
Labrusca English Agents in Poland, 199. 

HOTES ON BOOKS: -Piper's 'Church Towers of Somer- 
setshire ' Daniell's ' Calendar of State Papers ' Macleod's 
' Church Ministry and Sacraments.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 

THE lower reaches of the Thames are fringed 
with a curious series of names, ostensibly of 
similar origin, as their terminations are iaen- 
tical, or at least homophonous. Beginning 
from the west, we find Chertsey, Moulsey, 
Putney, Battersea, Chelsea, Bermondsey, 
Sheppey, and, chief of all, Surrey itself 
the county in which most of them are 
situated. On the opposite bank of the 
Thames there is another series, less im- 
portant: Stepney, Canvey, Pitsey, Casey, 
Wallasea, Dengie, and Mersea. There is no 
such series of names elsewhere, though on 
the coast of the English Channel we have 
Portsea, Thorney, Selsea, Pevensey, Lidsey, 
Winchelsea, Romney, and Eastry ; to which 
we may add Guernsey, Jersey, ana Alderney. 
On the Severn there is a series resembling 
that on the Thames, such as Courtney, 
Stowey, Longney, Kempsev, and Lydney. 
Most of these places ought to receive a 
similar explanation. They used to be 
explained from ey, an "island," which we 
have in eyot. To this it may be objected 
that many of them are not islands. In one 
thing, however, they all agree they are all 
near water. Now in A.-S. " water," or rather 

" running water," is ed t which we see in Eton, 
Bucks, and in Eaton in Berks, Oxon, 
Cheshire, and Staffordshire, which is A.-S. 
Edtun, the " tun by the water." So Binney, 
in Kent, is A.-S. Binnen-ed, " between the 
waters," in a charter. The river Mersey 
is also probably from ed. A derivative of 
ed is ig, an "island," or eg, a "place near 
water," a " coast " or " shore," whence we 
obtain igeoth, now "eyot," and A.-S. igland 
(M.E. Hand), "island," the"s" being inserted 
owing to confusion with "isle," which is 
ultimately from Latin insula. 

For convenience we may call a place sur- 
rounded by water an " isle," and one beside 
the water an " eyland." The ey in eyot appears 
in Eye, Northants, A.-S. Ege, dative of eg, 
and as a prefix in Egham, A.-S. Egeham, a 
village on the Surrey shore of the Thames ; 
in Chertsey, A.-S. Cerotes-ig, "Ce rot's eyland"; 
in Cholsey, Berks, A.-S. Ce6lesig, from ce6l 
(gen. cedles), a " ship " or " keel." Sheppey, 
Kent, is A.-S. Scedpig, the " sheep isle." 
Ramsey, Hunts, is A.-S. Ramesig, the " ram's 
eyland." Hanney, Berks, is A.-S. Hannig, the 
" isle of (water) nens." Goosey, Berks, is A.-S. 
Gooseig. Hinksey, Berks, is A.-S. Hengestesig, 
the "horse's isle." Thorney, A.-S. Thorneg, is 
the "thorn shore." Selsey, A.-S. Seleseg, is 
the " seal isle ": and Dengie, Essex, is A.-S. 
Denesig, the " Dane's isle." 

From personal names we have Dauntsey, 
Wilts, A.-S. Domeccesig ; Kempsey, Worces- 
tershire, A.-S. Cyme&lg ; Battersea, Surrey, 
A.-S. Batrices-eg, the "shore of Beadoric," 
afterwards becoming Patricesey, " PatrickV. 
eyland "; Putney, A.-S. Puttan-e'g, the " eyland 
of Putta." Pewsey, Wilts, is A.-S. Pefesig. 
Oseney, Oxford, is A.-S. Osanig. Romsey, 
Hants, is A.-S. Rummesig. Mersea, Essex, is 
A.-S. Meresig, the " sea isle." 

The O.N. equivalent of A.-S. ig is eg, whence 
Orkney ; Anglesey, O.N. onguls-eg, the " isle 
of the strait": Ronaldshay, the "isle of 
Rognvald "; Rona, "St. Ronan's isle "; Staffa, 
O.N. Staf-ey, the "staff isle"; Papa, the 
"priest's isle"; Roosey, formerly Hrolfsey, 
" Hrolf 's isle." Eastry, Kent, A.-S. Eastorec/, 
the " eastern coast," supplies the clue to 
the meaning of Surrey, the most difficult 
name of all. As I have fully discussed ib 
in ' Names and their Histories, p. 269, I need 
here only say that the A.-S. Suthrig most 
probably means the " southern shore " of the 
Thames, opposite Middlesex. Austry, how- 
ever, which we might suppose to mean the 
western shore, is really a corruption of Aldul- 
festreo, " Aldulf 's tree," as Oswestry is " Os- 
wald's tree," and Coventry the "cave tree." 
The suffix -ey may dwindle down to y, as at 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [a* s. IL B*P*. 3, t 



in Lincolnshire, which is "Ivar's 
. The Isle of Ely is A.-S. Elig, the 
" isle of eels," in which rents were formerly 
paid, the city being called Eligburh or 

There are two notable exceptions to the 
general rule which prevails among names on 
the Thames. These are Chelsea and Stepney, 
which are both corruptions of hithe, Chelsea 
being the "chalk wharf" and Stepney the 
"timber wharf." Sometimes the suffix of 
the dative has been retained, taking a form 
similar to the foregoing. Thus Hornsea, in 
Holderness, appears in Domesday as Hornesse 
and Hornessei, forms which point to nesi, the 
dative singular of the O.N. nes, a "nose" or 
" promontory." Hornsea would thus be the 
place "at the ness," which here juts into 
Hornsea Mere. So Kilnsea, near Spurn Head, 
is Chilnesse in Domesday; and Withernsea, 
near Hornsea, appears in Domesday as 
Widfornessei, which may be explained as 
ivithforan-nesi, " in front of the ness." 


THE impending demolition of the houses on 
the south side of High Holborn and at the 
rear of that thoroughfare, which have been 
acquired for an extension of the Birkbeck 
Bank, should prove more than usually inter- 
esting to students of London's domestic his- 
tory. The buildings to be removed are not, 
it is true, possessed of much beauty, nor are 
they of extreme antiquity; but they cover 
ground which was seven hundred years ago 
a great centre of warlike and ecclesiastical 
activity, and on which was situated the early 
home of the heroine of one of the most 
pathetic passages in English political history. 
As the Daily News points out and this 
paper, I may parenthetically remark, is to 
be highly commended by antiquaries for the 
attention it gives in its columns to vanish- 
ing London in this improvement are 
included the houses on the